wanweipedia

Aromanian language

Aromanian
rrãmãneshti, armãneashti, armãneashce
Native toGreece, Albania, North Macedonia, Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia
RegionBalkans
EthnicityAromanians
Native speakers
estimated 250,000 (1997[needs update])[1]
Early form
Latin (Aromanian alphabet)
Official status
Recognised minority
language in
Language codes
ISO 639-2rup
ISO 639-3rup
Glottologarom1237
ELPAromanian
Linguasphere51-AAD-ba
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.
Dialects of Aromanian

The Aromanian language (rrãmãneshti, armãneashti, or armãneshce), also known as Macedo-Romanian or Vlach, is an Eastern Romance language, similar to Megleno-Romanian, Istro-Romanian and Romanian,[3] spoken in Southeastern Europe. Its speakers are called Aromanians or Vlachs (a broader term and an exonym in widespread use to define Romance communities in the Balkans). Some scholars, mostly Romanian ones, consider Aromanian a dialect of Romanian.

Aromanian shares many features with modern Romanian, including similar morphology and syntax, as well as a large common vocabulary inherited from Latin. An important source of dissimilarity between Romanian and Aromanian is the adstratum languages (external influences); whereas Romanian has been influenced to a greater extent by the Slavic languages, Aromanian has been more influenced by Greek, with which it has been in close contact throughout its history.

Geographic distribution

The preponderant number of Aromanian speakers is found in Greece, with substantial numbers of speakers also found in Albania, Bulgaria, Serbia, and North Macedonia. The latter was the only country where Aromanians are officially recognized as a national minority, until October 2017 when Albania also officially recognized them.

Large Aromanian-speaking communities are also found in Romania, where some Aromanians migrated from Greece, Albania, Bulgaria and Serbia, mainly after 1925. Aromanians may have settled in Turkey due to the influence of the Ottoman Empire in the Balkans. Today, there are a few Aromanians living in Turkey.[citation needed]

Official status

Aromanian has a degree of official recognition in North Macedonia, where it is taught as a subject in some primary schools. In North Macedonia, Aromanian speakers also have the right to use the language in court proceedings. Since 2006, Aromanian has had the status of a second official municipal language in the city of Kruševo,[4] the only place in the world where Aromanian has any kind of official status apart from statal recognition.

Apart from North Macedonia, the Aromanians are also recognized in Albania.[5]

History

Dictionary of four Balkan languages (Roman (Greek), Aromanian, Bulgarian and Albanian) by Daniel Moscopolites, an Aromanian from Moscopole, written c. 1770 and published c. 1794; republished in 1802 in Greek.[6][7][8][9][10]

Aromanian is similar to Romanian; its greatest difference lies in vocabulary. There are far fewer Slavic words (mostly Bulgarian, Macedonian, and Serbian) in Aromanian than in Romanian, and many more Greek words – a reflection of the close contact of Aromanian with Greek through much of its history. Loanwords of Greek origin were already present in Vulgar Latin, before the Roman Empire expanded into the Balkan region. Although there are fewer Slavic words in Aromanian, Aromanians are still surrounded by Slavic speakers in Bulgaria, North Macedonia, and Serbia, and Slavic loanwords are increasing.

It is generally considered that sometime between 800 and 1,200 years ago, Vulgar Latin spoken in the Balkan provinces of the Roman Empire, which is also known as Proto-Eastern Romance, broke up into four languages: Romanian, Aromanian, Megleno-Romanian and Istro-Romanian. A possibile origin for Aromanian is that in the same way standard Romanian is believed to be descended from the Latin spoken by the Getae (Dacians [Daco-Thracians] and Roman settlers in what is now Romania), Aromanian descended from the Latin spoken by Thracian and Illyrian peoples living in the southern Balkans (Epirus, Macedonia and Thrace).

Greek influences are much stronger in Aromanian than in other Eastern Romance languages, especially because Aromanian has used Greek words to coin new words (neologisms), while Romanian has based most of its neologisms on French.

With the arrival of the Turks in the Balkans, Aromanian also received some Turkish words. Still, the lexical composition remains mainly Romance.

