2020 Irish general election

2020 Irish general election

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159 of 160 seats in Dáil Éireann
80 seats needed for a majority
Opinion polls
Turnout62.9% Decrease 2.2pp
  First party Second party Third party
  Micheal Martin (official portrait) (cropped).jpg Mary Lou McDonald (official portrait) (cropped).jpg Leo Varadkar 2016.jpg
Leader Micheál Martin Mary Lou McDonald Leo Varadkar
Party Fianna Fáil Sinn Féin Fine Gael
Leader since 26 January 2011 10 February 2018 2 June 2017
Leader's seat Cork South-Central Dublin Central Dublin West
Last election 44 seats, 24.3% 23 seats, 13.8% 50 seats, 25.5%
Seats before 45 22 47
Seats won 38[n 1] 37 35
Seat change Decrease 7 Increase 15 Decrease 12
Popular vote 484,320 535,595 455,584
Percentage 22.2% 24.5% 20.9%
Swing Decrease 2.1% Increase 10.7% Decrease 4.7%

  Fourth party Fifth party Sixth party
  Eamon Ryan Green Party.jpg Brendan Howlin (official portrait).jpg Róisín Shortall TD and Catherine Murphy TD cropped.jpg
Leader Eamon Ryan Brendan Howlin Catherine Murphy
Róisín Shortall
Party Green Party Labour Party Social Democrats
Leader since 27 May 2011 20 May 2016 15 July 2015
Leader's seat Dublin Bay South Wexford Kildare North
Dublin North-West
Last election 2 seats, 2.7% 7 seats, 6.6% 3 seats, 3.0%
Seats before 3 7 2
Seats won 12 6 6
Seat change Increase 9 Decrease 1 Increase 4
Popular vote 155,700 95,588 63,404
Percentage 7.1% 4.4% 2.9%
Swing Increase 4.4% Decrease 2.2% Decrease 0.1%

  Seventh party Eighth party Ninth party
 
S-PBP
Peadar Tóibín 2012.jpg
I4C
Leader Collective leadership Peadar Tóibín None
Party Solidarity–PBP Aontú Inds. 4 Change
Leader since n/a 28 January 2019 n/a
Leader's seat n/a Meath West n/a
Last election 6 seats, 3.9% New party 4 seats, 1.5%
Seats before 6 1 1
Seats won 5 1 1
Seat change Decrease 1 Steady 0 Steady 0
Popular vote 57,420 41,614 8,421
Percentage 2.6% 1.9% 0.4%
Swing Decrease 1.3% New party Decrease 1.1%

2020 Irish general election - Results.svg
Results of the election by constituency.

Taoiseach before election

Leo Varadkar
Fine Gael

Elected Taoiseach

TBD

The 2020 Irish general election took place on Saturday, 8 February 2020. This was the first election since 1918 to be held on a weekend instead of a weekday. The election was called following the dissolution of the 32nd Dáil by the President, at the request of Taoiseach Leo Varadkar on 14 January 2020. 159 of 160 Dáil Éireann seats were contested, with the outgoing Ceann Comhairle being re-elected automatically.

Background

Since the 2016 Irish general election, Fine Gael led a minority government with the support of Independent TDs, including the Independent Alliance. It relied on a confidence and supply agreement with Fianna Fáil.

On 3 December 2019, a motion of no confidence in the Minister for Housing, Planning and Local Government Eoghan Murphy proposed by Catherine Murphy for the Social Democrats was defeated, with 53 votes in favour to 56 votes against and 35 registered abstentions.[1] On 9 January 2020, Independent TD Michael Collins called for a motion of no confidence in the Minister for Health Simon Harris.[2] On 14 January, Taoiseach Leo Varadkar sought a dissolution of the Dáil which was granted by the president, with the 33rd Dáil to convene on 20 February at 12 noon.[3][4] The election was set for 8 February.[5]

Electoral system

Dáil constituencies used in the 2020 election.

