万维百科英文版

2020 United States presidential election

2020 United States presidential election

← 2016 November 3, 2020 2024 →

538 members of the Electoral College
270 electoral votes needed to win
Opinion polls

2020 United States presidential election in California2020 United States presidential election in Oregon2020 United States presidential election in Washington (state)2020 United States presidential election in Idaho2020 United States presidential election in Nevada2020 United States presidential election in Utah2020 United States presidential election in Arizona2020 United States presidential election in Montana2020 United States presidential election in Wyoming2020 United States presidential election in Colorado2020 United States presidential election in New Mexico2020 United States presidential election in North Dakota2020 United States presidential election in South Dakota2020 United States presidential election in Nebraska2020 United States presidential election in Kansas2020 United States presidential election in Oklahoma2020 United States presidential election in Texas2020 United States presidential election in Minnesota2020 United States presidential election in Iowa2020 United States presidential election in Missouri2020 United States presidential election in Arkansas2020 United States presidential election in Louisiana2020 United States presidential election in Wisconsin2020 United States presidential election in Illinois2020 United States presidential election in Michigan2020 United States presidential election in Indiana2020 United States presidential election in Ohio2020 United States presidential election in Kentucky2020 United States presidential election in Tennessee2020 United States presidential election in Mississippi2020 United States presidential election in Alabama2020 United States presidential election in Georgia2020 United States presidential election in Florida2020 United States presidential election in South Carolina2020 United States presidential election in North Carolina2020 United States presidential election in Virginia2020 United States presidential election in West Virginia2020 United States presidential election in the District of Columbia2020 United States presidential election in Maryland2020 United States presidential election in Delaware2020 United States presidential election in Pennsylvania2020 United States presidential election in New Jersey2020 United States presidential election in New York2020 United States presidential election in Connecticut2020 United States presidential election in Rhode Island2020 United States presidential election in Vermont2020 United States presidential election in New Hampshire2020 United States presidential election in Maine2020 United States presidential election in Massachusetts2020 United States presidential election in Hawaii2020 United States presidential election in Alaska2020 United States presidential election in the District of Columbia2020 United States presidential election in Maryland2020 United States presidential election in Delaware2020 United States presidential election in New Jersey2020 United States presidential election in Connecticut2020 United States presidential election in Rhode Island2020 United States presidential election in Massachusetts2020 United States presidential election in Vermont2020 United States presidential election in New HampshireElectoralCollege2020.svg
About this image
The electoral map for the 2020 election, based on populations from the 2010 Census.

Incumbent President

Donald Trump
Republican



The 2020 United States presidential election is scheduled for Tuesday, November 3, 2020. It will be the 59th quadrennial presidential election. Voters will select presidential electors who in turn will vote on December 14, 2020,[1] to either elect a new president and vice president or reelect the incumbents Donald Trump and Mike Pence respectively. The series of presidential primary elections and caucuses are being held from February to June 2020. This nominating process is an indirect election, where voters cast ballots selecting a slate of delegates to a political party's nominating convention, who then in turn elect their party's nominees for president and vice president.

Donald Trump, the 45th and incumbent president, has launched a reelection campaign for the Republican primaries; several state Republican Party organizations have cancelled their primaries in a show of support for his candidacy.[2] 29 major candidates launched campaigns for the Democratic nomination, which became the largest field of candidates for any political party in the post-reform period of American politics. The winner of the 2020 presidential election is scheduled to be inaugurated on January 20, 2021.

Background

Procedure

Article Two of the United States Constitution states that for a person to serve as president the individual must be a natural-born citizen of the United States, at least 35 years old and a United States resident for at least 14 years. Candidates for the presidency typically seek the nomination of one of the various political parties of the United States, in which case each party develops a method (such as a primary election) to choose the candidate the party deems best suited to run for the position. The primary elections are usually indirect elections where voters cast ballots for a slate of party delegates pledged to a particular candidate. The party's delegates then officially nominate a candidate to run on the party's behalf. The presidential nominee typically chooses a vice presidential running mate to form that party's ticket, who is then ratified by the delegates (with the exception of the Libertarian Party, which nominates its vice presidential candidate by delegate vote regardless of the presidential nominee's preference). The general election in November is also an indirect election, in which voters cast ballots for a slate of members of the Electoral College; these electors then directly elect the president and vice president.[3] If no candidate receives the minimum 270 electoral votes needed to win the election, the United States House of Representatives will select the president from the three candidates who received the most electoral votes, and the United States Senate will select the vice president from the candidates who received the two highest totals.

On August 26, 2019, the Maine legislature passed a bill adopting ranked-choice voting both for presidential primaries and for the general election.[4][5] On September 6, 2019, Governor Janet Mills allowed the bill to become law without her signature, which delayed it from taking effect until after the 2020 Democratic primary in March, but puts Maine on track to be the first state to use ranked-choice voting for a presidential general election. The law continues the use of the congressional district method for the allocation of electors, as Maine and Nebraska have used in recent elections.[6] The change could potentially delay the projection of the winner(s) of Maine's electoral votes for days after election day,[7] and will also complicate interpretation of the national popular vote.[8]

The Twenty-second Amendment to the Constitution states that an individual cannot be elected to the presidency more than twice. This prohibits former presidents Bill Clinton, George W. Bush, and Barack Obama from being elected president again. Former president Jimmy Carter, having served only a single term as president, is not constitutionally prohibited from being elected to another term in the 2020 election, though he has no plans to do so, saying, "95 is out of the question. I'm having a hard time walking. I think the time has passed for me to be involved actively in politics, much less run for president."[9]

Demographic trends

The age group of what will then be people in the 18-to-45-year-old bracket is expected to represent just under 40 percent of the United States' eligible voters in 2020. It is expected that more than 30 percent of eligible American voters will be nonwhite.[10]

A bipartisan report indicates that changes in voter demographics since the 2016 election could impact the results of the 2020 election. African Americans, Hispanics, Asians, and other ethnic minorities, as well as "whites with a college degree", are expected to all increase their percentage of national eligible voters by 2020, while "whites without a college degree" will decrease. This shift is potentially an advantage for the Democratic nominee; however, due to geographical differences, this could still lead to President Trump (or a different Republican nominee) winning the Electoral College while still losing the popular vote, possibly by an even larger margin than in 2016.[11]

Simultaneous elections

The presidential election will occur simultaneously with elections to the Senate and the House of Representatives. Gubernatorial and legislative elections will also be held in several states. Following the election, the United States House will redistribute the seats among the 50 states based on the results of the 2020 United States Census, and the states will conduct a redistricting of Congressional and state legislative districts. In most states the governor and the state legislature conduct the redistricting (although some states have redistricting commissions), and often a party that wins a presidential election experiences a coattail effect which also helps other candidates of that party win elections.[12] Therefore, the party that wins the 2020 presidential election could also win a significant advantage in the drawing of new Congressional and state legislative districts that would stay in effect until the 2032 elections.[13]

Impeachment

The House of Representatives voted to impeach President Trump on two counts on December 18, 2019.[14] The trial in the Senate began on January 21, 2020,[15] and ended on February 5, resulting in acquittal by the United States Senate.[16]

This is the first time a president has been impeached during his first term and while running for a second term.[17] Trump continued to hold campaign rallies during the impeachment.[18][19] This is also the first time since the modern presidential primaries were established in 1911 that a president has been subjected to impeachment while the primary season was underway.[20] The impeachment process overlapped with the primary campaigns, forcing senators running for the Democratic nomination to remain in Washington for the trial in the days before and after the Iowa caucuses.[21][22]

Nominations

Republican Party nomination

Primaries

In election cycles with incumbent presidents running for re-election, the race for their party nomination are usually pro-forma, with token opposition instead of any serious challengers, and with their party rules being fixed in their favor.[23][24] The 2020 election is no exception: with Donald Trump formally seeking a second term,[25][26] the official Republican apparatus, both state and national, have coordinated with his campaign to implement changes to make it difficult for any primary opponent to mount a serious challenge.[27][28] On January 25, 2019, the Republican National Committee unofficially endorsed Trump.[29]

Several Republican state committees have scrapped their respective primaries or caucuses.[30] They have cited the fact that Republicans canceled several state primaries when George H. W. Bush and George W. Bush sought a second term in 1992 and 2004, respectively; and Democrats scrapped some of their primaries when Bill Clinton and Barack Obama were seeking reelection in 1996 and 2012, respectively.[31][32] After cancelling their races, some of those states like Hawaii and New York immediately binded their delegates to Trump,[33][34] while other such states like Kansas and Nevada later formally held a convention or meeting to officially award their delegates to him.[35][36]

In addition, the Trump campaign urged Republican state committees that used proportional methods to award delegates in 2016 (where a state's delegates are basically divided proportionally among the candidates based on the vote percentage) to switch to a "winner-takes-all" (where the winning candidate in a state gets all its delegates) or "winner-takes-most" (where the winning candidate only wins all of the state's delegates if he exceeds a predetermined amount, otherwise they are divided proportionally) for 2020.[24][37]

Nevertheless, reports arose beginning in August 2017 that members of the Republican Party were preparing a "shadow campaign" against the President, particularly from the moderate or establishment wings of the party. Then-Arizona senator John McCain said, "Republicans see weakness in this president."[38][39] Maine senator Susan Collins, Kentucky senator Rand Paul, and former New Jersey governor Chris Christie all expressed doubts in 2017 that Trump would be the 2020 nominee, with Collins stating "it's too difficult to say."[40][41] Senator Jeff Flake claimed in 2017 that Trump was "inviting" a primary challenger by the way he was governing.[42] Longtime political strategist Roger Stone, however, predicted in May 2018 that Trump might not seek a second term were he to succeed in keeping all his campaign promises and "mak[ing] America great again".[43]

Former Massachusetts governor Bill Weld then became Trump's first major challenger in the Republican primaries following an announcement on April 15, 2019.[44] Weld, who was the Libertarian Party's nominee for vice president in 2016, is considered a long shot because his libertarian views on several political positions such as abortion rights, gay marriage and marijuana legalization conflict with traditionalist conservative positions.[45]

In addition, businessman Rocky De La Fuente entered the race on May 16, 2019, but was not widely recognized as a major candidate.

