万维百科英文版

Age of Sail

Jump to search
The Battle of Scheveningen, 10 August 1653, painted by Jan Abrahamsz Beerstraaten.
A ship of war, Cyclopaedia 1728, Vol 2

The Age of Sail (usually dated as 1571–1862) was a period roughly corresponding to the early modern period in which international trade and naval warfare were dominated by sailing ships, lasting from the mid-16th to the mid-19th century.[1]

Definition

Like most periodic eras, the definition is inexact but instead serves as a general description. The age of sail runs roughly from the Battle of Lepanto in 1571, the last significant engagement in which oar-propelled galleys played a major role, to the Battle of Hampton Roads in 1862, in which the steam-powered ironclad CSS Virginia destroyed the sailing ships USS Cumberland and USS Congress, demonstrating that the advance of steam power had rendered sail power in warfare obsolete.

The Suez Canal, in the Middle-East, which opened in 1869, was impractical for sailing ships and made steamboats faster on the European-Asian sea route.

Golden Age of Sail

The period between the mid-18th century and the early 19th century, when sailing vessels reached their peak of size and complexity is sometimes referred to as the "Golden Age of Sail".[2] During this time, the efficiency and use of commercial sailing vessels was at its peak—immediately before steamboats started to take trade away from sail.

Decline

By 1873, the Age of Sail had definitely ended, with HMS Devastation commissioned in 1871. Devastation was the first class of ocean-going battleships that did not carry sails.

HMS Devastation

Sailing ships sometimes continued to be an economical way to transport bulk cargo on long voyages into the 1920s and 1930s, even though steamships were also used for such transports and became more common. Sailing ships do not require fuel or complex engines to be powered; thus they tended to be more independent from requiring a dedicated support base on the mainland. Crucially though, steam-powered ships held a speed advantage and were rarely hindered by adverse winds, freeing steam-powered vessels from the necessity of following trade winds. As a result, cargo and supplies could reach a foreign port in half the time it took a sailing ship.

Sailing vessels were pushed into narrower and narrower economic niches and gradually disappeared from commercial trade. Today, sailing vessels are only economically viable for small scale coastal fishing, along with recreational uses such as yachting and passenger sail excursion ships.

See also

References

  1. ^ "The Age of Sail". HMS Trincomalee. Archived from the original on 2016-03-16. Retrieved 12 April 2016.
  2. ^ "Sailing Ship Rigs" Archived 2010-12-28 at the Wayback Machine. Maritime Museum of the Atlantic

本页面最后更新于2020-08-10 20:32,点击更新本页查看原网页

本站的所有资料包括但不限于文字、图片等全部转载于维基百科(wikipedia.org),遵循 维基百科:CC BY-SA 3.0协议

万维百科为维基百科爱好者建立的公益网站,旨在为中国大陆网民提供优质内容,因此对部分内容进行改编以符合中国大陆政策,如果您不接受,可以直接访问维基百科官方网站


顶部

如果本页面有数学、化学、物理等公式未正确显示,请使用火狐或者Safari浏览器