Beothuk language

Native toCanada
EthnicityBeothuk people
Extinct1829, with the death of Shanawdithit (Mary March)
unclassified (Algonquian?)
Language codes
ISO 639-3bue
Beothuk language map.png
Pre-contact distribution of Beothuk language

The Beothuk language (/bˈɒtək/ or /ˈb.əθʊk/), also called Beothukan, was spoken by the indigenous Beothuk people of Newfoundland. The Beothuk have been extinct since 1829, and there are few written accounts of their language. Hence, little is known about it, with practically no structural data existing for Beothuk.


Claims of links with the neighbouring Algonquian language family date back at least to Robert Gordon Latham in 1862. From 1968 onwards, John Hewson has put forth evidence of sound correspondences and shared morphology with Proto-Algonquian and other better-documented Algonquian languages. If this is valid, Beothuk would be an extremely divergent member of the family.[1]

Other researchers claimed that proposed similarities are more likely the result of borrowing than cognates.[2] The limited and poor nature of the documentation means there is not enough evidence to draw strong conclusions.[3] Owing to this overall lack of meaningful evidence, Ives Goddard and Lyle Campbell claim that any connections between Beothuk and Algonquian are unknown and likely unknowable.[4]

Recorded song

In 1910, American anthropologist Frank Speck recorded a 74-year-old native woman named Santu Toney singing a song purported to be in the language. The recording resurfaced at the very end of the 20th century. Some sources give the year 1929, but the 1910 date is confirmed in Speck's book Beothuk and Micmac (New York 1922, p. 67). The words are hard to hear and not understood. Santu said she had been taught the song by her father, which may be evidence that one person with a Beothuk connection was alive after the death of Shanawdithit in 1829 since Santu Toney was born about 1835). Contemporary researchers have tried to make a transcription of the song and to clean up the recording with modern methods. Native groups have learned the song.[5]

James P. Howley, Director of the Geological Survey of Newfoundland, who for more than forty years was interested in the history of the Beothuk, doubted (in 1914) the truthfulness of Santu Toney.[6]


Beothuk is known only from several wordlists from the 18th and the 19th centuries by George C. Pulling (1792),[7] Rev. John Clinch, Rev. John Leigh, and Hercules Robinson (1834).[8] They contain more than 400 words that had been collected from speakers such as Oubee, Demasduwit, and Shanawdithit, but there were no examples of connected speech. Wordlists had also been collected by W. E. Cormack (who worked with Shanawdithit), Richard King (whose wordlist had been passed onto Robert Gordon Latham[9]), and James P. Howley (1915)[10] (who worked with Jure, a widow from the islands of the Bay of Exploits).[11]

The lack of any systematic or consistent representation of the vocabulary in the wordlists makes it daunting to establish the sound system of Beothuk, and words that are listed separately on the lists may be the same word transcribed in different ways. Moreover, the lists are known to have many mistakes. That, along with the lack of connected speech leaves little upon which to build any reconstruction of Beothuk.

Combined lists

The wordlists have been transcribed and analyzed in Hewson (1978). The combined Beothuk wordlists below have been reproduced from Hewson (1978: 149-167).[11]