Former Illinois representative Joe Walsh launched a primary challenge on August 25, 2019, saying, "I'm going to do whatever I can. I don't want [Trump] to win. The country cannot afford to have him win. If I'm not successful, I'm not voting for him."[46] Walsh ended his presidential bid on February 7, 2020, after drawing around 1% support in the Iowa caucuses. Walsh declared that "nobody can beat Trump in a Republican primary" because the Republican Party was now "a cult" of Trump. According to Walsh, Trump supporters had become "followers" who think that Trump "can do no wrong", after absorbing misinformation "from 'conservative' media. They don't know what the truth is and — more importantly — they don't care."[47]

On September 8, 2019, former South Carolina governor and representative Mark Sanford officially announced that he would be another Republican primary challenger to Trump.[48] He dropped out of the race 65 days later on November 12, 2019, after failing to gain support in Republican circles.[49]

Still, Donald Trump's re-election campaign has essentially been ongoing since his victory in 2016, leading pundits to describe his tactic of holding rallies continuously throughout his presidency as a "never-ending campaign".[50] On January 20, 2017, at 5:11 p.m., he submitted a letter as a substitute of FEC Form 2, by which he reached the legal threshold for filing, in compliance with the Federal Election Campaign Act.[51] And Trump has run an active campaign during the primary season, even holding rallies in the February primary states, including South Carolina and Nevada where those Republican races were canceled.[52][53]

Through Super Tuesday, March 3, Trump has won every race so far. Including those states who have canceled their races and have awarded their delegates to him, Trump through Super Tuesday has won an estimated 1,023 of the 1,276 required to officially become the presumptive Republican Party nominee.[54]

Presumptive nominee (de facto)

Republican Party (United States)
Presumptive 2020 Republican Party ticket (de facto)
Donald Trump Mike Pence
for President for Vice President
Donald Trump official portrait.jpg
Mike Pence official Vice Presidential portrait.jpg
President of the United States
(2017-present)
Vice President of the United States
(2017-present)
Campaign
TrumpPenceKAG.png

Other candidates

The following major candidates have either (a) held public office, (b) been included in a minimum of five independent national polls, or (c) received substantial media coverage.[55][56][57]

Candidates in this section are sorted by state ballot access
Bill Weld Joe Walsh Rocky De La Fuente Mark Sanford
Bill Weld campaign portrait.jpg
Rep Joe Walsh.jpg
Rocky De La Fuente1 (2) (cropped).jpg
Mark Sanford, Official Portrait, 113th Congress.jpg
68th Governor of Massachusetts
(1991–1997)
U.S. Representative from IL-08
(2011–2013)
Businessman and Perennial candidate 68th
Governor of South Carolina
(2003–2011)
Campaign
Campaign
Campaign
Campaign

173,754 votes
W:February 7, 2020
114,337 votes

28,106 votes
W: November 11, 2019
0 votes

Endorsements

Democratic Party nomination

Primaries

In August 2018, the Democratic National Committee voted to disallow superdelegates from voting on the first ballot of the nominating process, beginning with the 2020 election. This would require a candidate to win a majority of pledged delegates from the assorted primary elections in order to win the party's nomination. The last time this did not occur was the nomination of Adlai Stevenson II at the 1952 Democratic National Convention.[58] Meanwhile, six states will use ranked-choice voting in the primaries: Alaska, Hawaii, Kansas, and Wyoming for all voters; and Iowa and Nevada for absentee voters.[59]

After Hillary Clinton's loss in the previous election, the Democratic Party was seen largely as leaderless[60] and fractured between the centrist Clinton wing and the more progressive Sanders wing of the party, echoing the rift brought up in the 2016 primary election.[61][62]

This divide between the establishment and progressive wings of the party has been reflected in several elections leading up to the 2020 primaries, most notably in 2017 with the election for DNC chair between moderate-backed Tom Perez and progressive-backed Keith Ellison:[63] Perez was elected chairman, and Ellison was appointed the deputy chair, a largely ceremonial role. In 2018, several U.S. House districts that Democrats hoped to gain from the Republican majority had contentious primary elections. These clashes were described by Politico's Elena Schneider as a "Democratic civil war".[64] Meanwhile, there has been a general shift to the left in regards to college tuition, healthcare, and immigration among Democrats in the Senate, likely to build up credentials for the upcoming primary election.[65][66]

Overall, the 2020 primary field had 29 major candidates,[67] breaking the record for the largest field under the modern presidential primary system previously set during the 2016 GOP primaries with 17 major candidates.[68] Several female candidates entered the race, increasing the likelihood of the Democrats nominating a woman for the second time in a row.[69]

Entering the Iowa caucuses on February 3, 2020, however, the field had decreased to 11 major candidates. Pete Buttigieg narrowly defeated Bernie Sanders in Iowa, then Sanders edged Buttigieg in the February 11 New Hampshire primary. Following Michael Bennet, Deval Patrick, and Andrew Yang dropping out, Sanders won the Nevada caucuses on February 22. Joe Biden then won the South Carolina primary, causing Buttigieg, Amy Klobuchar, and Tom Steyer to abandon their campaigns (Buttigieg and Klobuchar then immediately endorsed Biden). After Super Tuesday, March 3, Michael Bloomberg and Elizabeth Warren quit the race, leaving three candidates left: Biden and Sanders, being the main contenders, and Tulsi Gabbard still sticking around despite her long odds.[70]

Declared major candidates

As of March 5, 2020, there are three major candidates running active campaigns.[71]

Candidate Born Experience State Campaign announced Total pledged delegates[72] Popular vote[73] Contests won Article Ref.

Joe Biden
November 20, 1942
(age 77)
Scranton, Pennsylvania
Vice President of the United States (2009–2017)
U.S. senator from Delaware (1973–2009)
Candidate for President in 1988 and 2008
Flag of Delaware.svg
Delaware
April 25, 2019 670 4,898,801
(35.09%)
11
(AL, AR, MA, ME, MN, NC, OK, SC, TN, TX, VA)
Joe Biden 2020 presidential campaign logo.svg
__________
Campaign
FEC filing[74]
[75]
Bernie Sanders March 2020 (cropped).jpg
Bernie Sanders
September 8, 1941
(age 78)
Brooklyn, New York
U.S. senator from Vermont (2007–present)
U.S. representative from VT-AL (1991–2007)
Candidate for President in 2016
Flag of Vermont.svg
Vermont
February 19, 2019 574 4,001,397
(28.66%)
6
(CA, CO, NH, NV, UT, VT)
Bernie Sanders 2020 logo.svg
__________
Campaign
FEC filing[76]
[77]
Tulsi Gabbard by Gage Skidmore crop.jpg
Tulsi Gabbard
April 12, 1981
(age 38)
Leloaloa, American Samoa
U.S. representative from HI-02 (2013–present) Flag of Hawaii.svg
Hawaii
January 11, 2019 2 101,850
(0.74%)
0 Tulsi Gabbard 2020 presidential campaign logo.svg
__________
Campaign
FEC filing[78]
[79]

Withdrew during primaries

Candidate Born Experience State Campaign announced Campaign suspended Delegates won[72] Popular vote Contests won Article Ref
Elizabeth Warren by Gage Skidmore (cropped).jpg
Elizabeth Warren
June 22, 1949
(age 70)
Oklahoma City, Oklahoma
U.S. senator from Massachusetts (2013–present)  Massachusetts February 9, 2019
Exploratory committee: December 31, 2018
March 5, 2020 69 1,797,047[73]
(12.9%)
0 Elizabeth Warren 2020 presidential campaign logo.svg
__________
Campaign
FEC filing[80]
[81][82]
Michael Bloomberg by Gage Skidmore (cropped).jpg
Michael Bloomberg
February 14, 1942
(age 78)
Boston, Massachusetts
Mayor of New York City, New York (2002–2013)
CEO of Bloomberg L.P.
 New York November 24, 2019
Exploratory committee: November 21, 2019
March 4, 2020
(endorsed Biden)[83]
61 1,710,990[73]
(12.5%)
1
(AS)
Mike Bloomberg 2020 presidential campaign logo.svg
__________
Campaign
FEC filing[84]
[85][86]
Amy Klobuchar 2019 (cropped).jpg
Amy Klobuchar
May 25, 1960
(age 59)
Plymouth, Minnesota
U.S. senator from Minnesota (2007–present)  Minnesota February 10, 2019 March 2, 2020
(endorsed Biden)[87]
7 379,610[73]
(2.78%)
0 Amy Klobuchar 2020 presidential campaign logo.svg
__________
Campaign
FEC filing[88]
[89][87]
Pete Buttigieg by Gage Skidmore.jpg
Pete Buttigieg
January 19, 1982
(age 38)
South Bend, Indiana
Mayor of South Bend, Indiana (2012–2020)  Indiana April 14, 2019
Exploratory committee: January 23, 2019
March 1, 2020
(endorsed Biden)[90]
26 612,511[73]
(4.45%)
1
(IA)
Pete for America logo (Strato Blue).svg
__________
Campaign
FEC filing[91]
[92][93]

Tom Steyer
June 27, 1957
(age 62)
Manhattan, New York
Hedge fund manager
Founder of Farallon Capital and Beneficial State Bank
 California July 9, 2019 February 29, 2020 0 205,406[73]
(1.49%)
0 Tom Steyer 2020 logo (black text).svg
__________
Campaign
FEC filing[94]
[95][96]
Deval Patrick 2016.jpg
Deval Patrick
July 31, 1956
(age 63)
Chicago, Illinois
Governor of Massachusetts (2007–2015)  Massachusetts November 14, 2019 February 12, 2020
(endorsed Biden)[97]
0 14,620
(0.11%)
0 Devallogo2020.png
__________
Campaign
FEC filing[98]
[99][100]
Michael Bennet by Gage Skidmore.jpg
Michael Bennet
November 28, 1964
(age 55)
New Delhi, India
U.S. senator from Colorado (2009–present)  Colorado May 2, 2019 February 11, 2020 0 28,696
(0.19%)
0 Michael Bennet 2020 presidential campaign logo.svg
__________
Campaign
FEC filing[101]
[102][103]
Andrew Yang by Gage Skidmore.jpg
Andrew Yang
January 13, 1975
(age 45)
Schenectady, New York
Entrepreneur
Founder of Venture for America
 New York November 6, 2017 February 11, 2020 0 69,567
(0.50%)
0 Andrew Yang 2020 logo.svg
__________
Campaign
FEC filing[104]
[105][106]