The 160 members of Dáil Éireann were elected by single transferable vote (STV) from 39 constituencies, each returning between three and five TDs (Dáil deputies). Voters complete a paper ballot, numbering candidates 1, 2, 3, etc. for 1st, 2nd, 3rd, etc. preference. Ballots are sent to the constituency count centre after polls close and are counted the following morning over several rounds. In STV, each ballot is initially credited to its first-preference candidate but may be transferred on later counts to the next available preference where the first preference candidate is elected or eliminated.[6]

Constituency boundary changes

A Constituency Commission, convened in July 2016 under the provisions of the Electoral Act 1997 with Judge Robert Haughton as chair, made recommendations on changes to constituency boundaries after publication of initial population data from the 2016 census.[7][8] The Commission had some discretion but was constitutionally bound to allow no more than a ratio of 30,000 people per elected member, and was required by law to recommend constituencies of three, four or five seats, and to avoid – as far as was practicable – breaching county boundaries. The Commission report, released on 27 June 2017, recommended an increase in the number of TDs from 158 to 160 elected in 39 constituencies.[9][10] These changes were implemented by the Electoral (Amendment) (Dáil Constituencies) Act 2017.[11][12] The election of the 33rd Dáil is therefore being held using the new boundaries, for 160 seats.

As the outgoing Ceann Comhairle Seán Ó Fearghaíl did not announce his retirement, he was automatically returned, and 159 of the 160 seats were up for election.

Retiring incumbents

The following members of the 32nd Dáil did not seek re-election.

Constituency Departing TD[n 2] Party First elected Date confirmed
Cavan–Monaghan Caoimhghín Ó Caoláin Sinn Féin 1997 7 March 2018[13]
Clare Michael Harty Independent 2016 13 January 2020[14]
Cork North-Central Jonathan O'Brien Sinn Féin 2011 6 January 2020[15]
Cork South-West Jim Daly Fine Gael 2011 20 September 2019[16]
Dublin Bay North Tommy Broughan Independent 1992 22 January 2020[17]
Dublin Bay North Finian McGrath Independent 2002 14 January 2020[18]
Dublin Central Maureen O'Sullivan Independent 2009 16 January 2020[19]
Dublin Fingal Brendan Ryan Labour Party 2011 8 January 2020[20]
Dún Laoghaire Maria Bailey Fine Gael 2016 22 January 2020[21]
Dún Laoghaire Seán Barrett Fine Gael 1981 6 December 2019[22]
Kerry Martin Ferris Sinn Féin 2002 18 November 2017[23]
Limerick City Michael Noonan Fine Gael 1981 18 May 2017[24]
Longford–Westmeath Willie Penrose Labour Party 1992 5 July 2018[25]
Louth Gerry Adams Sinn Féin 2011 18 November 2017[26]
Mayo Enda Kenny Fine Gael 1975 5 November 2017[27]
Sligo–Leitrim Tony McLoughlin Fine Gael 2011 28 June 2018[28]
Waterford John Deasy Fine Gael 2002 28 November 2017[29]
Waterford John Halligan Independent 2011 15 January 2020[30]

Campaign

The campaign officially began after the dissolution of Dáil Éireann on 14 January 2020 and lasted until polling day on 8 February 2020, just over a week after the United Kingdom (which includes Northern Ireland) withdrew from the European Union, thus also making it the first major election to be held within the EU since the UK's withdrawal. The election took place on a Saturday for the first time since the 1918 election.[31] Leo Varadkar said that the change of day was to prevent school closures (many schools in Ireland are used as polling stations) and to make it easy for third-level students and those working away from home to vote.[32]

Nomination of candidates closed on Wednesday, 22 January. A record number of women were nominated, with 162 of the 531 candidates.[33] This was the first Irish general election in which there is a female candidate running in every constituency. If a party does not have a minimum of 30% male and 30% female candidates, it forfeits half of their state funding. At close of nominations, Fine Gael had 30.5% female candidates, Fianna Fáil had 31%, Labour had 32%, Sinn Féin had 33%, People Before Profit had 38%, the Green Party had 41%, and the Social Democrats had 57%, all passing the quota.[34]

Parties contesting a general election for the first time included Aontú, Irish Freedom Party, National Party and RISE (as part of S–PBP).

