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2020 Nagorno-Karabakh conflict

2020 Nagorno-Karabakh conflict
Part of the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict and the Russia-Turkey proxy conflict[1]
September 2020 Nagorno-Karabakh clashes.png
 Territory claimed by the Republic of Nagorno-Karabakh but controlled by Azerbaijan
 Territory retaken by Azerbaijan
(per Azerbaijan)
Date27 September 2020 (2020-09-27) – present
Location
Status Ongoing
Territorial
changes
Azerbaijan captured some positions (per Armenia)[2]
Azerbaijan retook 7 villages and 1 mountain peak (per Azerbaijan)[3][4][5][6]
Belligerents
 Azerbaijan  Armenia
 Republic of Artsakh
Commanders and leaders
Azerbaijan Ilham Aliyev
(President of Azerbaijan, Commander-in-Chief)
Azerbaijan Zakir Hasanov (Defence Minister of Azerbaijan)
Armenia Nikol Pashinyan
(Prime Minister of Armenia, Commander-in-Chief)
Republic of Artsakh Arayik Harutyunyan (President of Artsakh, Commander-in-Chief)
Armenia David Tonoyan (Defence Minister of Armenia)
Republic of Artsakh Jalal Harutyunyan (Defence Minister of Artsakh)
Casualties and losses
  • Unknown
  • One helicopter lost[7]

Per Armenia:

  • ~200 servicemen killed[8]
  • 4 helicopters shot down[9]
  • 30 tanks/IFVs destroyed[10]
  • 20 drones shot down[10]
  • 16 Nagorno-Karabakh servicemen killed[11]
  • ~100 servicemen wounded[11]

  • Per Azerbaijan:

    • +550 servicemen killed or wounded
    • 22 tanks/IFVs lost
    • 18 UAVs lost
    • 8 artillery pieces lost
    • 3 ammunition depots lost
    • 15 anti-aircraft systems lost[12]
    5 Azerbaijani civilians and 2 Armenian civilians killed; 19 Azerbaijani civilians and 10 Armenian civilians injured[13][14][15][16]

    The 2020 Nagorno-Karabakh conflict is an ongoing armed conflict between the Azerbaijani and Armenian armed forces in Nagorno-Karabakh. The clashes began in the morning of 27 September 2020 along the Nagorno-Karabakh line of contact. Both sides reported military and civilian casualties.[17] In response to the clashes, Armenia and the self-proclaimed Republic of Artsakh introduced martial law and total mobilization,[18][19] while Azerbaijan introduced martial law and a curfew.[20]

    Background

    The clashes are a part of the unresolved Nagorno-Karabakh conflict, which stems from the dispute over the Armenian-majority Nagorno-Karabakh, an internationally recognised territory of Azerbaijan, which is presently held by the self-proclaimed Republic of Artsakh.[21][22][23][18] The Nagorno-Karabakh War had ended with a ceasefire in 1994, with Armenia in control of the Nagorno-Karabakh region, as well as in the surrounding districts Aghdam, Jabrail, Fuzuli, Kalbajar, Gubadli, Lachin and Zangilan of Azerbaijan. According to the 2018 war report prepared by the Geneva Academy of International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights, "Armenia exercises its authority over Nagorno-Karabakh by equipping, financing or training and providing operational support to the self-proclaimed Nagorno-Karabakh Republic and its forces, but also in coordinating and helping the general planning of their military and paramilitary activities".[24] For three decades multiple violations of the ceasefire have occurred, the most serious being the 2016 Nagorno-Karabakh clashes and the July 2020 clashes at the border between Armenia and Azerbaijan.[25]

    On 23 July 2020, Armenia announced the start of a joint air defence system exercises with Russia and an analysis of July 2020 clashes.[26] A week later, Azerbaijan conducted a series of military exercises that lasted from 29 July to 10 August[27][28][29] and then again in early September with the involvement of Turkey.[30] In late September, Armenia took part in joint military exercises on the southern territories of Russian Federation, in Armenia as well as Abkhazia and South Ossetia, both self-declared independent states within what most of the international community regards as the national borders of Georgia. During the 75th session of UN General Assembly Turkish president Recep Tayyip Erdoğan made a statement supporting the territorial integrity of Azerbaijan and Georgia.[31][32]