Number Gloss Beothuk (all lists combined) Latham / King (1850) Cormack (m.s.) Clinch (m.s.) Leigh (m.s.) Robinson (1834) Howley (1915)
1 afraid cockaboset don’t be afraid cockaboset don’t be afraid
2 alive mamisut; mamseet mamseet mamisut
3 angry assoyt assoyt
4 ankle geijebursut geijebursut
5 arm watheek; shedbasing wathik upper arm; watheekee; memayet arms watheekee watheek; shedbasing wathik upper arm memayet arms
6 arrow ashooging; dogemat ashooging ashooging dogemat
7 asleep, dead widdun widdun
8 awake amet amet
9 baby messiligethook messiligethook
10 back posson; possont posson possont
11 bad mudty; mudeet bad man; maudee, muddy, madich maudee, muddy, madich mudty; mudeet bad man
12 bakeapples abidemashick abidemashick
13 bat sosheet sosheet
14 bead baasick (cf. necklace) baasick (cf. necklace)
15 bear washawet; gwashuwet washawet gwashuwet
16 beast obditch (cf. cat, seal) obditch (cf. cat, seal)
17 beat pugathuse beating; bukashowite pugathuse beating bukashowite
18 beaver maumshet; mamshet maumshet mamshet
19 (go to) bed boochauwhit (cf. sleep, lie down) boochauwhit (cf. sleep, lie down)
20 belly haddabatheek (cf. body) haddabatheek (cf. body)
21 berries manus; bibidigemidic manus bibidigemidic
22 birch paushee birch rind or paper; by-yeech birch tree; boyish birch rind by-yeech birch tree paushee birch rind or paper boyish birch rind
23 bird deynyad, deynyadrook birds deynyad, deynyadrook birds
24 bird (large) popadish (cf. pigeon) popadish (cf. pigeon)
25 bird (little) obseet; ounermish obseet ounermish
26 birds’ excrement sugamith sugamith
27 bite bashoodite bashoodite
28 black maudzyke; mandzey mandzey maudzyke
29 blackbird woodch woodch
30 blankets manaboret; manavorit manaboret manavorit
31 blind kaesing-guinyeet kaesing-guinyeet
32 blood ashaboouth; arrowbauth; izzobauth or iggobauth ashaboouth arrowbauth izzobauth or iggobauth
33 blow deschudodoick deschudodoick
34 blow the nose shegame; shegamit shegame shegamit
35 blue eeshang-eyghth eeshang-eyghth
36 blunt boas seek; mocothutt blunt-nosed fish boas seek; mocothutt blunt-nosed fish
37 boat adolthtek (cf. canoe, ship); adothe boat or vessel adolthtek (cf. canoe, ship) adothe boat or vessel
38 boat (large) dhoorado dhoorado
39 body haddabothy; haddabothic haddabothy haddabothic
40 boil (as water) oadjameet oadjameet
41 boil (transitive) moadamutt moadamutt
42 bone aenameen aenameen
43 bonnet, hat abodoneek; abadungeyk; abodonec abadungeyk abodoneek abodonec
44 bosom bodchmoot; boghmoot (cf. breast) boghmoot (cf. breast) bodchmoot
45 bow hathemay; anyemen anyemen hathemay
46 boy (white) bukashamesh; buggishamish; buggishamesh buggishamesh bukashamesh bukashamesh buggishamish
47 boy (Indian) mossessdeesh; mogazeesh mogazeesh mossessdeesh
48 bread maujebathook; annawhadya annawhadya maujebathook
49 break a stick pugenon pugenon
50 break wind tediddle tediddle
51 breast bemoot (cf. bosom); bogomot bemoot (cf. bosom) bogomot
52 breath gaboweete gaboweete
53 bushes maudeweech maudeweech
54 buttons aegumet; agamet buttons or money aegumet agamet buttons or money
55 candle shapoth; shaboth shapoth shaboth
56 canoe thubathew boat or canoe; dapathook; tapathook dapathook thubathew boat or canoe tapathook
57 cap eeseeboon (cf. bonnet) eeseeboon (cf. bonnet)
58 capelin shamook; shaamoo; shamooth shamook; shaamoo shamooth
59 cat obodish; abidesoot; abideeshook abidesoot abideeshook obodish
60 cat (marten) abidish abidish abidish
61 catching fish eshbauth eshbauth
62 cattle methabeet; nethabete methabeet nethabete
63 cheek weenoun weenoun
64 chin keoun; geoun; goun geoun keoun goun
65 clothes dhingyam; thingyam dhingyam thingyam
66 clouds berroick berroick
67 coal methie; methie dirt methie methie dirt
68 cockle sheedeneesheet sheedeneesheet
69 codfish bobboosoret (cf. fish) bobboosoret (cf. fish) bobboosoret (cf. fish)