Withdrew before primaries

Candidates who withdrew before the primaries
Candidate Born Experience State Campaign
announced
Campaign
suspended
Popular vote Article Ref.
John Delaney by Gage Skidmore.jpg
John Delaney
April 16, 1963
(age 56)
Wood-Ridge, New Jersey
U.S. representative from MD-06 (2013–2019)  Maryland July 28, 2017 January 31, 2020
(endorsed Biden)[107]
10,184 John Delaney 2020 logo.svg
__________
Campaign
FEC filing[108]
[109][110]
Cory Booker by Gage Skidmore.jpg
Cory Booker
April 27, 1969
(age 50)
Washington, D.C.
U.S. senator from New Jersey (2013–present)
Mayor of Newark, New Jersey (2006–2013)
 New Jersey February 1, 2019 January 13, 2020
(running for re-election)[111]
(endorsed Biden)[112]
19,916 Cory Booker 2020 Logo.svg
__________
Campaign
FEC filing[113]
[114][115]
Marianne Williamson November 2019.jpg
Marianne Williamson
July 8, 1952
(age 67)
Houston, Texas
Author
Founder of Project Angel Food
Independent candidate for U.S. House from CA-33 in 2014
 California January 28, 2019
Exploratory committee:
November 15, 2018
January 10, 2020
(endorsed Sanders)[116]
15,797 Marianne Williamson 2020 presidential campaign logo.svg
__________
Campaign
FEC filing[117]
[118][119]
Julian Castro 2019 crop.jpg
Julián Castro
September 16, 1974
(age 45)
San Antonio, Texas
Secretary of Housing and Urban Development (2014–2017)
Mayor of San Antonio, Texas (2009–2014)
 Texas January 12, 2019
Exploratory committee: December 12, 2018
January 2, 2020
(endorsed Warren)[120]
29,226 Julian Castro 2020 presidential campaign logo.svg
__________
Campaign
FEC filing[121]
[122][123]
Kamala Harris April 2019.jpg
Kamala Harris
October 20, 1964
(age 55)
Oakland, California
U.S. senator from California (2017–present)
Attorney General of California (2011–2017)
 California January 21, 2019 December 3, 2019
(endorsed Biden)[124]
861 Kamala Harris 2020 presidential campaign logo.svg
__________
Campaign
FEC filing[125]
[126][127]
Steve Bullock by Gage Skidmore.jpg
Steve Bullock
April 11, 1966
(age 53)
Missoula, Montana
Governor of Montana (2013–present)
Attorney General of Montana (2009–2013)
 Montana May 14, 2019 December 2, 2019
(running for U.S. Senate)[128]
601 Steve Bullock 2020 presidential campaign logo.svg
__________
Campaign
FEC filing[129]
[130][131]
Joe Sestak August 2019 (3) (cropped).jpg
Joe Sestak
December 12, 1951
(age 68)
Secane, Pennsylvania
U.S. representative from PA-07 (2007–2011)
Former Vice Admiral of the United States Navy
 Pennsylvania June 23, 2019 December 1, 2019
(endorsed Klobuchar)[132]
2,568 Campaign
FEC filing[133]
[134][135]
Wayne Messam by Marc Nozell (cropped).jpg
Wayne Messam
June 7, 1974
(age 45)
South Bay, Florida
Mayor of Miramar, Florida (2015–present)  Florida March 28, 2019
Exploratory committee: March 13, 2019
November 19, 2019 0[a] Wayne Messam 2020 presidential campaign logo.png
__________
Campaign
FEC filing[136]
[137][138]
Beto O'Rourke April 2019.jpg
Beto O'Rourke
September 26, 1972
(age 47)
El Paso, Texas
U.S. representative from TX-16 (2013–2019)  Texas March 14, 2019 November 1, 2019
(endorsed Biden)[139]
1[a][140] Beto O'Rourke 2020 presidential campaign logo.svg
__________
Campaign
FEC filing[141]
[142][143]
Tim Ryan by Gage Skidmore.jpg
Tim Ryan
July 16, 1973
(age 46)
Niles, Ohio
U.S. representative from OH-13 (2013–present)
U.S. representative from OH-17 (2003–2013)
 Ohio April 4, 2019 October 24, 2019
(running for re-election)[144]
(endorsed Biden)
[145]
0[a] Timryan2020.png
__________
Campaign
FEC filing[146]
[147][148]
Bill de Blasio by Gage Skidmore.jpg
Bill de Blasio
May 8, 1961
(age 58)
Manhattan, New York
Mayor of New York City, New York (2014–present)  New York May 16, 2019 September 20, 2019
(endorsed Sanders)[149]
0[a] Bill de Blasio 2020 presidential campaign logo.svg
__________
Campaign
FEC filing[150]
[151][152]
Kirsten Gillibrand August 2019.jpg
Kirsten Gillibrand
December 9, 1966
(age 53)
Albany, New York
U.S. senator from New York (2009–present)
U.S. representative from NY-20 (2007–2009)
 New York March 17, 2019
Exploratory committee: January 15, 2019
August 28, 2019 0[a] Gillibrand 2020 logo.png
__________
Campaign
FEC filing[153]
[154][155]
Seth Moulton August 2019.jpg
Seth Moulton
October 24, 1978
(age 41)
Salem, Massachusetts
U.S. representative from MA-06 (2015–present)  Massachusetts April 22, 2019 August 23, 2019
(running for re-election)[156]
(endorsed Biden)[157]
0[a]
__________
Campaign
FEC filing[158]
[159][160]
Jay Inslee by Gage Skidmore.jpg
Jay Inslee
February 9, 1951
(age 69)
Seattle, Washington
Governor of Washington (2013–present)
U.S. representative from WA-01 (1999–2012)
U.S. representative from WA-04 (1993–1995)
 Washington March 1, 2019 August 21, 2019
(running for re-election)[161]
1[a][162]
__________
Campaign
FEC filing[163]
[164][165]
John Hickenlooper by Gage Skidmore.jpg
John Hickenlooper
February 7, 1952
(age 68)
Narberth, Pennsylvania
Governor of Colorado (2011–2019)
Mayor of Denver, Colorado (2003–2011)
 Colorado March 4, 2019 August 15, 2019
(running for U.S. Senate)[166]
(endorsed Bennet)[167]
1[a][168] John Hickenlooper 2020 presidential campaign logo.png
__________
Campaign
FEC filing[169]
[170][171]

Mike Gravel
May 13, 1930
(age 89)
Springfield, Massachusetts
U.S. senator from Alaska (1969–1981)
Candidate for President in 2008
Candidate for Vice President in 1972
 California April 2, 2019
Exploratory committee: March 19, 2019
August 6, 2019
(endorsed Gabbard and Sanders)[172]
0[a] Gravel Mg web logo line two color.svg
__________
Campaign
FEC filing[173]
[174][172]
Eric Swalwell (48016282941) (cropped).jpg
Eric Swalwell
November 16, 1980
(age 39)
Sac City, Iowa
U.S. representative from CA-15 (2013–present)  California April 8, 2019 July 8, 2019
(running for re-election)[175]
0[a] Eric Swalwell 2020 presidential campaign logo.svg
__________
Campaign
FEC filing[176]
[177][178]
MAJ Richard Ojeda.jpg
Richard Ojeda
September 25, 1970
(age 49)
Rochester, Minnesota
West Virginia state senator from WV-SD07 (2016–2019)  West Virginia November 11, 2018 January 25, 2019
(running for U.S. Senate)[179]
0[a]

Campaign
FEC filing[180]

[181][182]

Endorsements

Libertarian Party nominations

Declared candidates

The following candidates have received over 5% of the vote in the 2020 Libertarian primaries

Candidate Born Experience Home state Campaign Popular vote Contests won Ref
Jacob Hornberger by Gage Skidmore (cropped) (2).jpg
Jacob Hornberger
January 1, 1950
(age 70)
Laredo, Texas
Founder and President of the Future of Freedom Foundation
Independent candidate for U.S. Senate from Virginia in 2002
Candidate for President in 2000
Flag of Virginia.svg
Virginia
Hornbergerlogo.png
October 29, 2019
FEC Filing[183]
4,375
(18.08%)
4
(CA, IA, MN, NY)
[184]
Vermin Supreme August 2019.jpg
Vermin Supreme
June 3, 1961
(age 58)
Rockport, Massachusetts
Performance artist and activist
Candidate for President in 1992, 1996, 2000, 2004, 2008, 2012, and 2016
Candidate for Mayor of Detroit, Michigan in 1989
Candidate for Mayor of Baltimore, Maryland in 1987
Flag of Massachusetts.svg
Massachusetts
Vermin Supreme 2020 - Free Ponies For All - Campaign Logo.jpg
Campaign
May 28, 2018
FEC Filing[185]
Running mate: Spike Cohen[186]
2,734
(11.30%)
1
(NH)
[187]
120px
Jo Jorgensen
May 1, 1957
(age 62)
Libertyville, Illinois
Psychology senior lecturer at Clemson University
Nominee for Vice President in 1996
Nominee for U.S. representative from SC-04 in 1992
Flag of South Carolina.svg
South Carolina

November 2, 2019
FEC Filing[188]
2,676
(11.06%)
0 [189]
Ken Armstrong POTUS46 Headshot.jpg
Ken Armstrong
April 25, 1957
(age 62)
Pasadena, California
U.S. Coast Guard commissioned officer
(1977–1994)

Former nonprofit executive
Former member of the Honolulu County, Hawaii Neighborhood Board
Flag of Oregon.svg
Oregon

May 10, 2019
FEC Filing[190]
2,591
(10.71%)
0 [191]
Kokesh2013 (cropped).jpg
Adam Kokesh
February 1, 1982
(age 38)
San Francisco, California
Libertarian and anti-war political activist
Nominee for U.S. Senate from Arizona in 2018
Republican candidate for U.S. representative from NM-03 in 2010
Flag of Arizona.svg
Arizona
AdamKokesh2020CampaignLogo.png
July 23, 2013
FEC Filing[192]
1,752
(7.24%)
0 [193]
Dan-taxation-is-theft-behrman (cropped).jpg
Dan Behrman
April 24, 1981
(age 38)
Los Angeles, California
Software engineer, internet personality and podcaster
Nominee for Texas state representative from TX-125 in 2014
Flag of Texas.svg
Texas
Dan "Taxation is Theft" Behrman 2020.png
January 30, 2019
FEC Filing[194]
1,415
(5.85%)
0 [195]
Max suit small (cropped).jpg
Max Abramson[b]
April 29, 1976
(age 43)
Kent, Washington
New Hampshire State Representative
(2014–2016; 2018–present)

Nominee for Governor of New Hampshire in 2016
Flag of New Hampshire.svg
New Hampshire
Max Abramson 2020 logo.png
June 30, 2019
FEC Filing[197]
1,391
(5.75%)
0 [198]
Lincoln Chafee (14103606100 cc56e38ddd h).jpg
Lincoln Chafee
March 26, 1953
(age 66)
Providence, Rhode Island
Governor of Rhode Island (2011–2015)
U.S. Senator from Rhode Island (1999–2007)
Mayor of Warwick, Rhode Island (1993–1999)
Democratic candidate for President in 2016
Flag of Wyoming.svg
Wyoming

Campaign
January 5, 2020
40
(0.17%)
0 [199][200]

Withdrawn candidates

Candidate Born Experience State Campaign announced Campaign suspended Popular vote Contests won Campaign Ref

Kim Ruff
Peoria, Arizona Vice chair of the LPRadical Caucus
Write-in candidate for Arizona State Mine Inspector in 2018
Flag of Arizona.svg
Arizona
March 25, 2019
January 11, 2020
(Endorsed Supreme)[201]
2,223
(9.19%)
0 RuffPhillips 2020 campaign logo.png
FEC Filing[202]
Running mate: John Phillips Jr.
[203][204]

Endorsements

Lincoln Chafee
Individuals
  • Steve Kerbel, businessman, author, and former Libertarian Party candidate for President of the United States[205]
Jacob Hornberger
Party officials
Individuals
Organizations
  • Libertarian Party Mises Caucus[212]
Newspapers and other media
  • The Liberty Herald, news media website[213]
Jo Jorgensen
Municipal officials
Party officials
Adam Kokesh
Federal legislators
Party officials
Vermin Supreme
Former candidates
State legislators
Municipal officials
  • Spencer Dias, Goffstown, NH budget committee member and Vice Chair of Southern New Hampshire Libertarian Party[222]
  • Richard Manzo, Goffstown, NH budget committee member and Vice Chair of the Libertarian Party of New Hampshire[223]
Party officials
Individuals
Organisations
  • Libertarian Socialist Caucus of the Libertarian Party[231]
Mark Whitney
Municipal officials
Withdrawn
Kim Ruff
State legislators
Party officials

Green Party nominations

On July 24, 2019, the Green Party of the United States officially recognized the campaign of Howie Hawkins.[234] On August 26, 2019, Dario Hunter's campaign was also recognized.[235] The remaining candidates may obtain formal recognition after meeting the established criteria by the party's Presidential Campaign Support Committee.[236]

On October 26, 2019, Hawkins was nominated by Socialist Party USA, in addition to seeking the Green nomination.[237]