Voter registration via the Supplementary Register of Voters closed on 23 January, with very high registration taking place on the last day – Dublin City Council, for example, reporting 3,500 registrations on the final day allowed, and a total of 14,000 additional registrations, reported to be twice the normal amount for a general election.[35]

On 3 February 2020, following the sudden death of independent candidate Marese Skehan, the election in Tipperary was postponed by the returning officer, with nominations to be re-opened.[36][37][38] However, on 5 February the Minister for Housing, Planning and Local Government issued a Special Difficulty Order allowing the election to proceed on the same date as other constituencies. This was in consideration of the constitutional requirement that elections take place within 30 days of the dissolution of the Dáil.[39][40][41]

Party manifestos and slogans

Party/group Manifesto (external link) Other slogan(s) Refs
Fine Gael A future to look forward to "Building a Republic of Opportunity, Taking Ireland Forward Together." [42][43]
Fianna Fáil An Ireland for all / Éire do chách [42][43]
Sinn Féin Giving workers and families a break "Standing up for Irish unity" [42]
Labour Party Building an equal society [42]
S–PBP[n 3] People Before Profit[n 4] Planet Before Profit "Socialism for the 21st century" [44]
Solidarity[n 4] "Real change, not spare change" [45]
RISE[n 4] [46]
Social Democrats Hope for better. Vote for better. "Invest in better" [42]
Green Party Want Green? Vote Green! "The future belongs to all of us" [42][47]
Aontú The political system is broken. Let's fix it. "Think outside the political cartel" [48]

Television debates

2020 Irish general election debates
Date Broadcaster Moderator(s) Participants —   Name  Participant    N  Party not invited/did not participate  Notes
FG FF SF Lab S–PBP GP SD Aon
22 Jan Virgin One Pat Kenny Varadkar Martin N N N N N N [49]
27 Jan RTÉ One Claire Byrne Varadkar Martin McDonald Howlin Boyd Barrett Ryan Shortall N [50]
30 Jan Virgin One Ivan Yates
Matt Cooper
Varadkar Martin McDonald Howlin Barry Ryan Murphy N [51]
4 Feb RTÉ One David McCullagh
Miriam O'Callaghan
Varadkar Martin McDonald N N N N N
6 Feb RTÉ One David McCullagh
Miriam O'Callaghan
N N N Howlin Coppinger Ryan Shortall Tóibín
6 Feb TG4 Páidí Ó Lionáird Kyne Calleary Ó Laoghaire N Ó Ceannabháin Garvey Ó Tuathail Mhic Gib Debate in Irish

The first leaders' debate took place on Virgin Media One on 22 January, but was restricted to Leo Varadkar and Micheál Martin.[52]

A leaders' debate featuring seven party leaders/representatives took place on RTÉ One on Monday 27 January, from NUI Galway.[53][54]

On 27 January, RTÉ published an article explaining its rationale as to whom it invited to appear in televised leadership debates.[55] Aontú announced that it would seek a High Court injunction in order to prevent the broadcast of the leaders' debate scheduled for the same day but later in the day they announced that they would not proceed with the action.[56]

A further RTÉ debate was scheduled for 4 February, again on RTÉ One, and featuring only Varadkar and Martin. Mary Lou McDonald, leader of Sinn Féin, had objected to her exclusion, and Sinn Féin threatened legal action if it was excluded from this debate.[57] On 3 February, RTÉ announced that it had invited McDonald to participate in the final debate, in part due to Sinn Féin's standing in recent opinion polls, and Sinn Féin confirmed that it would accept the invitation.[58][59]

A final debate took place on 6 February on RTÉ One between the minor party leaders.

Opinion polls

The chart below depicts the results of opinion polls since the previous general election.

Ireland Opinion Polls 2020.png

Results

First preference vote share of different parties in the election.

  Sinn Féin (24.5%)
  Fianna Fáil (22.2%)
  Fine Gael (20.9%)
  Green Party (7.1%)
  Labour Party (4.4%)
  Social Democrats (2.9%)
  Solidarity–PBP (2.6%)
  Aontú (1.9%)
  Other (13.1%)
Map showing the party winning the most first preference votes in each constituency.

Polls opened at 07:00 UTC and closed at 22:00 UTC. Counting of the votes commenced at 09:00 UTC on 9 February.[60][61]