Dialects

Aromanian is generally described as having three main dialects: Fãrshãrot, Gramustean and Pindean.

It has also several regional variants, named after places that were home to significant populations of Aromanians (Vlachs); nowadays located in Albania, North Macedonia and Greece. Examples are the Moscopole variant (from the Metropolis of Moscopole, also known as the "Aromanian Jerusalem"); the Muzachiar variant from Muzachia in central Albania; the variant of Bitola; Pilister, Malovište (Aromanian: Mulovishti), Gopeš (Aromanian: Gopish), Upper Beala; Gorna Belica (Aromanian: Beala di Suprã) near Struga, Krusevo (Aromanian: Crushuva), and the variant east of the Vardar river in North Macedonia.

An Aromanian dictionary currently under development can be found on wiktionary.

Phonology

Aromanian exhibits several differences from standard Romanian in its phonology, some of which are probably due to influence from Greek or Albanian. It has spirants that do not exist in Romanian, such as /θ, ð, x, ɣ/. Other differences are the sounds /dz/ and /ts/, which correspond to Romanian /z/ and /tʃ/, and the sounds: /ʎ/, final /w/, and /ɲ/, which exist only in local dialects in Romanian. Aromanian is usually written with a version of the Latin script with an orthography that resembles both that of Albanian (in the use of digraphs such as dh, sh, and th) and Italian (in its use of c and g), along with the letter ã, used for the sounds represented in Romanian by ă and â/î. It can also be written with a modified Romanian alphabet that includes two additional letters, ń and ľ, and rarely with a version of the Greek script.

Consonants

Labial Dental/
Alveolar
Post-
alveolar
Palatal Velar Glottal
Stop voiceless p t c k
voiced b d ɟ ɡ
Affricate voiceless t͡s t͡ʃ
voiced d͡z d͡ʒ
Fricative plain voiceless f θ [ç] x (h)
voiced v ð [ʝ] ɣ
sibilant voiceless s ʃ
voiced z ʒ
Nasal m n ɲ
Trill r
Approximant lateral l ʎ
central j w
  • Central approximant consonants only occur as a result of a word-initial or intervocalic [i] and [u] when preceding another vowel.
  • /x/, /ɣ/ can have allophones as [ç], [ʝ] when preceding front vowels.
  • /x/, /h/ are in free variation among different dialects.[11][12]

Vowels

Front Central Back
Close i ɨ u
Mid e ə o
Open a
  • Two vowel sounds /ɨ, ə/ are both represented by one grapheme; ã.

Orthography

The Aromanian alphabet consists of 27 letters and 9 digraphs.[13][14][15]

Letter Name[16] Pronunciation (IPA) Notes
A, a a /a/
Ã, ã ã /ə/, /ɨ/ For /ɨ/, "â" may be used
B, b /b/
C, c /k/, //, /x/ /k/ when followed by "a", "o", "u" or a consonant; (/x/ in some dialects), /tʃ/ when followed by "e" or "i"
D, d /d/
Dh, dh dhã /ð/ Used only for notation in particular accents where this phoneme is present, otherwise "d" is used
Dz, dz dzã /dz/
E, e e /ɛ/
F, f /f/
G, g /ɡ/, //, /ɣ/ /ɡ/ before "a", "o", "u" or a consonant (/ɣ/ in some dialects), /dʒ/ before "e" and "i"
H, h /h/
I, i i /i/
J, j /ʒ/
K, k ca /c/ before "e" or "i" only
L, l /l/
Lj, lj lj /ʎ/ Found in Macedonian Latin alphabet
M, m /m/
N, n /n/
Nj, nj nj /ɲ/ Found in Macedonian Latin alphabet
O, o o /o/
P, p /p/
Q, q kiu /k/ Used only in foreign words – "c" is normally used instead
R, r /r/
Rr, rr rrã ? Used only for notation in particular accents where this phoneme is present, otherwise "r" is used
S, s /s/
Sh, sh shã /ʃ/
T, t /t/
Th, th thã /θ/ Used only for notation in particular accents where this phoneme is present, otherwise "t" is used
Ts, ts tsã /ts/
U, u u /u/
V, v /v/
W, w dublã vã /w/ Used only in foreign words
X, x csã/gzã /ks/, /ɡz/ Same pronunciation as found in English
Y, y i greacã /j/, /ɣ/ /j/ before "e" and "i", /ɣ/ elsewhere
Z, z /z/

In addition, the digraph "gj" (/ɟ/ before "e" and "i") is used as well.