Declared candidates


Candidate Experience Home state Campaign Projected Delegates Delegations with Plurality Ref
Officially recognized by the party
Hawkins 2010.jpg
Howie Hawkins
Activist; co-founder of the Green Party
Socialist Party USA nominee for President in 2020[238]
Nominee for Governor of New York in 2010, 2014, 2018
Nominee for U.S. Senate from New York in 2006
Flag of New York.svg
New York
Howie Hawkins 2020 presidential campaign logo.png
Campaign
Exploratory committee:
April 3, 2019

Campaign: May 28, 2019
FEC filing[239]
22 / 402
3
(CA, NC, OH)
[240]
[241]
[242]
Dario Hunter headshot.jpg
Dario Hunter
Youngstown Board of Education member (2016–2020) Flag of California.svg
California
Dario Hunter 2020 presidential campaign logo.png
Exploratory committee:
January 21, 2019

Campaign: February 18, 2019
FEC filing[243]
Running mate: Darlene Elias
11 / 402
1
(MN)
[244]
[245]
David Rolde (Green Party US).jpg
David Rolde
Activist Flag of Massachusetts.svg
Massachusetts
Campaign: July 14, 2019
FEC filing[246]
3 / 402
0 [247]
[248]
Other candidates
Blank.png
Dennis Lambert
Documentary filmmaker
Candidate for U.S. representative from OH-15 in 2016
Nominee for U.S. representative from OH-06 in 2014
Flag of Ohio.svg
Ohio
Campaign: May 10, 2019
FEC filing[249]
10 / 402
0 [250]
[251]
Sedinam Curry (cropped).png
Sedinam Moyowasifza-Curry
Activist
Candidate for President in 2016
Flag of California.svg
California
Campaign: July 29, 2015
FEC filing[252]
8 / 402
0 [253]

Endorsements

Howie Hawkins
Local officials
Individuals
Organizations
Dario Hunter
Individuals
International politicians

Other nominations

Party conventions

Map of United States showing Milwaukee, Charlotte, Austin, Detroit, and St. Louis
Milwaukee
Milwaukee
Charlotte
Charlotte
Austin
Austin
Detroit
Detroit
St. Louis
St. Louis
  Democratic Party
  Republican Party
  Libertarian Party
  Green Party
  Constitution Party

The 2020 Democratic National Convention is scheduled from July 13 to 16 in Milwaukee, Wisconsin.[264][265][266]

The 2020 Republican National Convention is planned to be held in Charlotte, North Carolina, from August 24 to 27.[267]

This will be the first time since 2004 that the two major party conventions will be held at least one month apart with the Summer Olympics in between[268] (in 2008 and 2012, the Democratic and Republican conventions were held in back-to-back weeks following the Summer Olympics, while in 2016 both were held before the Rio Games).

The 2020 Libertarian National Convention will be held in Austin, Texas, over Memorial Day weekend from May 22 to 25.[269][270]

The 2020 Green National Convention will be held in Detroit, Michigan from July9 to 12.[271]

The 2020 Constitution National Convention will be held in St. Louis, Missouri from April 29 to May 2.[272]

General election debates

Map of United States showing debate locations
University of Notre Dame Indiana
University of Notre Dame
Indiana
University of Utah Salt Lake City
University of Utah
Salt Lake City
University of Michigan Ann Arbor
University of Michigan
Ann Arbor
Belmont University Nashville, Tennessee
Belmont University
Nashville, Tennessee
Sites of the 2020 general election debates

On October 11, 2019, the Commission on Presidential Debates announced that three general election debates would be held in the fall of 2020: the first is scheduled to take place on September 29 at the University of Notre Dame in Notre Dame, Indiana, the second is scheduled to take place on October 15 at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, Michigan, and the third is scheduled to take place on October 22 at Belmont University in Nashville, Tennessee. Additionally, one vice presidential debate is scheduled for October 7, 2020, at the University of Utah in Salt Lake City.[273] Trump is reportedly considering skipping the debates.[274]

General election polling

State predictions

Most election predictors use:

  • "tossup": no advantage
  • "tilt" (used sometimes): advantage that is not quite as strong as "lean"
  • "lean": slight advantage
  • "likely" or "favored": significant, but surmountable, advantage (*highest rating given by Fox News)
  • "safe" or "solid": near-certain chance of victory
State PVI[275] Previous
result
Cook
October 29,
2019
[276]
IE
December 19,
2019
[277]
Sabato
November 7,
2019
[278]
Politico
November 19,
2019
[279]
Alabama R+14 62.1% R Safe R Safe R Safe R Safe R
Alaska R+9 51.3% R Safe R Safe R Safe R Safe R
Arizona R+5 48.9% R Tossup Tilt R Tossup Tossup
Arkansas R+15 60.6% R Safe R Safe R Safe R Safe R
California D+12 61.7% D Safe D Safe D Safe D Safe D
Colorado D+1 48.2% D Likely D Safe D Lean D Lean D
Connecticut D+6 54.6% D Safe D Safe D Safe D Safe D
Delaware D+6 53.1% D Safe D Safe D Safe D Safe D
District of Columbia D+41 90.9% D Safe D Safe D Safe D Safe D
Florida R+2 49.0% R Tossup Tossup Lean R Tossup
Georgia R+5 50.8% R Lean R Likely R Lean R Lean R
Hawaii D+18 62.2% D Safe D Safe D Safe D Safe D
Idaho R+19 59.3% R Safe R Safe R Safe R Safe R
Illinois D+7 55.8% D Safe D Safe D Safe D Safe D
Indiana R+9 56.8% R Safe R Safe R Safe R Safe R
Iowa R+3 51.2% R Lean R Lean R Lean R Lean R
Kansas R+13 56.7% R Safe R Safe R Safe R Safe R
Kentucky R+15 62.5% R Safe R Safe R Safe R Safe R
Louisiana R+11 58.1% R Safe R Safe R Safe R Safe R
Maine D+3 47.8% D Lean D Lean D
(only statewide
rating given)
Lean D Lean D
ME-1 D+8 54.0% D Safe D Safe D Safe D
ME-2 R+2 51.3% R Lean R Lean R Lean R
Maryland D+12 60.3% D Safe D Safe D Safe D Safe D
Massachusetts D+12 60.1% D Safe D Safe D Safe D Safe D
Michigan D+1 47.5% R Lean D (flip) Tilt D (flip) Lean D (flip) Tossup
Minnesota D+1 46.4% D Lean D Likely D Lean D Lean D
Mississippi R+9 57.9% R Safe R Safe R Safe R Safe R
Missouri R+9 56.8% R Safe R Safe R Safe R Safe R
Montana R+11 56.2% R Safe R Safe R Safe R Safe R
Nebraska R+14 58.8% R Safe R Safe R
(only statewide
rating given)
Safe R Safe R
NE-1 R+11 56.2% R Safe R Safe R Safe R
NE-2 R+4 47.2% R Lean R Tossup Tossup
NE-3 R+27 73.9% R Safe R Safe R Safe R
Nevada D+1 47.9% D Likely D Lean D Lean D Tossup
New Hampshire EVEN 47.0% D Lean D Lean D Lean D Tossup
New Jersey D+7 55.0% D Safe D Safe D Safe D Safe D
New Mexico D+3 48.4% D Safe D Safe D Likely D Likely D
New York D+11 59.0% D Safe D Safe D Safe D Safe D
North Carolina R+3 49.8% R Tossup Tossup Lean R Tossup
North Dakota R+16 63.0% R Safe R Safe R Safe R Safe R
Ohio R+3 51.7% R Lean R Likely R Lean R Lean R
Oklahoma R+20 65.3% R Safe R Safe R Safe R Safe R
Oregon D+5 50.1% D Safe D Safe D Safe D Safe D
Pennsylvania EVEN 48.2% R Tossup Tilt D (flip) Tossup Tossup
Rhode Island D+10 54.4% D Safe D Safe D Safe D Safe D
South Carolina R+8 54.9% R Safe R Safe R Safe R Safe R
South Dakota R+14 61.5% R Safe R Safe R Safe R Safe R
Tennessee R+14 60.7% R Safe R Safe R Safe R Safe R
Texas R+8 52.2% R Likely R Safe R Lean R Lean R
Utah R+20 45.5% R Safe R Safe R Safe R Likely R
Vermont D+15 56.7% D Safe D Safe D Safe D Safe D
Virginia D+1 49.7% D Likely D Safe D Likely D Lean D
Washington D+7 52.5% D Safe D Safe D Safe D Safe D
West Virginia R+19 68.5% R Safe R Safe R Safe R Safe R
Wisconsin EVEN 47.2% R Tossup Tossup Tossup Tossup
Wyoming R+25 67.4% R Safe R Safe R Safe R Safe R

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Candidate did not appear on any ballots.
  2. ^ Max Abramson has joined the Democratic Party,[196] but has not officially suspended his campaign.