    Also prior to the resumption of hostilities, allegations emerged that Syrian National Army members from the Hamza Division were transferred to Azerbaijan,[33] while according to Turkish sources, many YPG and PKK members from Iraq and Syria were transferred to Nagorno-Karabakh in order to train Armenian militias against Azerbaijan.[34]

    Clashes

    27 September

    At 08:03 am, the press secretary of the President of the Republic of Artsakh, Vahram Poghosyan, said that Azerbaijan is delivering missile and air strikes on the territory of peaceful settlements, including Stepanakert. The authorities urged the population to hide in bomb shelters.[35]

    The Azerbaijani side stated that at about 06:00 local time, Armenian armed forces started an intensive shelling from large-caliber weapons, mortars, and artillery mounts of various calibers of the positions of the Azerbaijan army along the entire frontline and Azerbaijani settlements in the frontline zone.[36] Azerbaijan said the Armenian side attacked and that Azerbaijan launched a counteroffensive in response.[37] Hikmet Hajiyev, senior adviser to Azerbaijan's president, Ilham Aliyev, accused Armenian forces of launching "deliberate and targeted" attacks along the front line.[38]

    The Armenian Defence Ministry said the Azerbaijani offensive, also aimed at Stepanakert, began at 08:10 local time (04:10 GMT).[39] In the offensive Azerbaijan deployed manpower, tank and rocket artillery units, aviation and UAVs.[40] The self-proclaimed Republic of Artsakh introduced martial law and total mobilization of its male population.[19] On the same day Azerbaijani President Ilham Aliyev addressed the nation concerning the clashes.[41] In the afternoon martial law and curfew was also introduced in Azerbaijan. The martial law in Azerbaijan is effective from midnight, 28 September, while the curfew is effective in Baku, major cities and some regions from 21:00 to 06:00 local time. In the clashes the Azerbaijani military deployed tanks, artillery, missile systems and aircraft near the front line and went deeper into Armenian-occupied territory.[7] Civilians in Nagorno-Karabakh have been urged to go into shelters.[7] According to Artsrun Hovhannisyan, in the morning Azerbaijani armed forces also attacked in the direction of Vardenis on the territory of Armenia proper.[42] By the afternoon on 27 September Azerbaijani Ministry of Defence reported the retaking of seven villages in Nagorno-Karabakh: Garakhanbayli, Garvand, Horadiz, Yuxarı Əbdürrəhmanlı, Aşağı Əbdürrəhmanlı, Boyuk Marjanli and Nuzgar.[43][5] The Ministry of Defence of Artsakh denied these claims saying the "The statement issued by the Ministry of Defence of Azerbaijan that the Azerbaijani army allegedly occupied 6 settlements does not correspond with reality" and "is the usual provocative information [churned out] by the Azerbaijani propaganda machine."[44] On 16:29, the ministry announced that the Azerbaijani Military Command proposed the Armenian command in this direction not to resist and to surrender, in order to "not completely destroy the garrison of the Armenian Armed Forces in the settlement of Aghdara and not to increase the number of casualties", also stating that the "treatment of prisoners of war and civilians will be carried out in accordance with the requirements of the Geneva Convention and international humanitarian law", and that if met by resistance, "every armed person will be neutralized" by the Azerbaijani forces.[45] In the afternoon, the Azerbaijani Ministry of Defence reported the takeover of a mountain peak in the Murovdag range.[46] The ministry also reported that that the Azerbaijani forces have taken "visual control, as well as firearm and artillery control" over the VardenisMartakert/Aghdara highway, connecting Nagorno-Karabakh and Armenia.[47] Stepanyan denied these claims.[48] Then, the Azerbaijani Ministry of Defence published a video of an Azerbaijani drone destroying a "weapon and ammunition depot belonging to the Armenian Armed Forces."[49]