70 cold eenodsha; moidewsee eenodsha moidewsee
71 comb edrathin edrathin
72 come touet; deiood touet; deiood
73 come back again nadyed nadyed
74 come hither dyoot thouret; dyoom; thooret dyoom dyoot thouret thooret
75 comet anin anin
76 cream jug nadalahet; motheryet nadalahet motheryet
77 cry mautheauthaw; matheothuc mautheauthaw matheothuc
78 currants shamye shamye shamye
79 cut hadyusum; odishuik or odishuite hadyusum odishuik or odishuite
80 dancing thubwedgie; badiseet thubwedgie badiseet
81 dead gosset; gausep (cf. asleep) gosset; gausep (cf. asleep)
82 deer osweet; cosweet cosweet osweet osweet
83 deer’s horns megorum; megorun megorum megorun
84 devil ashmudyim; haoot haoot ashmudyim
85 dirt yew-why yew-why
86 dog mammasamit; mammasameet mammasameet mammasameet mammasamit
87 dogberries menome menome
88 dogwood, mountain ash emoethook emoethook emoethook
89 drawing knife moheshaudet; moeshwadet moheshaudet moeshwadet
90 drink ebathook; ebathoot (cf. water) ebathook; ebathoot (cf. water)
91 drinking cup shoewan; shoewanyeesh (dim.) shoewan; shoewanyeesh (dim.)
92 dry gasook gasook
93 duck eesheet; boodowit eesheet boodowit
94 ducks and drakes mameshet; howmeshet mameshet howmeshet
95 eagle gobidin gobidin
96 ear mismuth; mootchiman; mooshaman mootchiman mismuth mooshaman
97 eat pugazoa; bocootyone; pokoodsoont; odoit bocootyone; pokoodsoont pugazoa odoit
98 egg deboin; debine deboin debine
99 elbow moocus moocus moocus
100 Eskimo ashwan ashwan
101 eye geegnyan; gwinya geegnyan gwinya
102 eyebrow momeaugh; marmeuck momeaugh marmeuck
103 fall koshet koshet
104 fat eeg eeg
105 fear geswat; cockaboset no fear geswat; cockaboset no fear
106 feather evenau; ewinon; abobidress feathers ewinon evenau abobidress feathers
107 finger onnus forefinger; oddesamick little; awadshibik middle; wyabick ring; hanyees hanyees onnus forefinger; oddesamick little; awadshibik middle; wyabick ring
108 fire koorae; oodrat; boobeeshawt (cf. lightning); woodrat oodrat; boobeeshawt (cf. lightning) koorae woodrat
109 fish poopusrout; baubooshrat (cf. codfish) baubooshrat (cf. codfish) poopusrout
110 fish hook adooch; adothook adooch adothook
111 fishing line disup; edat disup edat
112 flea kessyet kessyet
113 flesh (meat) ashauch ashauch
114 flying miawoth; miaoth miawoth miaoth
115 foot hodwitch; adyouth (cf. leg) adyouth (cf. leg) hodwitch
116 forehead doothun doothun
117 fork papade-aden; etheuwit papade-aden etheuwit
118 fowl edgedoweshin edgedoweshin
119 fox dogajavick dogajavick
120 fur, animal hair peatha peatha peatha
121 gaping abemite abemite
122 get up amshut; kinup; ganyess amshut ganyess kinup
123 gimlet quadranuck quadranuck quadranuck
124 girl (white) imamuset; emamooset emamooset emamooset imamuset
125 girl (Indian) woaseesh woaseesh
126 give me dayhamin dayhamin
127 (we) give thee a knife wawashemet o-owin wawashemet o-owin
128 glass hadalahet (cf. cream jug); hadibiet hadalahet (cf. cream jug) hadibiet
129 gloves obsedeek obsedeek obsedeek
130 go away gayzhoot gayzhoot
131 go home baetha baetha
132 go out baeodut; enano baeodut enano
133 good homedick; oomdzech; betheote good night homedick; oomdzech betheote good night
134 goose yewone; odo-ezheet (cf. duck); odeusook odo-ezheet (cf. duck) yewone odeusook
135 gooseberry jiggamint jiggamint
136 grass shisth shisth
137 grindstone shewthake; aquathoont shewthake aquathoont
138 groaning cheeashit; cheashit cheeashit cheashit
139 gull asson asson asson
140 gun harreen or huz-seen; adamadret adamadret harreen or huz-seen adamadret
141 gun powder beasothunt beasothunt beasothunt
142 hair donna; drummet; drone-oock; dronna drone-oock donna dronna drummet
143 halibut, flatfish hanawasutt hanawasutt
144 hammer iwish; mattuis iwish mattuis
145 hand memen hands or fingers; maelmed; memet maelmed memen hands or fingers memet