References

  1. ^ "3 U.S.C. § 7 - U.S. Code - Unannotated Title 3. The President § 7. Meeting and vote of electors", FindLaw.com.
  2. ^ "Republicans in three states cancel presidential nominating contests for 2020". CBS News. Retrieved September 25, 2019.
  3. ^ "US Election guide: how does the election work?". The Daily Telegraph. November 6, 2012. Archived from the original on November 10, 2015. Retrieved October 29, 2015.
  4. ^ Miller, Kevin (August 26, 2019). "Maine Senate passes ranked-choice voting for March presidential primaries". Portland Press Herald. Retrieved August 28, 2019.
  5. ^ Shepherd, Michael (August 28, 2019). "Maine might switch to a ranked-choice presidential election. Here's how it would look". CBS 13. Retrieved August 28, 2019.
  6. ^ Shepherd, Michael (September 6, 2019). "Maine will use ranked-choice voting in next year's presidential election — but not the 2020 primaries". Bangor Daily News. Retrieved September 6, 2019.
  7. ^ Berman, Russell (September 20, 2019). "A Step Toward Blowing Up the Presidential-Voting System". The Atlantic. Retrieved January 14, 2020.
  8. ^ Muller, Derek. "Maine, ranked choice voting, and the National Popular Vote Compact". Excess of Democracy. Retrieved January 14, 2020.
  9. ^ Paul, Deanna; Wagner, John (October 1, 2019). "Jimmy Carter once thought he was nearing death. The longest-living former U.S. president just turned 95". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 2, 2019.
  10. ^ Weeks, Linton (January 25, 2013). "Forget 2016. The Pivotal Year In Politics May Be 2020". NPR. Archived from the original on October 6, 2015. Retrieved October 30, 2015.
  11. ^ Chinni, Dante (April 22, 2018). "Demographic shifts show 2020 presidential race could be close". NBC News. Archived from the original on April 23, 2018. Retrieved April 23, 2018.
  12. ^ Campbell, James E. (March 1986). "Presidential Coattails and Midterm Losses in State Legislative Elections". The American Political Science Review. 80 (1): 45–63. doi:10.2307/1957083. JSTOR 1957083.
  13. ^ Sarlin, Benjy (August 26, 2014). "Forget 2016: Democrats already have a plan for 2020". MSNBC. Archived from the original on October 28, 2015.
  14. ^ Fandos, Nicholas; Shear, Michael D. (December 18, 2019). "Trump Impeached for Abuse of Power and Obstruction of Congress". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved December 18, 2019.
  15. ^ Naylor, Brian; Walsh, Dierdre (January 21, 2020). "After 13 Hours Of Fiery Debate, Senate Adopts Impeachment Trial Rules". NPR. Retrieved February 3, 2020.
  16. ^ Kyle Cheney; Andrew Desiderio; John Bresnahan (February 5, 2020). "Trump acquitted on impeachment charges, ending gravest threat to his presidency". Politico. Retrieved February 5, 2020.
  17. ^ Baker, Peter (February 1, 2020). "While Stained in History, Trump Will Emerge From Trial Triumphant and Unshackled". The New York Times. Retrieved February 3, 2020.
  18. ^ Smith, David (January 31, 2020). "Trump rails against 'deranged' foes as Iowa rally clashes with impeachment trial". The Guardian. Retrieved February 3, 2020.
  19. ^ Friedman, Matt (January 28, 2020). "Missing from Trump's rally: An impeachment diatribe". Politico. Retrieved February 3, 2020.
  20. ^ Caputo, Marc (November 1, 2019). "'There's no model for this': Impeachment timeline crashes into Democratic primary". Politico. Retrieved December 18, 2019.
  21. ^ Milligan, Susan (January 30, 2020). "Senators Campaign in Iowa Remotely as They Wait in Washington Through Trump's Trial". U.S. News. Retrieved February 3, 2020.
  22. ^ Everett, Burgess (January 10, 2020). "'Don't tell me it doesn't matter': Impeachment trial hurts presidential campaigns". Politico. Retrieved February 3, 2020.
  23. ^ "When presidents get primary challenges". CBS News. August 24, 2017.
  24. ^ a b "Rhode Island GOP switches to "winner-take-all" primary vote". Associated Press. September 20, 2019.
  25. ^ Westwood, Sarah (January 22, 2017). "Trump hints at re-election bid, vowing 'eight years' of 'great things'". Washington Examiner. Retrieved February 21, 2017.
  26. ^ Taylor, Jessica (June 18, 2019). "Trump Set To Officially Launch Reelection Bid, But Hasn't He Been Running All Along?". NPR. Retrieved August 7, 2019.
  27. ^ "Trump campaign touts Republican rule changes aimed at unified 2020 convention". Reuters. October 7, 2019.
  28. ^ "Republicans Quietly Rigging 2020 Nominating Contest for Trump". Intelligencer. nymag.com. October 8, 2019.
  29. ^ Blake, Andrew (January 26, 2019). "RNC unanimously pledges 'undivided support' for Trump, stops short of explicit 2020 endorsement". Washington Times. Retrieved June 27, 2019.
  30. ^ Isenstadt, Alex (September 6, 2019). "Republicans to scrap primaries and caucuses as Trump challengers cry foul". Politico. Retrieved September 6, 2019.
  31. ^ Karni, Annie (September 6, 2019). "GOP plans to drop presidential primaries in four states to impede Trump challengers". The Boston Globe. MSN.com. Retrieved September 7, 2019.
  32. ^ Steakin, Will; Karson, Kendall (September 6, 2019). "GOP considers canceling at least three GOP primaries and caucuses, Trump challengers outraged". ABC News. Retrieved September 7, 2019.
  33. ^ "Hawaii GOP cancels presidential preference poll, commits delegates to Trump". The Hill. December 12, 2019. Retrieved December 12, 2019.
  34. ^ "New York cancels Republican primary after Trump only candidate to qualify". New York Daily News. March 3, 2020.
  35. ^ "Kansas GOP won't hold a caucus in 2020". KAKE. September 6, 2019.
  36. ^ Debra J. Saunders (February 22, 2020). "Nevada GOP binds delegates to Trump". Las Vegas Review-Journal.
  37. ^ Murray, Stephanie (May 6, 2019). "Massachusetts Republicans move to protect Trump in 2020 primary". Politico.
  38. ^ Greenwood, Max (August 5, 2017). "McCain: Republicans 'see weakness' in Trump". TheHill. Retrieved January 18, 2020.
  39. ^ Martin, Jonathan; Burns, Alexander (August 5, 2017). "Republican Shadow Campaign for 2020 Takes Shape as Trump Doubts Grow". The New York Times. Archived from the original on October 21, 2017. Retrieved October 22, 2017.
  40. ^ "Sen. Susan Collins not sure Trump will be 2020 GOP nominee". CBS News. August 21, 2017. Archived from the original on October 23, 2017. Retrieved October 22, 2017.
  41. ^ Goodkind, Nicole (October 30, 2017). "TRUMP MAY NOT SEEK RE-ELECTION: RAND PAUL, CHRIS CHRISTIE". Newsweek. Archived from the original on November 4, 2017. Retrieved November 4, 2017.
  42. ^ Kaczynski, Andrew (August 24, 2017). "Sen. Jeff Flake: Trump 'inviting' 2020 primary challenge by how he's governing". CNN. Archived from the original on October 23, 2017. Retrieved October 22, 2017.
  43. ^ Chaitin, Daniel (May 19, 2018). "Roger Stone says Trump may not run in 2020, pledges to line up challenger to Pence-Haley ticket". Washington Examiner. Archived from the original on June 12, 2018. Retrieved June 9, 2018.
  44. ^ "Bill Weld officially announces he is challenging Trump for GOP nomination in 2020". CNN. April 15, 2019.
  45. ^ Durkee, Alison (April 15, 2019). "Bill Weld officially targets Trump with long-shot primary bid". Vanity Fair.
  46. ^ "Joe Walsh to take on Trump in 2020 Republican primary". CNN. August 25, 2019. Retrieved August 25, 2019.
  47. ^ Lyn Pence, Nicole (February 7, 2020). "'I would rather have a socialist in the White House than Donald Trump,' says Republican Joe Walsh". MarketWatch. Retrieved February 8, 2020.
  48. ^ Cite error: The named reference NYTimesSanford was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  49. ^ Caitlin Byrd (November 12, 2019). "Former SC Gov. Mark Sanford has dropped out of presidential race". The Post and Courier. Charleston, South Carolina. Retrieved November 12, 2019.
  50. ^ Bixby, Scott (February 18, 2017). "The Road to 2020: Donald Trump's Never-Ending Campaign". The Daily Beast. Archived from the original on August 6, 2017. Retrieved January 20, 2018.
  51. ^ Morehouse, Lee (January 30, 2017). "Trump breaks precedent, files as candidate for re-election on first day". KTVK. Archived from the original on January 30, 2017. Retrieved February 21, 2017.
  52. ^ "'Here we go again,' Trump says about intel reports of Russian meddling in 2020". CBS News. February 21, 2020.
  53. ^ "Trump rallies his base to treat coronavirus as a 'hoax'". Politico. February 28, 2020.
  54. ^ "Republican Convention 2020". www.thegreenpapers.com. Retrieved March 8, 2020.
  55. ^ Burns, Alexander; Flegenheimer, Matt; Lee, Jasmine C.; Lerer, Lisa; Martin, Jonathan (January 21, 2019). "Who's Running for President in 2020?". The New York Times. Archived from the original on February 19, 2019. Retrieved March 10, 2019.
  56. ^ Scherer, Michael; Uhrmacher, Kevin; Schaul, Kevin (May 14, 2018). "Who is hoping to challenge Trump for president in 2020?". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on October 14, 2018. Retrieved March 10, 2019.
  57. ^ "2020 presidential election: Track which candidates are running". Axios. January 11, 2019. Archived from the original on March 8, 2019. Retrieved March 10, 2019.
  58. ^ Levy, Adam (August 25, 2018). "DNC changes superdelegate rules in presidential nomination process". CNN. Archived from the original on August 26, 2018. Retrieved August 27, 2018.
  59. ^ Daley, David (July 9, 2019). "Ranked Choice Voting Is On a Roll: 6 States Have Opted In for the 2020 Democratic Primary". In These Times. ISSN 0160-5992. Retrieved August 22, 2019.
  60. ^ Easley, Jonathan (March 31, 2017). "For Democrats, no clear leader". The Hill. Archived from the original on January 29, 2018. Retrieved January 28, 2018.
  61. ^ Vyse, Graham (April 28, 2017). "The 2020 Democratic primary is going to be the all-out brawl the party needs". The New Republic. Archived from the original on January 29, 2018. Retrieved January 28, 2018.
  62. ^ Edsall, Thomas B. (September 7, 2017). "The Struggle Between Clinton and Sanders Is Not Over". The New York Times. Archived from the original on March 26, 2018. Retrieved March 25, 2018.
  63. ^ Abramson, Jill; Aronoff, Kate; Camacho, Daniel José (February 27, 2017). "After the divisive Democratic National Committee chair election, what's next?". The Guardian. Archived from the original on March 24, 2018. Retrieved March 23, 2018.
  64. ^ Schneider, Elena (May 19, 2018). "Democrats clash over party's direction in key Texas race". Politico. Archived from the original on May 19, 2018. Retrieved May 19, 2018.