    28 September

    At about 01:00, the Azerbaijani Ministry of Defence published a video, depicting 3 Armenian military vehicles being targeted on the line of contact, by strikes by Azerbaijani Army units.[50] The ministry denied any Armenian claims, stating that the "information spread by the Armenian Defense Ministry on the number of casualties in the Azerbaijani Army is baseless and does not reflect the reality. Claiming is was aimed at alleviating the anxiety and chaos in the Armenian population in the face of the success of the Azerbaijani Army."[12]

    Casualties

    Human rights advocate Artak Beglaryan of Artsakh said that on 27 September, a woman and a child were killed by Azerbaijani shelling of civilian settlements in Martuni Province in Nagorno-Karabakh. According to him, schools were shelled, and there was large-scale damage to civilian infrastructure in many settlements.[16] According to Beglaryan, "In Stepanakert alone, there are more than 10 injured, including children and women."[51] The Azerbaijani Ministry of Defence denied these claims.[52] Prosecutor General of the Republic of Azerbaijan, in a statement reported that "a total of 19 civilians were hospitalized with various injuries" as of 27 September.[14] According to the Press Service of the Azerbaijani Ministry of Foreign Affairs, residents of the Qaşaltı Qaraqoyunlu, Naftalan, 69-year-old Elbrus Gurbanov, and four members of his family, 64-year-old Shafayat Gurbanova, 14-year-old Fidan Gurbanova, 13-year-old Shahriyar Gurbanov, and 39-year-old Afag Amirova were killed as a result of artillery fire by Armenian armed forces.[53]

    Azerbaijan claimed that more that 550 Armenian servicemen were killed or wounded, and that it destroyed 22 tanks and other armored vehicles, 15 Armenian 9K33 Osa anti-aircraft units, 8 artillery pieces, 18 UAVs, and 3 ammunition depots,[12] In turn they lost one helicopter, though its crew survived the shootdown.[17] The authorities of the separtist Nagorno-Karabakh said 16 of their servicemen had died, with 100 injured.[54] Armenia initially claimed the elimination of four Azerbaijani helicopters, ten tanks and IFVs, as well as 15 drones.[9] Later the numbers were revised to 200 Azeri soldiers killed and around 30 tanks destroyed and 20 drones[10] and released footage to that effect showing the destruction and damage of 5 Azerbaijan tanks[55] and 2 Infantry fighting vehicles.[56]

    Reactions

    Domestic reactions

    Armenia

    Azerbaijan

    Azerbaijani authorities restricted access to the Internet across entire country shortly after the clashes began, announced the Ministry of Transport, Connections and High-Tech Technologies of Azerbaijan.[57] The State Committee on Work with Diaspora of the Republic of Azerbaijan also appealed to Azerbaijanis living abroad not to use unofficial, unspecified and biased information on social networks, electronic media and other media.[58] In connection with the military situation, the National Assembly of the Republic of Azerbaijan declared curfew in Baku, Ganja, Goygol, Yevlakh and a number of districts from 00:00 on 28 September.[59][60] Also, the press service of Azerbaijan Airlines announced that all airports of the Republic of Azerbaijan will be closed for regular passenger flights until September 30.[61]

    International reactions

    Representatives of several countries—including Albania,[62] Canada,[63] France,[64] Georgia,[65] Germany,[66] Iran,[67] Poland,[68] Romania,[69][70] Russia,[71] Turkey,[37] the United States[72] and Vatican City[66]—called for peace. President of the European Council Charles Michel did likewise,[36] as did Secretary-General of the United Nations António Guterres[73] and the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE).[74]

    The governments of Pakistan and Turkey expressed their support for Azerbaijan.[66][75][76]

    See also

    References

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    2. ^ Nagorno-Karabakh says the region has lost some territory to Azerbaijan's army
    3. ^ Nagorno-Karabakh: what we know about the deadly fighting between Azerbaijan and Armenian separatists
    4. ^ Azerbaijani Defense Ministry: Murovdag peak of Murov mountain system liberated
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