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Apocope

In phonology, apocope (/əˈpɒkəpi/[1][2]) is the loss (elision) of a word-final vowel. In a broader sense, it can refer to the loss of any final sound (including consonants) from a word.[3]

Etymology

Apocope comes from the Greek ἀποκοπή (apokopḗ) from ἀποκόπτειν (apokóptein) "cutting off", from ἀπο- (apo-) "away from" and κόπτειν (kóptein) "to cut".

Historical sound change

In historical linguistics, apocope is often the loss of an unstressed vowel.

Loss of an unstressed vowel or vowel and nasal

  • Vulgar Latin panem → Spanish pan (bread)
  • Vulgar Latin lupum → French loup (wolf)
  • Proto-Germanic *landąOld, Middle, and Modern English land
  • Old English lufu → Modern English love (noun)
  • Old English lufian → Modern English love (verb)
  • The loss of a final unstressed vowel is a feature of southern dialects of Māori in comparison to standard Māori, for example the term kainga (village) is rendered in southern Māori as kaik.

Loss of other sounds

Case marker

In Estonian and the Sami languages, apocopes explain the forms of grammatical cases. For example, a nominative is described as having apocope of the final vowel, but the genitive does not have it. Throughout its history, however, the genitive case marker has also undergone apocope: Estonian linn ("a city") and linna ("of a city") are derived from linna and linnan respectively, as can still be seen in the corresponding Finnish word.

In the genitive form, the final /n/, while it was being deleted, blocked the loss of /a/. In Colloquial Finnish, the final vowel is sometimes omitted from case markers.

Grammatical rule

Some languages have apocopations that are internalized as mandatory forms. In Spanish and Italian, for example, some adjectives that come before the noun lose the final vowel or syllable if they precede a noun (mainly) in the masculine singular form. In Spanish, some adverbs and cardinal and ordinal numbers have apocopations as well.

  • Adjectives
    • grande ("big, great") → grangran mujer (feminine) ("great woman". However, if the adjective follows the noun, the final syllable remains, but the meaning may also change: mujer grande, meaning "large woman")
    • bueno ("good") → buenbuen hombre (masculine) ("good man"; the final vowel remains in hombre bueno, with no accompanying change in meaning)
  • Adverbs
    • tanto ("so much") → tan ("so") → tan hermoso ("so beautiful")
  • Cardinal numbers
  • Ordinal numbers
    • primero ("first") → primerprimer premio ("first prize")
    • segundo ("second") → según ("according to") → según él ("according to him")
    • tercero ("third") → tercertercer lugar ("third place")
    • postrero ("final") → postrerpostrer día ("final day")

Informal speech

Various sorts of informal abbreviations might be classed as apocope:

  • English photographphoto (cf. French photo for photographie, which is copied in continental Germanic languages and Iberian-Italian foto for fotografía and fotografia)
  • English brassierebra
  • English animation → Japanese animēshon (アニメーション) → anime (アニメ)
  • English synchronizationsync (also used for synchronous in synchronous [sideband] detector, detection), synch, syncro, or synchro
  • English AlexanderAlex, Alec and so on with other hypocorisms
  • English clitorisclit[4]:109
  • French sympathiquesympa, meaning "nice"
  • French réactionnaireréac, meaning "reactionary"
  • Spanish televisióntele, meaning "television" (cf. French télé for télévision and British English telly for television)
  • Portuguese motocicletamoto, meaning "motorcycle"
  • Israeli Hebrew להתראות lehitraʾotlehit, meaning "see you, goodbye"[4]:155

For a list of similar apocopations in the English language, see List of English apocopations.

Diminutives in Australian English lists many apocopations.

The process is also linguistically subsumed under one called clipping, or truncation.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Apocope". Oxford Dictionaries UK Dictionary. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 2016-01-21.
  2. ^ "Apocope". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Retrieved 2016-01-21.
  3. ^ Campbell, Lyle (2007). Glossary of Historical Linguistics. Edinburgh University Press. p. 13. ISBN 978-0-7486-3019-6.
  4. ^ a b Zuckermann, Ghil'ad (2003), Language Contact and Lexical Enrichment in Israeli Hebrew. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 9781403917232 / ISBN 9781403938695 [1]
  • Crowley, Terry. (1997) An Introduction to Historical Linguistics. 3rd edition. Oxford University Press.

External links


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