wanweipedia

Arutani–Sape languages

Arutane–Sape
Kalianan
Geographic
distribution
Brazil–Venezuela border
Linguistic classificationProposed language family
Subdivisions
GlottologNone
Arutani-Sape.png
Documented location of Arutani–Sapé languages, the two most southern spots are Arutani villages, the northern one is Sapé location.

The Arutani–Sape, also known as Awake–Kaliana or Kalianan, are a proposed language family[1] that includes two of the most poorly documented languages in South America, both of which are nearly extinct. They are at best only distantly related, but Kaufman (1990) finds the connection convincing. However, Migliazza & Campbell (1988) maintain that there is no evidence for linking them.[2] The two languages are,

Kaufman (2007: 68) also adds Awaké to the family, a connection which had been proposed by Greenberg (1987).[3]

  • Arutani[4] (also known as Aoaqui, Auake, Auaque, Awake, Oewaku, Orotani, Uruak, Urutani)
  • Sape[5] (also known as Caliana, Chirichano, Kaliana, Kariana)

Kaufman (1990) states that a further connection with Maku of Roraima is "promising". (See Macro-Puinavean languages.)

Vocabulary

Migliazza (1978)

Migliazza (1978) gives the following Swadesh list table for Uruak, Sape, and Maku:[6]

no. gloss Uruak Sape Maku
1 I maykate/ma-/tsa- teːne
2 thou kaykate/ka- kapɨ eːne
3 we materya mɨyono teːkene
4 this kiʔa tɨsa ki
5 that ayta tɨsami kwa
6 who maʔayokə pante toči
7 what maya pemente čini
8 not ãʔãy atsam/ɨka laʔa
9 all kitate kawen peʔtaka
10 many kaʔtyaw kawen eːsuʔu
11 one kyoana/kyano koka nokuðamu
12 two komana kɨrya baʔta
13 big kwaya konən bote
14 long šawi karya kaxi
15 small sikipi to kudi
16 woman kari kapay neːlabə
17 man maʔkya kwa laːsəba
18 person kina kamon dzoʔkude
19 fish kotom meʔkəsa
20 bird yopsa čam iːduba
21 dog toari to dzoʔwi
22 louse koʔka čo iːne
23 tree šapi tapa oːba
24 seed kuka ku küːte
25 leaf aña muyra deːmu
26 root aša tu leːmekeči
27 bark kõhã kui/kuy čiːmu
28 skin kõhã kuy čːmu
29 flesh mitsa mɨan muči
30 blood kaña tsom leːme
31 bone mo wina aːmu
32 grease wiñaya kun eːkünü
33 egg kokama kupi küʔte
34 horn širipya wina eːkatso
35 tail mašya upi neːto
36 feather oša ičam upa kuːte
37 hair oša pa kuːte
38 head kwate moynaku keːte
39 ear watika awi čikaʔte
40 eye kohap amku sukute
41 nose wa/kwa ayku pi
42 mouth maʔa itu wɨːči
43 tooth ka pɨka wuːmu
44 tongue takõhã matu duːte
45 claw šopti ičam aypa sukuči
46 foot šate ikora basuku
47 knee korokopsa mɨney basəkate
48 hand maša/mama piča apa suku
49 belly tsya tukuy sɨkɨči
50 neck šoropaña pokoy lipite
51 breasts kotsa wi čüčü
52 heart kirakote pokowi səbuku
53 liver ika mapi iːsa
54 drink oyta/ayta pe mi
55 eat pa/kapa ko/ku ki
56 bite psa/pasa pu
57 see kina mow ku
58 hear ko man ne
59 know kina mow nimi
60 sleep anə paku/ku we
61 die atay siya kinə
62 kill rio (beat) kaya šipinu
63 swim ša lawa
64 fly šan karu
65 walk ma paru te
66 come mana ma na
67 lie down kio/taa pɨre ða
68 sit naka maye sɨkɨ
69 stand kara pa kəy
70 give matso emeyma se
71 say mataka/tsama mo šini/šibu
72 sun uši ñam keʔle
73 moon aʔtap tapo ya
74 star okihat ñayino ðaoku
75 water akohã nam naʔme
76 rain akohã nam posoe naʔme
77 stone muka takuypa liːne
78 sand iñãkosa inoku lunükü
79 earth iñã inokučin boʔte
80 cloud karapaso usəyna sapənawi
81 smoke šana yui čipe
82 fire ani šoko nühẽ
83 ash šoni tukutu meːte
84 burn asipa šoko we/niʔ
85 path aʔma mu iːkilu
86 mountain piʔa takwa wiːke
87 red araʔwi ayña leme
88 green atehe šanurua nüčü
89 yellow pišio pusia kaləmadə
90 white araway sae kaləmate
91 black sipan/soson tsaiña kabi/weʔči
92 night tose useyna iːkisu
93 hot kuri ɨrɨa we
94 cold roma/kima unkoya antsu/mihu
95 full topi ukwa suku
96 new koma yenkoña asi
97 good taseri amayñakoa kuduma/eːdi
98 round siari način kuməsa
99 dry šona patokwa kaːte
100 name rawi marua entse

Loukotka (1968)

Loukotka (1968) lists the following basic vocabulary items for Kaliána.[7]

gloss Kaliána
one koki
two ikiria
three komoña
head koyanukú
eye kam-kukú
tooth kaká
man mínõ
water inám
fire txokó
sun yám
manioc téntu
jaguar pudzyín
house enaĩ

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Weinstein, Jay A. (2005-02-28). Social and Cultural Change: Social Science for a Dynamic World. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 94. ISBN 0-7425-2573-2.
  2. ^ Ernest Migliazza & Lyle Campbell, 1988. Panorama general de las lenguas indígenas en América
  3. ^ Kaufman, Terrence. 2007. South America. In: R. E. Asher and Christopher Moseley (eds.), Atlas of the World’s Languages (2nd edition), 59–94. London: Routledge.
  4. ^ Moseley, Christopher (2007-04-23). Encyclopedia of the world's endangered languages. Routledge. p. 177. ISBN 978-0-7007-1197-0.
  5. ^ Moseley, Christopher (2007-04-23). Encyclopedia of the world's endangered languages. Routledge. p. 164. ISBN 978-0-7007-1197-0.
  6. ^ Migliazza, Ernesto C. 1978. Maku, Sape and Uruak Languages: Current Status and Basic Lexicon. Anthropological Linguistics 20: 133-140.
  7. ^ Loukotka, Čestmír (1968). Classification of South American Indian languages. Los Angeles: UCLA Latin American Center.

References

  • Harald Hammarström, 2010, 'The status of the least documented language families in the world'. In Language Documentation & Conservation, v 4, p 183 [1]

This page was last updated at 2020-12-19 21:11, update this pageView original page

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