Grammar

Aromanian grammar book, with the title in Greek (stated as "Roman") and German, 1813

The grammar and morphology are very similar to those of other Romance languages:

The Aromanian language has some exceptions from the Romance languages, some of which are shared with Romanian: the definite article is a clitic particle appended at the end of the word, both the definite and indefinite articles can be inflected, and nouns are classified in three genders, with neuter in addition to masculine and feminine.

Verbs

Aromanian grammar has features that distinguish it from Romanian, an important one being the complete disappearance of verb infinitives, a feature of the Balkan sprachbund. As such, the tenses and moods that, in Romanian, use the infinitive (like the future simple tense and the conditional mood) are formed in other ways in Aromanian. For the same reason, verb entries in dictionaries are given in their indicative mood, present tense, first-person-singular form.

Aromanian verbs are classified in four conjugations. The table below gives some examples and indicates the conjugation of the corresponding verbs in Romanian.[17]

Conjugation Aromanian
(ind. pres. 1st sg.)
Romanian
(ind. pres. 1st sg.)
Romanian
(infinitive)
English
I cãntu
dau
lucredzu
cânt
dau
lucrez
a cânta I
a da I
a lucra I
sing
give
work
II ved
shed
rrãmãn
văd
șed
rămân
a vedea II
a ședea II
a rămâne III (or a rămânea II)
see
sit
stay
III duc
cunoscu
ardu
duc
cunosc
ard
a duce III
a cunoaște III
a arde III
carry, lead
know
burn
IV mor
fug
ndultsescu
mor
fug
îndulcesc
a muri IV
a fugi IV
a îndulci IV
die
run away, flee
sweeten

Future tense

The future tense is formed using an auxiliary invariable particle "u" or "va" and the subjunctive mood.

Aromanian
fãrshãrot/ grãmushtean
Romanian
(archaic)
Romanian
(colloquial)
Romanian
(modern)
English
u s'cãntu/ va s'cãntu va să cânt o să cânt voi cânta I will sing
u s'cãnts/ va s'cãnts va să cânți o să cânți vei cânta you (sg.) will sing
u s'cãntã/ va s'cãntã va să cânte o să cânte va cânta (s)he will sing
u s'cãntãm/ va s'cãntãm va să cântăm o să cântăm vom cânta we will sing
u s'cãntatsi/ va s'cãntats va să cântați o să cântați veți cânta you (pl.) will sing
u s'cãntã/ va s'cãntã va să cânte o să cânte vor cânta they will sing

Pluperfect

Whereas in Romanian the pluperfect (past perfect) is formed synthetically (as in literary Portuguese), Aromanian uses a periphrastic construction with the auxiliary verb am (have) as the imperfect (aviam) and the past participle, as in Spanish and French, except that French replaces avoir (have) with être (be) for some intransitive verbs. Aromanian shares this feature with Meglenian as well as other languages in the Balkan language area.

Only the auxiliary verb inflects according to number and person (aviam, aviai, avia, aviamu, aviatu, avia), whereas the past participle does not change.[18]

Aromanian
fãrshãrot/ grãmushtean
Meglenian Romanian English
avia mãcatã/ avea mãcatã vea mancat mâncase (he/she) had eaten
avia durnjitã/ avea durnjitã vea durmit dormise (he/she) had slept

Gerund

The Aromanian gerund is applied to some verbs, but not all. These verbs are:

  • 1st conjugation: acatsã (acãtsãnd), portu, lucreadzã/lucreashce, adiljã/adiljeashce.
  • 2nd conjugation: armãnã, cade, poate, tatse, veade.
  • 3rd conjugation: arupã, dipune, dutse, dzãse, fatsi/featse, tradzi/tradze, scrie.
  • 4th conjugation: apire, doarme, hivrie, aure, pate, avde.