33rd Irish general election – 8 February 2020[62][63][64]
Dáil Éireann after 2020 GE.svg
Party Leader First Preference Votes Seats
Votes % FPv Swing (pp) Cand.
[65]
2016 Out. Elected
2020
Change
Sinn Féin Mary Lou McDonald 535,595 24.5 Increase10.7 42 23 22
37 / 160 (23%)
Increase14
Fianna Fáil Micheál Martin 484,320 22.2 Decrease2.2 84 44 45
37 / 160 (23%)
Decrease7
Fine Gael Leo Varadkar 455,584 20.9 Decrease4.7 82 49 47
35 / 160 (22%)
Decrease14
Independent 266,529 12.2 Decrease3.7[n 5] 125 19[n 5] 22[n 5]
19 / 160 (12%)
Steady0
Green Party Eamon Ryan 155,700 7.1 Increase4.4 39 2 3
12 / 160 (8%)
Increase10
Labour Party Brendan Howlin 95,588 4.4 Decrease2.2 31 7 7
6 / 160 (4%)
Decrease1
Social Democrats Catherine Murphy
Róisín Shortall
63,404 2.9 Decrease0.1 20 3 2
6 / 160 (4%)
Increase3
Solidarity–PBP[n 6] Collective leadership 57,420 2.6 Decrease1.3 36 6 6
5 / 160 (3%)
Decrease1
Aontú Peadar Tóibín 41,614 1.9 Increase1.9[n 7] 26 New 1
1 / 160 (0.6%)
Increase1
Inds. 4 Change None 8,421 0.4 Decrease1.1 4 4 1
1 / 160 (0.6%)
Decrease3
Irish Freedom Hermann Kelly 5,495 0.3 Increase0.3[n 7] 11 New 0
0 / 160 (0%)
-
Renua Vacant 5,473 0.3 Decrease1.9 11 0 0
0 / 160 (0%)
-
National Party Justin Barrett 4,773 0.2 Increase0.2[n 7] 10 New 0
0 / 160 (0%)
-
Irish Democratic Ken Smollen 2,611 0.1 Increase0.1 1 0 0
0 / 160 (0%)
-
Workers' Party Michael Donnelly 1,195 0.1 Decrease0.1 4 0 0
0 / 160 (0%)
-
United People Jeff Rudd 43 0.0 Increase0.0[n 7] 1 New 0
0 / 160 (0%)
-
Ceann Comhairle Seán Ó Fearghaíl N/A N/A N/A 1 1 1
1 / 160 (0.6%)
0
Spoilt votes
Total 2,183,765 100% 552[65] 158 157[n 2] 160 Increase2
Registered voters/Turnout 62.9%

Voting summary

First preference vote
Sinn Féin
24.53%
Fianna Fáil
22.18%
Fine Gael
20.86%
Green
7.13%
Labour
4.38%
Social Democrats
2.90%
Solidarity–PBP
2.63%
Aontú
1.91%
Independents 4 Change
0.39%
Others
0.90%
Independent
12.21%

Seats summary

Dáil seats
Fianna Fáil
23.13%
Sinn Féin
23.13%
Fine Gael
21.88%
Green
7.50%
Labour
3.75%
Social Democrats
3.75%
Solidarity–PBP
3.13%
Aontú
0.63%
Independents 4 Change
0.63%
Independent
11.88%

Government formation

During the campaign, the leaders of both Fine Gael and Fianna Fáil ruled out forming a coalition government with Sinn Féin.[66]

Minister for Communications, Climate Action and Environment Richard Bruton of Fine Gael said the results left open the possibility of another Fine Gael government. Some in Fianna Fáil were reported to favour going into coalition with Sinn Féin over renewing an arrangement with Fine Gael.[66]

As results were still coming in, Sinn Féin leader McDonald announced her intention to try to form a coalition government without either Fine Gael or Fianna Fáil. However, she did not rule out a coalition with either party.[66]

Footnotes

  1. ^ The Ceann Comhairle Seán Ó Fearghaíl, elected in 2002 for Fianna Fáil, is returned automatically.
  2. ^ a b On 19 May 2018, Dara Murphy of Cork North-Central announced his intention to retire at the next general election. However, he subsequently resigned from Dáil Éireann on 3 December 2019, leaving his seat vacant at dissolution.
  3. ^ People Before Profit, Solidarity and RISE are contesting this election as Solidarity–People Before Profit.
  4. ^ a b c Parties issued separate manifestos.
  5. ^ a b c The 2016 figures include 4.2% first preference votes and six TDs from the Independent Alliance, which is not a political party.
  6. ^ People Before Profit, Solidarity and RISE are contesting this election as Solidarity–People Before Profit. People Before Profit has 27 candidates, Solidarity has 9 candidates, and RISE has 1 candidate.
  7. ^ a b c d This is a new party or group, created after the 2016 general election, so all its votes are counted as a gain.