  65. ^ Schor, Elana (December 30, 2017). "Dem senators fight to out-liberal one another ahead of 2020". Politico. Archived from the original on February 3, 2018. Retrieved January 23, 2018.
  66. ^ Miller, Ryan W. (June 29, 2018). "New York's Kirsten Gillibrand, Bill de Blasio echo progressive calls to 'abolish ICE'". USA Today. Archived from the original on July 2, 2018. Retrieved July 4, 2018.
  67. ^ Burns, Alexander; Flegenheimer, Matt; Lee, Jasmine C.; Lerer, Lisa; Martin, Jonathan (March 5, 2020). "Who's Running for President in 2020?". The New York Times. Retrieved March 8, 2020.
  68. ^ Jacobson, Louis (May 2, 2019). "The big 2020 Democratic primary field: What you need to know". PolitiFact. Archived from the original on May 22, 2019. Retrieved June 23, 2019.
  69. ^ Scher, Bill (November 24, 2017). "Why 2020 Will Be the Year of the Woman". Politico. Archived from the original on June 23, 2018. Retrieved June 23, 2018.
  70. ^ "'Which side are you on?' Bernie Sanders frames 2020 primary race with Joe Biden as fight against corporate, political elite". CNBC. March 4, 2020.
  71. ^ "Who are the 2020 US Democratic presidential candidates?". Al Jazeera. February 29, 2020. Retrieved February 29, 2020.
  72. ^ a b "Delegate Tracker". Associated Press. Retrieved March 6, 2020.
  73. ^ a b c d e f "RealClearPolitics – 2020 Democratic Popular Vote". www.realclearpolitics.com. Retrieved March 4, 2020.
  74. ^ "Statement of Candidacy by Joseph R Biden Jr" (PDF). Federal Election Commission. April 25, 2019. Archived (PDF) from the original on April 27, 2019. Retrieved April 27, 2019.
  75. ^ Burns, Alexander (April 25, 2019). "Joe Biden Is Running for President, After Months of Hesitation". The New York Times. Archived from the original on April 25, 2019. Retrieved April 25, 2019.
  76. ^ "Statement of Candidacy by Bernard Sanders" (PDF). Federal Election Commission. February 19, 2019. Archived (PDF) from the original on February 21, 2019. Retrieved February 20, 2019.
  77. ^ "He's In For 2020: Bernie Sanders Is Running For President Again". Vermont Public Radio. Archived from the original on April 27, 2019. Retrieved February 19, 2019.
  78. ^ "Statement of Candidacy by Tulsi Gabbard" (PDF). Federal Election Commission. January 11, 2019. Archived (PDF) from the original on January 14, 2019. Retrieved January 21, 2019.
  79. ^ Kelly, Caroline (January 12, 2019). "Tulsi Gabbard says she will run for president in 2020". CNN. Archived from the original on January 11, 2019. Retrieved January 11, 2019.
  80. ^ "Statement of Candidacy by Elizabeth Warren" (PDF). Federal Election Commission. February 9, 2019. Archived (PDF) from the original on February 18, 2019. Retrieved February 18, 2019.
  81. ^ McCarthy, Tom (February 9, 2019). "Senator Elizabeth Warren officially launches 2020 presidential campaign". The Guardian. Archived from the original on February 9, 2019. Retrieved February 9, 2019.
  82. ^ Herndon, Astead W.; Goldmacher, Shane (March 5, 2020). "Elizabeth Warren, Once a Front-Runner, Drops Out of Presidential Race". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved March 5, 2020.
  83. ^ Mazzei, Patricia; Ruiz, Rebecca R.; Peters, Jeremy W. (March 4, 2020). "Michael Bloomberg Quits Democratic Race, Ending a Brief and Costly Bid". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved March 4, 2020.
  84. ^ "Statement of Candidacy by Michael R Bloomberg" (PDF). Federal Election Commission. November 21, 2019. Retrieved November 23, 2019.
  85. ^ Burns, Alexander (November 24, 2019). "Michael Bloomberg Joins 2020 Democratic Field for President". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved November 24, 2019.
  86. ^ "Mike Bloomberg drops out of presidential race, endorses Biden". PBS. March 4, 2020.
  87. ^ a b Schnieder, Elena (March 2, 2020). "Klobuchar drops out of 2020 campaign, endorses Biden". Politico. Retrieved March 2, 2020.
  88. ^ "Statement of Candidacy by Amy J Klobuchar" (PDF). Federal Election Commission. February 11, 2019. Archived (PDF) from the original on February 15, 2019. Retrieved February 14, 2019.
  89. ^ Golshan, Tara (February 10, 2019). "Sen. Amy Klobuchar has won every one of her elections by huge margins. Now she's running for president". Vox. Archived from the original on February 10, 2019. Retrieved February 10, 2019.
  90. ^ Manchester, Julia; Parnes, Amie (March 2, 2020). "Buttigieg set to endorse Biden". The Hill. Retrieved March 2, 2020.
  91. ^ "Statement of Candidacy by Pete Buttigieg" (PDF). Federal Election Commission. April 13, 2019. Archived (PDF) from the original on April 14, 2019. Retrieved April 14, 2019.
  92. ^ Karson, Kendall; Gomez, Justin (April 14, 2019). "Pete Buttigieg, little-known mayor turned presidential contender, makes historic bid". ABC News. Archived from the original on April 14, 2019. Retrieved April 14, 2019.
  93. ^ Epstein, Reid J.; Gabriel, Trip (March 1, 2020). "Pete Buttigieg Drops Out of Democratic Presidential Race". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved March 1, 2020.
  94. ^ "FEC Form 2 for Report FEC-1337348". Federal Election Commission. Retrieved August 14, 2019.
  95. ^ Burns, Alexander (July 9, 2019). "Tom Steyer Will Run for President and Plans to Spend $100 Million on His Bid". The New York Times. Retrieved July 9, 2019.
  96. ^ Panetta, Grace (February 29, 2020). "Tom Steyer drops out of the 2020 presidential race". Business Insider. Retrieved March 1, 2020.
  97. ^ Axelrod, Tal (March 6, 2020). "Deval Patrick backs Biden". The Hill. Retrieved March 6, 2020.
  98. ^ "Statement of Candidacy by Deval Patrick" (PDF). Federal Election Commission. November 14, 2019. Retrieved November 16, 2019.
  99. ^ "Deval Patrick announces 2020 presidential bid". ABC News. Associated Press. November 14, 2019. Retrieved November 14, 2019.
  100. ^ Morin, Rebecca (February 12, 2020). "Deval Patrick drops out of Democratic presidential race". USA Today. Retrieved February 12, 2020.
  101. ^ "Statement of Candidacy by Michael F. Bennet" (PDF). Federal Election Commission. May 5, 2019. Archived (PDF) from the original on May 6, 2019. Retrieved May 6, 2019.
  102. ^ Gregorian, Dareh (May 2, 2019). "Colorado Sen. Bennet enters presidential race after prostate cancer treatment". NBC News. Archived from the original on May 2, 2019. Retrieved May 2, 2019.
  103. ^ "Michael Bennet ends 2020 presidential bid after poor showing in New Hampshire". WDTN.com. Associated Press. February 11, 2020. Retrieved February 11, 2020.
  104. ^ "Statement of Candidacy by Andrew Yang" (PDF). Federal Election Commission. November 6, 2017. Archived (PDF) from the original on February 2, 2018. Retrieved July 18, 2018.
  105. ^ Schwarz, Hunter (February 13, 2019). "Here's how 2020 Democrats announced their campaigns". CNN. Retrieved February 13, 2020.
  106. ^ Matthews, Dylan (February 11, 2020). "Andrew Yang suspends his 2020 presidential campaign". Vox.com. Retrieved February 12, 2020.
  107. ^ Moreno, J. Edward (March 6, 2020). "John Delaney endorses Biden". The Hill. Retrieved March 7, 2020.
  108. ^ "Statement of Candidacy by John K Delaney" (PDF). Federal Election Commission. August 10, 2017. Archived (PDF) from the original on November 20, 2017. Retrieved July 18, 2018.
  109. ^ Delaney, John (July 28, 2017). "John Delaney: Why I'm running for president". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on July 28, 2017. Retrieved July 28, 2017.
  110. ^ Wang, Amy B (January 31, 2020). "John Delaney says he's dropping out of presidential race". The Washington Post. Retrieved January 31, 2020.
  111. ^ Kelsey, Adam; Harper, Averi (January 13, 2020). "Sen. Cory Booker suspends presidential campaign". ABC News. Retrieved January 13, 2020.
  112. ^ Sonmez, Felicia. "Sen. Cory Booker endorses Joe Biden for president". Washington Post. Retrieved March 9, 2020.
  113. ^ "Statement of Candidacy by Cory A Booker" (PDF). Federal Election Commission. February 1, 2019. Archived (PDF) from the original on February 9, 2019. Retrieved February 8, 2019.
  114. ^ Korecki, Natasha (February 1, 2019). "Cory Booker launches bid for president". Politico. Archived from the original on February 1, 2019. Retrieved February 1, 2019.
  115. ^ Buck, Rebecca (January 13, 2020). "Cory Booker ends 2020 presidential campaign". CNN. Retrieved January 13, 2020.
  116. ^ Perano, Ursula (February 23, 2020). "Marianne Williamson endorses Bernie Sanders". Axios.
  117. ^ "Statement of Candidacy by Marianne Williamson" (PDF). Federal Election Commission. January 17, 2019. Archived (PDF) from the original on February 9, 2019. Retrieved February 8, 2019.
  118. ^ "Author Marianne Williamson Announces Presidential Candidacy". NBC. City News Service. January 29, 2019. Retrieved November 1, 2019.
  119. ^ Astor, Maggie (January 10, 2020). "Marianne Williamson Drops Out of 2020 Presidential Race". The New York Times. Retrieved January 10, 2020.
  120. ^ Janes, Chelsea (January 6, 2020). "Julián Castro endorses Elizabeth Warren for president". The Washington Post. Retrieved January 8, 2020.
  121. ^ "Statement of Candidacy by Julian Castro" (PDF). Federal Election Commission. January 21, 2019. Archived (PDF) from the original on January 29, 2019. Retrieved January 29, 2019.
  122. ^ Weber, Paul J. (January 12, 2019). "Former Obama housing chief Julian Castro joins 2020 campaign". Associated Press. Archived from the original on January 12, 2019. Retrieved January 12, 2019.
  123. ^ Medina, Jennifer; Stevens, Matt (January 2, 2020). "Julián Castro Ends Presidential Run: 'It Simply Isn't Our Time'". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved January 2, 2020.
  124. ^ Harris, Kamala [@KamalaHarris] (March 8, 2020). ".@JoeBiden has served our country with dignity and we need him now more than ever. I will do everything in my power to help elect him the next President of the United States" (Tweet). Retrieved March 8, 2020 – via Twitter.
  125. ^ "Statement of Candidacy by Kamala D Harris" (PDF). Federal Election Commission. January 21, 2019. Archived (PDF) from the original on January 23, 2019. Retrieved January 23, 2019.
  126. ^ Kelsey, Adam (January 21, 2019). "Sen. Kamala Harris announces she will run for president in 2020". ABC News. Archived from the original on January 21, 2019. Retrieved January 21, 2019.
  127. ^ Cadelago, Christopher (December 3, 2019). "Kamala Harris drops out of presidential race". Politico. Retrieved December 3, 2019.
  128. ^ Arkin, James (March 9, 2020). "Bullock enters Montana Senate race". Politico. Retrieved March 9, 2020.