Current situation

Media

The company Macedonian Radio Television (Macedonian: Македонска радиотелевизија, transliteration: Makedonska radiotelevizija) (MRT) produces radio and television broadcasts in Aromanian.

Films produced in the Aromanian language include Toma Enache's I'm Not Famous but I'm Aromanian (2013)[19] and Pero Tsatsa's Carvanea Armaneasca (2015).[20]

Situation in Greece

Romanian schools for Aromanians and Megleno-Romanians in the Ottoman Empire (1886)
Use of the Aromanian language in the Florina Prefecture, Greece

Even before the incorporation of various Aromanian-speaking territories into the Greek state (1832, 1912), the language was subordinated to Greek, traditionally the language of education and religion in Constantinople and other prosperous urban cities. The historical studies cited below (mostly Capidan) show that especially after the fall of Moscopole (1788) the process of Hellenisation via education and religion gained a strong impetus mostly among people doing business in the cities.

The Romanian state began opening schools for the Romanian-influenced Vlachs in the 1860s, but this initiative was regarded with suspicion by the Greeks, who thought that Romania was trying to assimilate them. 19th-century travellers in the Balkans such as W. M. Leake and Henry Fanshawe Tozer noted that Vlachs in the Pindus and Macedonia were bilingual, reserving the Latin dialect for inside the home.[21]

By 1948, the new Soviet-imposed communist regime of Romania had closed all Romanian-run schools outside Romania and, since the closure, there has been no formal education in Aromanian and speakers have been encouraged to learn and use the Greek language. This has been a process encouraged by the community itself and is not an explicit State policy. The decline and isolation of the Romanian orientated groups was not helped by the fact that they openly collaborated with the Axis powers of Italy and Germany during the occupation of Greece in WWII. Notably, the vast majority of Vlachs fought in the Greek resistance and a number of their villages were destroyed by the Germans.

The issue of Aromanian-language education is a sensitive one, partly because of opposition within the Greek Vlachs community to actions leading to the introduction of the language into the education system, viewing it as an artificial distinction between them and other Greeks.[citation needed] For example, the former education minister, George Papandreou, received a negative response from Greek-Aromanian mayors and associations to his proposal for a trial Aromanian language education programme. The Panhellenic Federation of Cultural Associations of Vlachs expressed strong opposition to EU's recommendation in 1997 that the tuition of Aromanian be supported so as to avoid its extinction.[22] On a visit to Metsovo, Epirus in 1998, Greek President Konstantinos Stephanopoulos called on Vlachs to speak and teach their language, but its decline continues.[citation needed]

A recent example of the sensitivity of the issue was the 2001 conviction (later overturned in the Appeals Court) to 15 months in jail of Sotiris Bletsas,[23][24] a Greek Aromanian who was found guilty of "dissemination of false information" after he distributed informative material on minority languages in Europe (which included information on minority languages of Greece), produced by the European Bureau for Lesser Used Languages and financed by the European Commission. His conviction met with broad condemnation in Greece, where at least editorial compared the situation to the suppression of Kurdish and other minority languages in Turkey and noted the irony that some prosecutors in fact came from non-Hellenophone families that had once spoken Aromanian or Turkish.[25] Bletsas was eventually acquitted.[26]

Language sample

Fãrshãrot

Tatã a nostu tsi eshti tu tser,
si ayisiascã numa a Ta,
s’yinã amirãria a Ta,
si facã vrearea a Ta,
cum tu tser, ashe sh'pisti loc.
Pãna a nostã, atsa di cathi dzuã, dãniu sh’azã,
sh‘ yartãni amartiili a nosti,
ashe cum li yãrtem sh’noi a amãrtor a noci,
sh’nu ni du la pirazmo,
ma viagljãni di atsel rãu.
Cã a Ta esti amirãria sh'puteria,
a Tatãlui shi Hiljalui shi a Ayiului Spirit,
tora, totãna sh’tu eta a etillor.
Amin.