References

  1. ^ "Confidence in the Minister for Housing, Planning and Local Government: Motion (Resumed) [Private Members] – Votes – Dáil Éireann (32nd Dáil) – 3 December 2019". Houses of the Oireachtas. Retrieved 22 December 2019.
  2. ^ "TD calling for no-confidence vote in Simon Harris". RTÉ News. 9 January 2020. Retrieved 22 January 2020.
  3. ^ "President signs warrant for the dissolution of the 32nd Dáil". President of Ireland. 14 January 2020. Retrieved 22 January 2020.
  4. ^ "Forógra (Proclamation)" (PDF). Iris Oifigiúil (5): 90. 17 January 2020.
  5. ^ "Minister Murphy makes an order appointing Saturday 8 February as the General election polling day". Department of Housing, Planning and Local Government. 14 January 2020. Retrieved 22 January 2020.
  6. ^ "Dáil Éireann (House of Representatives)". Inter-Parliamentary Union. Retrieved 24 March 2019.; "Electoral Act 1992 [Part XIX]". Irish Statute Book. 5 November 1992. Retrieved 15 January 2020.
  7. ^ "Commission established to review Dáil and European Constituencies". 14 July 2016. Retrieved 1 February 2020.
  8. ^ "Constituency Commission". www.constituency-commission.ie.
  9. ^ "Introduction and summary of recommendations" (PDF). Constituency Commission 2011. Retrieved 12 March 2016.
  10. ^ "Dáil constituencies where no change is recommended" (PDF). Constituency Commission 2011. Retrieved 12 March 2016.
  11. ^ "Electoral (Amendment) (Dáil Constituencies) Act 2017". Irish Statute Book. 23 December 2017. Retrieved 13 January 2020.
  12. ^ "The January polls and the Impact of the Constituency Commission 2017 report changes: Constituency-level analysis of the Irish Times-Ipsos MRBI (24th January 2018) and Sunday Times- Behaviour & Attitudes (21st January 2018) opinion polls". Irish Elections: Geography, Facts and Analyses. 26 January 2018. Retrieved 27 January 2017.
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  14. ^ O'Regan, Eilish (13 January 2020). "Dr Michael Harty will not seek re-election as TD". Irish Independent. Retrieved 13 January 2020.
  15. ^ "Sinn Féin's O'Brien will not contest next general election". RTÉ News. 6 January 2020.
  16. ^ "Fine Gael's Jim Daly will not contest next general election". RTÉ News. 20 September 2019.
  17. ^ "Independent TD Tommy Broughan announces retirement from Dáil". The Irish Times. 22 January 2020.
  18. ^ "Finian McGrath confirms he won't stand in February election". Irish Examiner. 14 January 2020.
  19. ^ "Maureen O'Sullivan announces she will not run for re-election in Dublin Central". The Irish Times. 16 January 2020.
  20. ^ "Labour TD Brendan Ryan will not contest general election". RTÉ News. 8 January 2020.
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  25. ^ Mullooly, Ciaran (5 July 2018). "Penrose says he will not contest next general election". RTÉ News. Retrieved 5 July 2018.
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  27. ^ "Fine Gael in Castlebar begin search for new candidate after Enda Kenny announcement". The Connacht Telegraph. 6 November 2017. Retrieved 28 November 2017.
  28. ^ "Sligo Leitrim Fine Gael TD wont contest next general election". Shannon Side. Retrieved 28 June 2018.
  29. ^ "FG's John Deasy will not seek re-election due to health concerns". The Irish Times. 28 November 2017. Retrieved 28 November 2017.
  30. ^ "John Halligan retires after 30 years in politics". The Irish Times. 15 January 2020. Retrieved 15 January 2020.
  31. ^ "Election 2020: Saturday voting not a solution for low voter turnout". The Irish Times. 20 January 2020. The cases of Ireland's very limited experience with Saturday voting to date, which includes the second Nice Referendum in 2002, the Children's Referendum in 2012 and a Tipperary South by-election in 2001, did not enhance voter turnout.
  32. ^ "Taoiseach explains thinking behind Saturday election". BreakingNews.ie. 14 January 2020.
  33. ^ McConnell, Daniel (23 January 2020). "Record number of women for 2020 election". Irish Examiner. Retrieved 23 January 2020.
