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1945 in aviation

Years in aviation: 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948
Centuries: 19th century · 20th century · 21st century
Decades: 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s
Years: 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948

This is a list of aviation-related events from 1945:

Events

  • The probe-and-drogue aerial refueling system, in which the tanker aircraft trails a hose with a stabilizing conical drogue at its end which mates to a fixed probe mounted on the receiving aircraft, is perfected. It is superior to and replaces the looped-hose system which had been in use since 1934, and it remains in use today.[1]
  • With its runways repaired Leningrad′s Shosseynaya Airport (the future Pulkovo Airport) reopens; it had been closed since 1941 because of the proximity of German forces during the Siege of Leningrad. Only cargo and mail flights will take place until February 1948, when scheduled passenger service finally will resume.
  • Iraqi Airways is founded. It will begin flight operations in January 1946.

January

February

March

April

May

June

July

August

  • After spending the World War II years based at Helensburgh, Scotland, the Royal Air Force's Marine Aircraft Experimental Establishment moves back to its prewar base at Felixstowe, Suffolk.
  • August 1 – Essair Airways becomes the first airline to operate as a "feeder" or "local service" airline, a new category of airline established experimentally by the U.S. Civil Aeronautics Board to provide commercial air service to smaller communities. Under a temporary certificate to operate in this way, Essair flies routes within New Mexico and Texas.
  • August 2
  • August 6
  • August 7
  • August 8 – 245 B-29s drop 1,296 tons (1,176 metric tons) of bombs on Yawata, Japan.[126]
  • August 9
    • The B-29 Superfortress Bockscar drops the plutonium-239 atomic bomb Fat Man on Nagasaki, Japan.
    • Carrier aircraft of Task Force 38 conduct devastating strikes against Japanese airfields in northern Honshu where the Japanese had been marshalling aircraft for a planned major suicide strike on B-29 bases in the Mariana Islands. The Americans claim 251 Japanese aircraft destroyed and 141 damaged.[146]
  • August 10
    • Task Force 38 aircraft again strike northern Honshu heavily, striking two previously undetected Japanese airfields.[140]
    • After suffering heavy damage during the airstrikes of July 24, 28, and 29, the Japanese aircraft carrier Kaiyō is abandoned in Beppu Bay when she lists far enough for the port side of her flight deck to be underwater. She later will be scrapped in place.[141]
  • August 13 – Carrier aircraft of Task Force 38 strike the Tokyo area, claiming 272 Japanese aircraft destroyed and 149 damaged.[140]
  • August 13–14 (overnight) – Seven B-29 Superfortresses drop five million leaflets over Tokyo, providing the Japanese population for the first time with the news that Japan had accepted the Potsdam Declaration and was negotiating for peace.[147]
  • August 15
    • Task Force 38 launches its last strike of the war, targeting Tokyo. A second strike jettisons its bombs in the sea when it receives word of the ceasefire agreement with Japan. In the final large dogfight of World War II, 15 to 20 Japanese planes jump six F6F Hellcats of U.S. Navy Fighter Squadron 88 (VF-88) from USS Yorktown; the Hellcats shoot down nine Japanese plans in exchange for four of their own.[148]
    • An Imperial Japanese Navy Nakajima C6N Saiun ("Painted Cloud") reconnaissance plane (Allied reporting name "Myrt") is shot down by a Lieutenant Commander Reidy five minutes before the armistice with Japan takes effect. It is the last confirmed air-to-air victory of World War II.[149]
    • Seven Imperial Japanese Navy aircraft make the last kamikaze attack of World War II.
  • August 15 (August 14 east of the International Date Line) – VJ Day; Japan surrenders, ending the war in the Pacific theater and bringing World War II to an end.
  • August 18
    • The last aerial combat of World War II takes place when two U.S. Army Air Forces 386th Bombardment Group B-32 Dominator bombers on a photographic mission come under fire from Japanese forces over Tokyo despite the official cessation of hostilities three days earlier. After encountering ineffective Japanese antiaircraft fire, the bombers face an attack by Japanese fighters – Imperial Japanese Navy Mistubishi A6M5 Zeroes (Allied reporting name "Zeke") and what the U.S. airmen report as Imperial Japanese Army Nakajima Ki-44s (Allied reporting name "Tojo"), although the latter probably are Japanese Navy Kawanishi N1K-Js (Allied reporting name "George"). The Japanese ace Saburō Sakai pilots one of the fighters, but later claims not to have fired his guns. Gunners aboard the B-32s claim two Japanese fighters shot down and one probable; aboard one of the B-32s, one man is wounded and another killed. It is the last aerial combat of World War II.[150]
    • Indian nationalist revolutionary Subhas Chandra Bose reportedly dies in the crash of a Japanese aircraft at Matsuyama aerodrome (now Taipei Songshan Airport) at Taipei on Formosa (now Taiwan), although the report of his death in the crash has since been disputed.
  • August 19 – Two Mitsubishi G4M (Allied reporting name "Betty") bombers carry Japan's surrender delegation to Ie Shima.
  • August 25 – A U.S. Army Air Forces P-38 Lightning fighter piloted by Colonel Clay Tice becomes the first American aircraft to land in Japan following the armistice of August 15.[151]

September

October

November

December

  • December 4 – A de Havilland Sea Vampire Mk 5 becomes the first jet aircraft to intentionally take off and land from an aircraft carrier, HMS Ocean.[165][166]
  • December 5 – Flight 19, a formation of five U.S. Navy TBM Avengers with a total of 14 men aboard, vanishes without trace over the Atlantic Ocean east of Florida. A U.S. Navy PBM-5 Mariner flying boat sent to search for the Avengers also disappears with the loss of all 13 men aboard, apparently the victim of an accidental mid-air explosion.
  • December 8 – The U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff release a report on the effect of atomic weapons on warfare. It finds that there is no effective defense against atomic weapons and that the appearance of such weapons in the hands of an adversary would seriously degrade American national security. It also notes that the Soviet Union has better air defenses than does the United States, leaving the United States more vulnerable to atomic attack. It finds that in a war with the Soviet Union, the United States will have to seize forward bases from which to launch bombers for nuclear strikes, and that the United States will have to strike first to preempt a Soviet nuclear attack if the Soviet Union develops an atomic arsenal and the United States detects preparations for such an attack.[167]
  • December 21 – The first flight by an American turboprop-powered aircraft takes place, when the Consolidated Vultee XP-81, previously flown with a piston engine, flies under turboprop power for the first time.[168]

First flights

January

February

March

April

May

  • May 8 – Yokosuka R2Y1 Keiun ("Beautiful Cloud"), piston-engined prototype of the R2Y2, projected as the first Japanese jet attack aircraft[179]
  • May 17 – Lockheed XP2V-1 Bu48237, prototype of the P2V Neptune (later P-2 Neptune)[180]

June

July

August

September

October

November

December

Entered service

January

March

May

August

November

Retirements

May

References

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