Grãmushtean

Tatã a nostu, tsi eshtsã tu tseru,
s'ayiseascã numa a Ta,
s'yinã amirãriljea a Ta,
si facã vrearea a Ta,
cumu tu tseru, ashi sh'pisti locu.
Pãnea a nostã atsea di cathi dzuã dãnãu sh'adzã
sh'yiartãnã amãrtiile a noasti
ashi cum ilj yirtãmu sh'noi a amãrtoshloru a noshtsa.
Sh'nu nã du tu pirazmo,
Sh'aveagljinã di atsel arãulu.
Cã a Ta easti Amirãrijia sh'putearea
a Tatãlui shi Hillui sh a Ayiului Duhu,
tora, totãna sh tu eta a etilor.
Amen.

(The Lord's Prayersource)

Tuti iatsãli umineshtsã s'fac liberi shi egali la nãmuzea shi ndrepturli. Eali suntu hãrziti cu fichiri shi sinidisi shi lipseashti un cu alantu sh si poartã tu duhlu a frãtsãljiljei.
(Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights), translated by Dina Cuvata

Comparison with Romanian

The following text is given for comparison in Aromanian and in Romanian, with an English translation. The spelling of Aromanian is that decided at the Bitola Symposium of August 1997. The word choice in the Romanian version was such that it matches the Aromanian text, although in modern Romanian other words might have been more appropriate. The English translation is only provided as a guide to the meaning, with an attempt to keep the word order as close to the original as possible.

Aromanian Romanian English
Vocala easti unã son dit zburãrea a omlui, faptu cu tritsearea sonorã, libirã sh'fãrã cheadicã, a vimtului prit canalu sonor (adrat di coardili vocali shi ntreaga gurã) icã un semnu grafic cari aspuni un ahtari son. Vocala este un sunet din vorbirea omului, făcut cu trecerea sonoră, liberă și fără piedică, a aerului prin canalul sonor (compus din coardele vocale și întreaga gură) sau un semn grafic care reprezintă un atare sunet. The vowel is a sound in human speech, made by the sonorous, free and unhindered passing of the air through the sound channel (composed of the vocal cords and the whole mouth) or a graphic symbol corresponding to that sound.
Ashi bunãoarã, avem shasili vocali tsi s'fac cu vimtul tsi treatsi prit gurã, iu limba poati si s'aflã tu un loc icã altu shi budzãli pot si sta dishcljisi unã soe icã altã. Așa, avem șase vocale ce se fac cu aerul ce trece prin gură, unde limba poate să se afle într-un loc sau altul și buzele pot să stea deschise într-un soi sau altul. This way, we have six vowels that are produced by the air passing through the mouth, where the tongue can be in one place or another and the lips can be opened in one way or another.
Vocalili pot s'hibã pronuntsati singuri icã deadun cu semivocali i consoani. Vocalele pot să fie pronunțate singure sau împreună cu semivocale sau consoane. The vowels can be pronounced alone or together with semivowels or consonants.
 

Common words and phrases

English Aromanian
Aromanian (person) (m.) Rrãmãn/ armãn, (f.) rrãmãnã/ armãnã
Aromanian (language) Limba rrãmãniascã; rrãmãneshti/ armãneashti/ armãneashce
Good day! Bunã dzua!
What's your name? Cum ti chiamã? (informal)
How old are you? Di cãtsi anji esht?
How are you? Cumu hits? (formal) Cumu eshti?/ Cumu eshci? (informal)
What are you doing? Tsi fats?/ Tsi adari? (popular)
Goodbye! S'nã videmu cu ghine!/ Ghini s'ni videmu!/ Ghini s'ni vãdem!
Bye! S'nã avdzãmu ghiniatsa!/ Sã s'avdzãm buniatsa!
Please. Vã plãcãrsescu. (formal) Ti plãcãrsescu. (informal)
Sorry. S'mi hãrãdzesht.
Thank you. Haristo.
Yes. Ye./ E.
No. Nu.
I don't understand. Nu adukiescu/ Nu akicãsescu.
I don't know. Nu shtiu.
Where's the bathroom? Yu esti tualetu? / Yu easti toaletlu?/ Yu easte tualetu?
Do you speak English? Zburats / Grits - anglikiashti? / anglicheashce?
I am a student. Mini estu un student/ Mine escu un student.
I am a good person. Mini estu un om bun
You are beautiful. Eshti mushat(ã)/ Eshci mushat(ã)/ Hi mushat(ã).

