Axininca language

Native toPeru
Native speakers
4,000 (2000)[1]
  • Southern
    • Campa (Pre-Andine)
      • Axininca
Language codes
ISO 639-3cpc
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Axininca (also Axininca Campa,[3] Ajyíninka Apurucayali, Campa, Ashaninca, Ashéninca Apurucayali, Apurucayali Campa, Ajyéninka) is an Arawakan language spoken along the Apurucayali tributary of the Pachitea River in Peru.

It has figured prominently in formal linguistic theory involving phonology (especially prosody including its stress) and morphology (Black 1991; Casali 1996, 2011; De Lacy 2002, 2006; De Lacy & Kingston 2013; Itô 1986, 1989; Levin 1985; Lombardi 2002; McCarthy & Prince 1993; Morley 2015; Rosenthall & Horn 1997; Spring 1990a, 1990b, 1990c, 1992; Yip 1983).

Demographics and language policy

There is 20% literacy in Ajyíninka Apurucayali and 30% literacy in Spanish, there is much bilingualism.

It is an official language.



Payne (1981) describes the following Axininca consonant inventory:

Bilabial Apical Postalveolar
Velar Glottal Unspecified
Plosives aspirated
unaspirated p t k
Affricates aspirated tsʰ tʃʰ
unaspirated ts
Fricatives s ç h
Nasals m n ɲ N
Liquids r
Glides β j ɰ


  1. ^ Axininca at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Ajyininka Apurucayali". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. ^ The name Campa is offensive.


  • Black, H Andrew. (1991). The phonology of the velar glide in Axininca Campa. Phonology, 8, 183–217.
  • Casali, Roderic F. (1996). Resolving hiatus. Doctoral dissertation, University of California Los Angeles.
  • Casali, Roderic F. (2011). Hiatus resolution. In Marc Van Oostendorp, Colin J. Ewen, Elizabeth V. Hume, and Keren Rice (Eds.), The Blackwell companion to phonology. Malden, MA: Blackwell.
  • De Lacy, Paul. (2002). The formal expression of markedness. Doctoral dissertation, University of Massachusetts Amherst.
  • De Lacy, Paul. (2006). Markedness: Reduction and preservation in phonology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • De Lacy, Paul and John Kingston. (2013). Synchronic explanation. Natural Language & Linguistic Theory, 31, 287–355.
  • Itô, Junko. (1986). Syllable theory in prosodic phonology. Doctoral dissertation, University of Massachusetts Amherst.
  • Itô, Junko. (1989). A prosodic theory of epenthesis. Natural Language & Linguistic Theory, 7, 217–259.
  • Levin, Juliette. (1985). A metrical theory of syllabicity. Doctoral dissertation, MIT.
  • Lombardi, Linda. (2002). Coronal epenthesis and markedness. Phonology, 19, 219–251.
  • McCarthy, John J and Alan Prince. (1993). Prosodic morphology: Constraint interaction and satisfaction. (Online: roa.rutgers.edu/view.php3?roa=482).
  • Morley, Rebecca L. (2015). Deletion or epenthesis?: On the falsifiability of phonological universals. Lingua, 154, 1–26.
  • Payne, David. (1981). The phonology and morphology of Axininca Campa. Arlington, TX: Summer Institute of Linguistics. (Online: www.sil.org/acpub/repository/16298.pdf).
  • Payne, David; Payne, Judith; & Santos, Jorge. (1982). Morfologia, fonologia, y fonetica del Asheninca del Apurucayali (Campa–Arawak Preandino). Yarinacoha, Peru: Ministry of Education, Summer Institute of Linguistics.
  • Rosenthall, Samuel and Laurence Horn. (1997). Vowel/glide alternation in a theory of constraint interaction. Routledge.
  • Spring, Cari. (1990a). How many feet per language? In Aaron Halpern (Ed), WCCFL 9: The proceedings of the ninth West Coast Conference on Formal Linguistics. Stanford: CSLI Publications.
  • Spring, Cari. (1990b). Implications of Axininca Campa for prosodic morphology and reduplication. Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona.
  • Spring, Cari. (1990c). Unordered morphology: the problem of Axininca reduplication. Proceedings of the sixteenth annual meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society, pp. 137–157. Berkeley, CA: University of California.
  • Spring, Cari. (1992). The velar glide in Axininca. Phonology, 9, 329–352.
  • Yip, Moira. (1983). Some problems of syllable structure in Axininca Campa. In P. Sells and C. Jones (Eds.), Proceedings of NELS 13, pp. 243–251. Amherst, MA: GLSA.

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