  34. ^ McAllister, Edel (23 January 2020). "Slight increase in women candidates for General Election". RTÉ. Retrieved 23 January 2020.
  35. ^ Kilraine, John (23 January 2020). "'Very high' last minute voter registration in Dublin city". RTÉ. Retrieved 23 January 2020.
  36. ^ "NOTICE OF COUNTERMAND". Tipperary Returning Officer.
  37. ^ Murphy, David (3 February 2020). "Tipperary vote postponed after death of candidate". Retrieved 4 February 2020.
  38. ^ Burne, Louise (4 February 2020). "Voting in Tipperary to be held February 28 or 29 'at the earliest' following candidate's death". Extra.ie. Retrieved 4 February 2020.
  39. ^ "Electoral staff told Tipperary vote will go ahead on Saturday". RTÉ News. 5 February 2020.
  40. ^ "Special Difficulty Order — Dáil Election in the Tipperary Constituency to be held on 8 February 2020". Department of Housing, Planning and Local Government. 5 February 2020. Retrieved 6 February 2020.
  41. ^ "Electoral Act 1992 (Special Difficulty) Order 2020". Irish Statute Book. 5 February 2020. Retrieved 8 February 2020.
  42. ^ a b c d e f "Ireland's General Election 2020: who would you vote for?". Irish Central. 21 January 2020. Retrieved 1 February 2020.
  43. ^ a b "It's game on as campaigning begins in Election 2020". RTÉ News. Retrieved 14 January 2020.
  44. ^ "Planet Before Profit" (PDF). pbp.ie. Retrieved 1 February 2020.
  45. ^ www.solidarity.ie https://www.solidarity.ie/principles. Retrieved 10 February 2020. Missing or empty |title=
  46. ^ www.letusrise.ie https://www.letusrise.ie/what-we-stand-for. Retrieved 10 February 2020. Missing or empty |title=
  47. ^ @greenparty_ie (16 January 2020). "#WantGreenVoteGreen" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  48. ^ "Aontú's mantra is change but their policies seem like more of the same". independent.ie. Retrieved 1 February 2020.
  49. ^ "Varadkar Opens Door To Grand Coalition". Irish Examiner. Retrieved 23 January 2020.
  50. ^ "McDonald to face-off with Varadkar and Martin in RTE leaders' debate next Monday". Extra.ie. 22 January 2020.
  51. ^ "Cork TD to take part in TV party leaders debate". eveningecho.ie. 28 January 2020.
  52. ^ "Personal drug use and a potential grand coalition: The key moments from the first head-to-head TV debate". The Journal. 22 January 2020. Retrieved 23 January 2020.
  53. ^ "'There's a fair few nutters in every party': The key moments from the RTÉ leaders' TV debate". The Journal. 27 January 2020. Retrieved 28 January 2020.
  54. ^ "As it happened: Claire Byrne Live leaders' debate". RTE.ie. 27 January 2020. Retrieved 28 January 2020.
  55. ^ "RTÉ and party leaders' debates explained". RTÉ. 27 January 2020. Retrieved 27 January 2020.
  56. ^ "Aontú will not seek injunction over RTÉ debate". RTÉ. 27 January 2020. Retrieved 27 January 2020.
  57. ^ O'Connell, Hugh (22 January 2020). "Sinn Féin issues legal letter to RTÉ over debate exclusion". Irish Independent. Retrieved 23 January 2020.
  58. ^ "Mary Lou McDonald to take part in leaders' debate". RTÉ. 3 February 2020. Retrieved 3 February 2020.
  59. ^ "'It'd be like asking John Delaney to take over the FAI again': The key points from tonight's RTÉ debate". The Journal. 5 February 2020. Retrieved 5 February 2020.
  60. ^ "Voters go to the polls after parties hear demand for change from electorate". The Irish Times. February 2020.
  61. ^ "Full house: Here are your 160 TDs elected in the 2020 general election". The Journal. 11 February 2020. Retrieved 11 February 2020.
  62. ^ "Election 2020 National Summary". Irish Times. Retrieved 8 February 2020.
  63. ^ "General Election 2020 Results". RTE News. 9 February 2020.
  64. ^ "2020 General Election". Irish Elections. Retrieved 10 February 2020.
  65. ^ a b Kavanagh, Adrian Kavanagh. "Candidates for the 2020 General Election by Dáil constituency". Irish Elections: Geography, Facts and Analyses. Retrieved 31 January 2020.
  66. ^ a b c Carroll, Rory (9 February 2020). "Sinn Féin to try to form ruling coalition after Irish election success". The Guardian.

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