See also

References

Citations

  1. ^ "Council of Europe Parliamentary Recommendation 1333 on the Aromanian culture and language (1997)". Archived from the original on 2020-07-26. Retrieved 2019-07-13.
  2. ^ Dindelegan, Gabriela Pană; Maiden, Martin, eds. (2013). The Grammar of Romanian. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199644926.
  3. ^ "Romanian Language". britannica.com. Archived from the original on 2008-07-26. Retrieved 2018-05-17.
  4. ^ Aromanians Archived March 1, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
  5. ^ Stan, Liviu G. (19 October 2017). "Moment istoric: Aromânii, recunoscuți prin lege ca minoritate națională în Albania". InfoPrut (in Romanian).
  6. ^ Niculescu, Alexandru (2002), "Multiculturalism, alteritate, istoricitate" [Multiculturalism, historicity and “the image of the other"], România literară (in Romanian) (32), pp. 22, 23
  7. ^ Angeliki Konstantakopoulou, Η ελληνική γλώσσα στα Βαλκάνια 1750–1850. Το τετράγλωσσο λεξικό του Δανιήλ Μοσχοπολίτη [The Greek language in the Balkans 1750–1850. The dictionary in four languages of Daniel Moschopolite]. Ioannina 1988, 11.
  8. ^ Peyfuss, Max Demeter: Die Druckerei von Moschopolis, 1731–1769. Buchdruck und Heiligenverehrung im Erzbistum Achrida. Wien – Köln 1989. (= Wiener Archiv f. Geschichte des Slawentums u. Osteuropas. 13), ISBN 3-205-98571-0.
  9. ^ Kahl, Thede (2007), "Wurde in Moschopolis auch Bulgarisch gesprochen?" [Was Bulgarian spoken in Moschopolis?], Probleme de Filologie Slavă (in German), Timişoara: Editura Universității de Vest, XV, pp. 484–494 – via 1453-763X
  10. ^ ""The Bulgarian National Awakening and its Spread into Macedonia", by Antonios-Aimilios Tachiaos, pp. 21–23, published by Thessaloniki's Society for Macedonian Studies, 1990". Archived from the original on 2008-12-02. Retrieved 2008-11-02.
  11. ^ Béis, Stamatis (2000). Le parler aroumain de Metsovo: Déscription d'une langue en voie de disparition [The Aromanian language of Metsovo: Description of an endangered language] (Doctoral thesis) (in French). Université Paris 5 René Descartes.
  12. ^ Caragiu Marioțeanu, Matilda (1997). Dicționar aromân (Macedo-vlah) [Aromanian Dictionary (Macedo-Vlach)]. Bucarest: Editura Enciclopedică. pp. xxviii–xxxvii.
  13. ^ Aromanian alphabet at Omniglot
  14. ^ Cunia, T. On the Standardisation of the Aromanian System of Writing Archived February 21, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  15. ^ Bana Armâneascâ (dead link)
  16. ^ Bana Armâneascâ (dead link)
  17. ^ Iancu Ianachieschi-Vlahu Gramatica armãneascã simplã shi practicã, Crushuva 1993, 1997; Μιχάλη Μπογιάτζη Βλαχική ήτοι μάκεδοβλαχική γραμματική Βιέννη, and Κατσάνης Ν., Κ. Ντίνας, 1990, Γραμματική της κοινής Κουτσοβλαχικής.
  18. ^ Iancu Ianachieschi-Vlahu Gramatica simplã shi practicã, Crushuva 1993, 1997.
  19. ^ "Primul film realizat în limba aromână este povestea romantică a lui Toni Caramuşat". Observator (in Romanian). Retrieved 2021-03-09.
  20. ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BbljWeiIkPc
  21. ^ Weigand, in his 1888 Die Sprache der Olympo-Wallachen, nebst einer Einleitung über Land und Leute remarks: "By inclination, the Livadhiotes are zealous advocates of Greek ideas and would much prefer to be unified with Greece" (p.15).
  22. ^ "ΠΟΠΣΒ – Διοικητικό Συμβούλιο" [POPSV – Board of Directors]. vlahos.xan.duth.gr (in Greek). 18 March 2004. Archived from the original on 12 August 2014.
  23. ^ "It's Not Greek Enough to Them". vlachophiles.net. 13 July 2001. Archived from the original on 2012-02-04. Retrieved 2007-01-17.
  24. ^ "15-month prison sentence handed down to Mr Sotiris Bletsas for distributing information material financed by the Commission". European Parliament. 8 January 2002. Retrieved 2020-11-12.
  25. ^ "Διασπορά αληθινών ειδήσεων" [Dissemination of real news]. iospress.gr (in Greek). February 10, 2001. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 9 February 2016.
  26. ^ Haggman, Johan (18 December 2001). "Minority Language Activist, Bletsas Found Not Guilty in Historic Court Decision". European Free Alliance – Rainbow. Archived from the original on 30 November 2007.