  129. ^ "Statement of Candidacy by Steve Bullock" (PDF). Federal Election Commission. May 14, 2019.
  130. ^ Bullock, Steve [@GovernorBullock] (May 14, 2019). "To give everyone a fair shot, we must do more than defeat Donald Trump. We have to defeat the corrupt system that keeps people like him in power, and we need a fighter who's done it before. That's why I'm running for President. Join our team: stevebullock.com" (Tweet). Retrieved May 14, 2019 – via Twitter.
  131. ^ Weigel, David. "Montana Gov. Steve Bullock drops out of presidential race". Washington Post. Retrieved December 2, 2019.
  132. ^ @kelsibrowning (February 6, 2020). "Admiral @JoeSestak explains to the @SalemNHDemsat their standing coffee meeting why he's supporting @amyklobuchar. #FITN #NHpolitics" (Tweet). Retrieved February 7, 2020 – via Twitter.
  133. ^ "Statement of Candidacy by Joe Sestak" (PDF). Federal Election Commission. July 1, 2019. Archived (PDF) from the original on February 9, 2019. Retrieved July 6, 2019.
  134. ^ Olson, Laura (June 23, 2019). "Former Pennsylvania Congressman Joe Sestak announces presidential bid". The Morning Call. Retrieved June 23, 2019.
  135. ^ Perano, Ursala (December 1, 2019). "Democrat Joe Sestak drops out of 2020 presidential race". Axios. Retrieved December 1, 2019.
  136. ^ "Statement of Candidacy by Wayne Martin Messam" (PDF). Federal Election Commission. March 15, 2019. Archived (PDF) from the original on April 16, 2019. Retrieved April 27, 2019.
  137. ^ Merica, Dan (March 28, 2019). "Florida Mayor Wayne Messam announces 2020 presidential bid". CNN. Archived from the original on March 28, 2019. Retrieved March 28, 2019.
  138. ^ Collins, Sean (November 20, 2019). "Wayne Messam, who called on Americans to #BeGreat, suspends his presidential bid". Vox. Retrieved November 20, 2019.
  139. ^ "Former U.S. Democratic presidential candidate Beto O'Rourke to endorse Joe Biden- NYT". Reuters. March 2, 2020. Retrieved March 3, 2020.
  140. ^ "VT election results". vtelectionresults.sec.state.vt.us. Retrieved March 8, 2020.
  141. ^ "Statement of Candidacy by Robert Beto O'Rourke" (PDF). Federal Election Commission. March 14, 2019. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 27, 2019. Retrieved March 15, 2019.
  142. ^ Bradner, Eric; Santiago, Leyla (March 14, 2019). "Beto O'Rourke announces he's running for president in 2020". CNN. Archived from the original on March 14, 2019. Retrieved March 14, 2019.
  143. ^ "Democrat Beto O'Rourke ends presidential bid". BBC. November 1, 2019. Retrieved November 1, 2019.
  144. ^ Skelley, Geoffrey (October 24, 2019). "Tim Ryan Becomes 2020's Latest Also-Ran". FiveThirtyEight. Retrieved October 24, 2019.
  145. ^ Forgey, Quint (November 13, 2019). "Rep. Tim Ryan endorses Biden in Democratic primary". Politico.
  146. ^ "Statement of Candidacy by Timothy J Ryan" (PDF). Federal Election Commission. April 11, 2019. Archived (PDF) from the original on April 13, 2019. Retrieved April 13, 2019.
  147. ^ Vitali, Ali (April 4, 2019). "Ohio Rep. Tim Ryan throws his name into growing 2020 field". NBC News. Archived from the original on April 4, 2019. Retrieved April 4, 2019.
  148. ^ Merica, Dan (October 24, 2019). "Tim Ryan ends 2020 presidential campaign". CNN.
  149. ^ Goldenburg, Sally (February 14, 2020). "De Blasio to endorse Bernie Sanders". Politico. Retrieved February 14, 2020.
  150. ^ "Statement of Candidacy by Bill de Blasio" (PDF). Federal Election Commission. May 16, 2019.
  151. ^ Goldenberg, Sally (May 16, 2019). "New York City Mayor Bill de Blasio enters crowded Democratic 2020 field". Politico. Retrieved May 16, 2019.
  152. ^ Goldenberg, Sally; Forgey, Quint (September 20, 2019). "Bill de Blasio ends 2020 presidential campaign". Politico. Retrieved September 20, 2019.
  153. ^ "Statement of Candidacy by Kirsten Gillibrand" (PDF). Federal Election Commission. March 17, 2019. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 29, 2019. Retrieved March 29, 2019.
  154. ^ Stracqualursi, Veronica. "Kirsten Gillibrand officially jumps into 2020 race, teases speech at Trump hotel in New York". CNN. Archived from the original on March 17, 2019. Retrieved March 17, 2019.
  155. ^ Burns, Alexander (August 28, 2019). "Kirsten Gillibrand Drops Out of Democratic Presidential Race". The New York Times. Retrieved August 28, 2019.
  156. ^ "Seth Moulton Drops Out Of The Race For President". WBZ-TV. August 23, 2019. Retrieved August 23, 2019.
  157. ^ Kesling, Ben (January 27, 2020). "Rep. Seth Moulton Endorses Joe Biden for President". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved January 27, 2020.
  158. ^ "Statement of Candidacy by Seth Moulton" (PDF). Federal Election Commission. May 7, 2019. Archived (PDF) from the original on May 8, 2019. Retrieved May 8, 2019.
  159. ^ Seitz-Wald, Alex (April 22, 2019). "Rep. Seth Moulton is latest Democrat to enter 2020 field". NBC News. Archived from the original on April 22, 2019. Retrieved April 22, 2019.
  160. ^ Allen, Jonathon (August 23, 2019). "Seth Moulton ends presidential campaign". NBC News. Retrieved August 23, 2019.
  161. ^ @JayInslee (August 22, 2019). "That's why, today, I'm announcing my intention to run for a third term as Washington's governor. Join me" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  162. ^ "VT election results". vtelectionresults.sec.state.vt.us. Retrieved March 6, 2020.
  163. ^ "Statement of Candidacy by Jay R Inslee" (PDF). Federal Election Commission. March 1, 2019. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 6, 2019. Retrieved March 14, 2019.
  164. ^ Merica, Dan (March 1, 2019). "Washington Gov. Jay Inslee announces 2020 presidential bid". CNN. Archived from the original on March 3, 2019. Retrieved March 3, 2019.
  165. ^ Gregorian, Dareh (August 21, 2019). "Jay Inslee drops out of the 2020 presidential race". NBC News. Retrieved August 21, 2019.
  166. ^ Garcia, Justin (August 21, 2019). "John Hickenlooper is running for U.S. Senate: "I'm not done fighting for the people of Colorado"". The Denver Post. Retrieved August 22, 2019.
  167. ^ Peoples, Steve (December 6, 2019). "'We're going to be everywhere:' Inside Bloomberg's 2020 plan". AP News.
  168. ^ "VT election results". vtelectionresults.sec.state.vt.us. Retrieved March 6, 2020.
  169. ^ "Statement of Candidacy by John W Hickenlooper" (PDF). Federal Election Commission. March 4, 2019. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 6, 2019. Retrieved March 14, 2019.
  170. ^ Hickenlooper, John [@Hickenlooper] (August 15, 2019). "This morning, I'm announcing that I'm no longer running for President. While this campaign didn't have the outcome we were hoping for, every moment has been worthwhile & I'm thankful to everyone who supported this campaign and our entire team. bit.ly/2TzVKbS" (Tweet). Retrieved August 15, 2019 – via Twitter.
  171. ^ Hughes, Clyde (August 15, 2019). "Democrat Hickenlooper drops out of 2020 presidential race". UPI. Retrieved August 15, 2019.
  172. ^ a b Shen-Berro, Julian (August 7, 2019). "Ex-Alaska Sen. Mike Gravel Ends Unorthodox 2020 Campaign, Endorses Bernie Sanders And Tulsi Gabbard". HuffPost. Retrieved August 7, 2019.
  173. ^ "Statement of Candidacy by Maurice Robert Gravel" (PDF). Federal Election Commission. April 2, 2019. Archived (PDF) from the original on April 3, 2019. Retrieved April 3, 2019.
  174. ^ Stuart, Tessa (April 8, 2019). "The Teens Have Officially Convinced Mike Gravel to Run for President". Rolling Stone. Archived from the original on April 8, 2019. Retrieved April 8, 2019.
  175. ^ Pramuk, Jacob (July 8, 2019). "Democrat Eric Swalwell drops out of 2020 presidential race, becoming first prominent Democrat to do so". CNBC. Retrieved July 8, 2019.
  176. ^ "Statement of Candidacy by Eric Michael Swalwell" (PDF). Federal Election Commission. April 8, 2019. Archived (PDF) from the original on April 12, 2019. Retrieved April 12, 2019.
  177. ^ Tolan, Casey (April 8, 2019). "Eric Swalwell jumps into presidential race with long-shot White House bid". The Mercury News. Archived from the original on April 8, 2019. Retrieved April 8, 2019.
  178. ^ Hudak, Zak (July 8, 2019). "Democrat Eric Swalwell drops out of presidential race". CBS News.
  179. ^ Pathe, Simone (January 13, 2020). "West Virginia's Richard Ojeda is back, this time running for Senate". Roll Call. Retrieved January 13, 2020.
  180. ^ "Statement of Candidacy by Richard Neece Ojeda II" (PDF). Federal Election Commission. November 11, 2018. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 26, 2019. Retrieved August 14, 2019.
  181. ^ Grim, Ryan (November 11, 2018). "Richard Ojeda, West Virginia Lawmaker Who Backed Teachers Strikes, Will Run for President". The Intercept. Archived from the original on December 19, 2018. Retrieved December 17, 2018.
  182. ^ Grim, Ryan (January 25, 2019). "Richard Ojeda Drops Out of Presidential Race". The Intercept. Archived from the original on January 25, 2019. Retrieved January 25, 2019.
  183. ^ "FEC FORM 2 : STATEMENT OF CANDIDACY" (PDF). Docquery.fec.gov. Retrieved December 3, 2019.
  184. ^ Welch, Matt (November 7, 2019). "Candidates Vie to Represent the Libertarian Wing of the Libertarian Party". Reason. Retrieved November 17, 2019.
  185. ^ "FEC FORM 2 : STATEMENT OF CANDIDACY" (PDF). Docquery.fec.gov. Retrieved August 5, 2019.
  186. ^ "Vermin Supreme". Twitter. December 17, 2019. Retrieved December 26, 2019.
  187. ^ "Adam Kokesh vs Vermin Supreme 2020". Adam Kokesh. May 28, 2018. Retrieved June 1, 2018.
  188. ^ "FEC FORM 2 : STATEMENT OF CANDIDACY" (PDF). Docquery.fec.gov. Retrieved September 17, 2019.
  189. ^ Bring, Daniel M. (September 5, 2019). "The race for the Libertarian nomination". Spectator USA. Retrieved September 17, 2019.
  190. ^ "FEC FORM 1: STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION" (PDF). Docquery.fec.gov. Retrieved January 5, 2020.
  191. ^ Johnson, Nicci (June 5, 2019). "WEB EXTRA: "Homeless" presidential candidate campaigns in Bismarck". KXMC-TV. Retrieved October 6, 2019.
  192. ^ "FEC FORM 2 : STATEMENT OF CANDIDACY" (PDF). Docquery.fec.gov. Retrieved March 19, 2019.
  193. ^ "Adam Kokesh, jailed gun rights activist, to run for president". RT. July 19, 2013. Archived from the original on November 7, 2017. Retrieved November 5, 2017.
  194. ^ "FEC FORM 2 : STATEMENT OF CANDIDACY" (PDF). Docquery.fec.gov. Retrieved August 5, 2019.
  195. ^ Behrman, Dan "Taxation Is Theft". "Dan "Taxation Is Theft" Behrman". behrman2020.com.
  196. ^ "Party Information (D)". app.sos.nh.gov. PCC Technology Group LLC. Retrieved March 7, 2020.
  197. ^ "FEC FORM 2 : STATEMENT OF CANDIDACY" (PDF). Docquery.fec.gov. Retrieved August 5, 2019.
  198. ^ Sullivan, Max (July 28, 2019). "Seabrook's Abramson seeks Libertarian presidential nomination". The Portsmouth Herald. Retrieved November 23, 2019.
  199. ^ Nesi, Ted (January 5, 2020). "Chafee files to run for president again". WPRI-TV. Providence. Retrieved January 5, 2020.
  200. ^ "Ex-Rhode Island senator, governor Lincoln Chafee files to run for president as Libertarian". www.cbsnews.com. January 6, 2020. Retrieved January 10, 2020.
  201. ^ Ruff, Kim (February 20, 2020). ""I am very excited to announce that I will be working with Vermin Supreme and Spike Cohen..."". Retrieved March 5, 2020.
  202. ^ "FEC FORM 2 : STATEMENT OF CANDIDACY" (PDF). Docquery.fec.gov. Retrieved August 5, 2019.
  203. ^ "John Phillips -The Unlabeled Libertarian". www.facebook.com.
  204. ^ "Kim Ruff & John Phillips – Libertarians for 2020". Ruff/Phillips 2020.
  205. ^ Kerbel, Steve (March 6, 2020). "Why I Am Endorsing Lincoln Chafee". Being Libertarian. Retrieved March 8, 2020.
  206. ^ Buttrick, John A. "Endorsement From Judge John A. Buttrick". Facebook.
  207. ^ "I would like to formally endorse Jacob Hornberger (@JacobforLiberty) for the Libertarian Presidential Nomination, I believe Jacob is the "Ron Paul" Libertarian that we have been seeking & I am proud to offer him my full support, A Campaign of Principle!http://jacobforliberty.com". January 3, 2020.
  208. ^ "Horton Hears a Hornberger". December 5, 2019. Retrieved December 9, 2019 – via YouTube.com.
  209. ^ "I had a nice conversation with Jacob Hornberger a couple of days ago and I have decided to join his campaign and support him for the Libertarian Party Presidential nomination". December 7, 2019. Retrieved December 9, 2019 – via Twitter.com.
  210. ^ "Ep. 1540 The Horton/Woods Liberty Battle Plan". YouTube.
  211. ^ "Part Of The Problem #514 – Revolution 2.0 With Scott Horton". YouTube.
  212. ^ Bentley, Robert J. (January 7, 2020). "LP Mises Caucus Endorses Jacob Hornberger for the Libertarian Nomination for President". The Liberty Herald. Retrieved January 7, 2020.
  213. ^ Bentley, Robert J. (December 29, 2019). "Jacob Hornberger is the Right Choice for The Libertarian Party and America". The Liberty Herald. Retrieved December 29, 2019.
  214. ^ "I encourage you to join me in supporting Jo Jorgensen for President". Retrieved February 15, 2020 – via Twitter.com.
  215. ^ https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=3229069980439911&set=a.157882907558649&type=3&theater
  216. ^ a b "Darryl W. Perry". Facebook.
  217. ^ Winger, Richard (November 9, 2019). "Cynthia McKinney Endorses Adam Kokesh for the Libertarian Presidential Nomination". Ballot Access News. Retrieved November 23, 2019.
  218. ^ "Kenneth Brent Olsen, Libertarian". www.facebook.com.
  219. ^ "Kim Ruff". www.facebook.com. Retrieved February 23, 2020.
  220. ^ "Caleb Q. Dyer" – via www.facebook.com.
  221. ^ "Brandon Phinney" – via www.facebook.com.
  222. ^ "Vermin Supreme". www.facebook.com.
  223. ^ "Richard Manzo – Twitter".
  224. ^ "Vermin Supreme". www.facebook.com.
  225. ^ "Peyton Kunselman". www.facebook.com.
  226. ^ Mulder, Eric (January 6, 2020). "A Case for Vermin Supreme in 2020". Facebook.
  227. ^ a b "Vermin Supreme". www.facebook.com.
  228. ^ "Vermin Supreme is a solid stable genius!! He's the ideal Presidential Candidate to lead America into a new decade of absurdity!! Vote 4 Verm in 2020". November 22, 2019. Retrieved November 23, 2019 – via Twitter.
  229. ^ "Vermin Supreme (TM) – Twitter".
  230. ^ "Philip Labonte (@philthatremains) – Instagram".
  231. ^ Party, Libertarian Socialist Caucus-Libertarian (February 2, 2020). "Vermin Supreme, duh!https://twitter.com/ToddHagopian/status/1224080983349252097 …". @LibSocCaucusLP. Retrieved February 23, 2020.
  232. ^ "Breaking: Jeff Hewitt Endorses Mark Whitney For President Of The United States" – via www.youtube.com.
  233. ^ "Brandon Phinney" – via www.facebook.com.
  234. ^ "Hawkins officially recognized as Green Party candidate". July 24, 2019.
  235. ^ "DARIO HUNTER AWARDED OFFICIAL RECOGNITION AS A GREEN PARTY PRESIDENTIAL CANDIDATE". August 26, 2019.
  236. ^ "Rules and Procedures of the Green Party of the United States". Green Party US.
  237. ^ Socialist Party USA [@SPofUSA] (October 26, 2019). "The Socialist Party is excited to announce Howie Hawkins as its presidential nominee for the 2020 election!" (Tweet). Retrieved October 26, 2019 – via Twitter.
  238. ^ a b Socialist Party USA [@SPofUSA] (October 26, 2019). "The Socialist Party is excited to announce Howie Hawkins as its presidential nominee for the 2020 election!" (Tweet). Retrieved October 26, 2019 – via Twitter.
  239. ^ "FEC FORM 2 : STATEMENT OF CANDIDACY" (PDF). Docquery.fec.gov. Retrieved June 15, 2019.
  240. ^ Robert Harding (April 4, 2019). "Howie Hawkins, Syracuse resident, exploring run for Green Party presidential nod". Auburn Citizen.
  241. ^ "Howie Hawkins for President". Howie Hawkins for President. March 29, 2019.
  242. ^ "Howie Hawkins declares - Howie Hawkins 2020 Exploratory Committee" – via www.facebook.com.
  243. ^ "FEC FORM 2 : STATEMENT OF CANDIDACY" (PDF). Docquery.fec.gov. Retrieved March 19, 2019.
  244. ^ WKBN Staff (February 19, 2019). "Youngstown Board of Education member announces he's running for president". Wkbn.com. Retrieved March 19, 2019.
  245. ^ "About Darlene". Retrieved March 3, 2020.
  246. ^ "FEC FORM 2 : STATEMENT OF CANDIDACY" (PDF). Docquery.fec.gov. Retrieved March 19, 2019.
  247. ^ "David Rolde for Green Party US 2020 Presidential Nomination". facebook.com.
  248. ^ Green Party Presidential Campaign Support Committee. "2020 Candidates Page". Retrieved January 17, 2020.
  249. ^ "FEC FORM 2: STATEMENT OF CANDIDACY" (PDF). Docquery.fec.gov. Retrieved August 20, 2019.
  250. ^ "FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE". dlpotus2020.com. May 10, 2019. Retrieved July 21, 2019.
  251. ^ "Dennis Lambert's Biography". votesmart.org. 2019. Retrieved July 21, 2019.
  252. ^ "MOYOWASIFZA-CURRY, SEDINAM KINAMO CHRISTIN - Candidate overview". FEC.gov.
  253. ^ "Sedinam Kinamo Christin Moyowasifza-Curry". Facebook.com. Retrieved March 19, 2019.
  254. ^ a b c d e f g h i "WHO'S SUPPORTING HOWIE?". Howie Hawkins 2020. Retrieved September 24, 2019.
  255. ^ Andrea Mérida Cuéllar [@andreamerida] (July 22, 2019). "A platform I stand firmly behind" (Tweet). Retrieved September 10, 2019 – via Twitter.
  256. ^ "Howie Hawkins Hosted by Green Party of Los Angeles County". Howie Hawkins 2020 via Facebook. September 22, 2019. Retrieved September 23, 2019.
  257. ^ "It is a historical and groundbreaking decision for the Socialist Party to embark on this new course of independent Left collaboration and unity. Congratulations @HowieHawkins!". Pat Noble Official Twitter. October 26, 2019. Retrieved October 28, 2019.
  258. ^ "Rodolfo Cortes Barragan, CA Green for Congress, endorses Howie Hawkins" – via www.youtube.com.
  259. ^ "Chris Hedges Interviews Howie Hawkins on Third Parties". Howie Hawkins 2020. June 2, 2019. Retrieved September 19, 2019.
  260. ^ Kevin Zeese [@KBZeese] (February 24, 2019). "Run @HowieHawkins run. Long-time activist, member of the working class, advocate for economic, racial and environemental justice as well as peace. First to ever run a campaign based on the #GreenNewDeal" (Tweet). Retrieved May 21, 2019 – via Twitter.
  261. ^ "Howie Hawkins for President". solidartiy-us.org. Retrieved November 2, 2019.
  262. ^ "Thank You for your support!". Reboot America. June 10, 2019. Retrieved July 12, 2019.
  263. ^ "Rencontrez Dario Hunter, candidat présidentiel des Verts É-U!". Facebook. September 21, 2019. Retrieved October 8, 2019.
  264. ^ Merica, Dan. "Exclusive: Democrats, anticipating heated primary, set earlier 2020 convention date". CNN. Archived from the original on June 15, 2018. Retrieved June 15, 2018.
  265. ^ Korecki, Natasha; Thompson, Alex. "DNC picks Milwaukee to host 2020 convention". Politico. Retrieved March 11, 2019.
  266. ^ Seitz-Wald, Alex (May 9, 2018). "Eager Democrats 2020 prep: DNC eyes convention cities, debates, rule changes". NBC News. Archived from the original on May 9, 2018. Retrieved May 9, 2018.
  267. ^ WCNC Staff (October 1, 2018). "2020 Republican National Convention dates announced". WCNC.com. Archived from the original on October 2, 2018. Retrieved January 17, 2019.
  268. ^ Lesniewski, Niels (October 1, 2018) "Republicans Set 2020 Convention Date for Late August" Archived January 26, 2019, at the Wayback Machine, Roll Call. Retrieved January 25, 2019.
  269. ^ Winger, Richard "Libertarian Party Sets Location and Date of 2020 Presidential Convention". Ballot Access News. December 11, 2017. Archived from the original on December 24, 2017. Retrieved December 23, 2017.
  270. ^ Francis, Eric (December 21, 2017). "An alternative to the right/left political menu". California Catholic Daily. Archived from the original on December 6, 2018. Retrieved December 6, 2018.
  271. ^ "Selection of Site for 2020 Presidential Nominating ConventionANM". Green National Committee. Retrieved August 19, 2019.
  272. ^ "Convention Q&A". Constitution Party. February 10, 2020. Retrieved February 24, 2020.
  273. ^ Montellaro, Zach; Shepard, Steven (October 11, 2019). "General-election debate schedule revealed for 2020". Politico. Retrieved October 11, 2019.
  274. ^ Maggie Haberman; Annie Karni (December 13, 2019). "Will Trump Debate a Democrat in 2020? He's Not So Sure". The New York Times. Retrieved December 13, 2019.
  275. ^ "2016 State PVI Changes – Decision Desk HQ". decisiondeskhq.com. December 15, 2017. Archived from the original on June 13, 2018. Retrieved July 27, 2019.
  276. ^ "2020 Electoral College Ratings" (PDF). Cook Political Report. October 29, 2019. Retrieved December 3, 2019.
  277. ^ "Presidential Ratings". Inside Elections. April 19, 2019. Retrieved July 27, 2019.
  278. ^ "2020 President". Sabato's Crystal Ball. November 7, 2019. Retrieved December 3, 2019.
  279. ^ "2020 Election Forecast". Politico. November 19, 2019. Retrieved November 19, 2019.

External links


本页面最后更新于2020-03-10 08:38,点击更新本页查看原网页

本站的所有资料包括但不限于文字、图片等全部转载于维基百科(wikipedia.org),遵循 维基百科:CC BY-SA 3.0协议

万维百科为维基百科爱好者建立的公益网站,旨在为中国大陆网民提供优质内容,因此对部分内容进行改编以符合中国大陆政策,如果您不接受,可以直接访问维基百科官方网站


顶部

如果本页面有数学、化学、物理等公式未正确显示,请使用火狐或者Safari浏览器