Bibliography

  • Bara, Mariana. Le lexique latin hérité en aroumain dans une perspective romane. Munich: Lincom Europa, 2004, 231 p.; ISBN 3-89586-980-5.
  • Bara, Mariana. Limba armănească: Vocabular şi stil. Bucharest: Editura Cartea Universitară, 2007, ISBN 978-973-731-551-9.
  • Berciu-Drăghicescu, Adina; Petre, Maria. Şcoli şi Biserici româneşti din Peninsula Balcanică: Documente (1864–1948). Bucharest: Editura Universităţii, 2004.
  • Capidan, Theodor. Aromânii, dialectul Aromân. Academia Română, Studii şi Cercetări, XX 1932.
  • Caragiu Marioțeanu, Matilda. Dicționar aromân (Macedo-vlah). Bucarest: Editura Enciclopedică, 1997.
  • Friedman, Victor A. “The Vlah Minority in Macedonia: Language, Identity, Dialectology, and Standardization”, in Selected Papers in Slavic, Balkan, and Balkan Studies, eds. Juhani Nuoluoto, Martti Leiwo, & Jussi Halla-aho. Slavica Helsingiensa 21. University of Helsinki, 2001. online
  • Gołąb, Zbigniew. The Arumanian Dialect of Kruševo, SR Macedonia. Skopje: MANU, 1984.
  • Kahl, Thede. "Aromanians in Greece: Minority or Vlach-speaking Greeks?". Society Farsarotul. Archived from the original on 2007-08-08.
  • Kahl, Thede. “Sprache und Intention der ersten aromunischen Textdokumente, 1731–1809”, in Festschrift für Gerhard Birkfellner zum 65. Geburtstag: Studia Philologica Slavica I/I, ed. Bernhard Symanzik. Münstersche Texte zur Slavistik, 2006, p. 245–266.
  • Marangozis, John. An Introduction to Vlach Grammar. Munich: Lincom Europa, 2010.
  • Markoviḱ, Marjan. Aromanskiot i makedonskiot govor od ohridsko-struškiot region: vo balkanski kontekst [Aromanian and Macedonian dialects of the Ohrid-Struga region: in Balkan context]. Skopje: Makedonska akademija na naukite i umetnostite, 2007.
  • Pascu, Giorge. Dictionnaire étymologique macédoroumain, 2 vols. Iaşi: Cultura Naţionalâ, 1918.
  • Rosetti, Alexandru. Istoria limbii române, 2 vols. Bucharest, 1965–1969.
  • "The Little Prince" by Antoine de Saint-Exupéry in Aromanian. Njiclu amirārush. Translated by Maria Bara and Thede Kahl, ISBN 978-3-937467-37-5.
  • Vrabie, Emil. An English-Aromanian (Macedo-Romanian) Dictionary. University, Miss.; Stratford, CT: Romance monographs, 2000.
  • Weigand, Gustav. Die Sprache der Olympo-Wallachen, nebst einer Einleitung über Land und Leute. Leipzig: Johann Ambrosius Barth, 1888.

External links


This page was last updated at 2021-05-27 14:07, update this pageView original page

All information on this site, including but not limited to text, pictures, etc., are reproduced on Wikipedia (wikipedia.org), following the . Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License


Top

If the math, chemistry, physics and other formulas on this page are not displayed correctly, please useFirefox or Safari