146 hare odusweet odusweet odusweet
147 (make) haste ishu; eeshoo eeshoo ishu
148 hatchet nowaut; thinyun; dthoonanyen; thingaya thinyun; dthoonanyen nowaut thingaya
149 head keawthaw; geothuk; keauthut, gonothun geothuk keawthaw keauthut, gonothun
150 hear noduera noduera
151 heart bedoret; bogodoret bedoret bogodoret
152 heaven theehone theehone
153 herring washemesh washemesh
154 hiccups mudyraw; madyrut mudyraw madyrut
155 hill kaasook; keoosock kaasook; keoosock
156 hoop woin woin
157 house mae-adthike (cf. hut); mammateek mae-adthike (cf. hut) mammateek
158 hungry dauoosett dauoosett
159 (not) hurt aoodrach aoodrach
160 husband zathrook (cf. man) zathrook (cf. man)
161 hut meothik (cf. house) meothik (cf. house)
162 ice ozrook; ozeru ozrook ozeru
163 Indian (red) behathook; beothuck; beathook behathook; beothuck beathook
164 Indian cup shucodidimet; shucodidimit shucodidimet shucodidimit
165 iron mauageene; maudshinuk; mowageenite mauageene mowageenite maudshinuk
166 islands mammasheek mammasheek
167 kill whadicheme; bogathoowytch whadicheme; bogathoowytch
168 (not) kill datyuns datyuns
169 kiss sheboth; widumite sheboth widumite
170 knee hodsmishit; hodamishit hodsmishit hodamishit
171 kneeling abusthibe; abusthibit abusthibe abusthibit
172 knife yewoin; iwo-in; aewaeen; hewhine; uine aewaeen; hewhine yewoin uine iwo-in
173 lamp mondicuet; bobdiduishemet mondicuet bobdiduishemet
174 laugh whoishme; wyeeth whoishme wyeeth
175 lead goosheben goosheben
176 lean, thin, sick ashei ashei
177 leaves madyua; madyna madyua madyna
178 leg cogadealla; aduse (cf. foot) cogadealla aduse (cf. foot)
179 lie pisauwau; bituwait (cf. sleep) pisauwau bituwait (cf. sleep)
180 life mamset (cf. alive) mamset (cf. alive)
181 lightning koorae; barodiisick (cf. fire and thunder) koorae barodiisick (cf. fire and thunder)
182 (I) like adjeedisk adjeedisk
183 lip coosh; ooish coosh ooish
184 lobster odjet odjet odjet
185 long kannabuck kannabuck
186 lord bird, harlequin duck mammadrouit mammadrouit
187 louse cusebee; kusebeet cusebee kusebeet
188 lumpfish aeshemeet aeshemeet
189 mainland gauzewook gauzewook
190 man (white) pushaman; buggishaman; bukashaman buggishaman pushaman bukashaman buggishaman
191 man (Indian) shawdtharut (cf. husband) shawdtharut (cf. husband)
192 Micmac shanung shanung
193 milk madabooch madabooch
194 moccasin moosin; mosen moosin; mosen
195 money beodet beodet
196 moon kuus; keeose, washageuis; kius, washewiush keeose, washageuis kuus kius, washewiush
197 mosquito shema bogosthuc shema bogosthuc
198 mouth mamudthun; mameshook mamudthun mameshook
199 muscle (mussel) owameet owameet
200 nails cush; quish cush quish
201 neck tedesheet (cf. throat) tedesheet (cf. throat) tedesheet (cf. throat)
202 necklace zeek (cf. beads); bethec zeek (cf. beads) bethec
203 needle tuzmus; dosomite (cf. pin) tuzmus dosomite (cf. pin)
204 net giggaremanet giggaremanet giggaremanet
205 night washewch; washew washewch washew
206 nipper bebadrook bebadrook
207 no newin newin
208 nose gheen; geen gheen geen
209 oakum mushabauth mushabauth mushabauth
210 oar poodybeac poodybeac poodybeac
211 ochre odemen; odement odemen odement
212 oil emet emet emet
213 otter edachoom; edru edachoom edru
214 partridge susut; zosoot; zosweet zosoot susut zosweet
215 partridgeberries shaudame shaudame
216 pigeon (sea), (guillemot) bobbodish (cf. bird) bobbodish (cf. bird) bobbodish (cf. bird) bobbodish (cf. bird)
217 pin tusmug; dosomite dosomite tusmug dosomite
218 pitcher, cup, plate manume; manune manume manune
219 pond woodum woodum
220 puffin gwoshuawit gwoshuawit
221 puppies mammasameet (cf. dog) mammasameet (cf. dog)
222 rain pedthae; watshoosooch; badoese; bathuc watshoosooch; badoese pedthae bathuc
223 raspberries gauzadun gauzadun
224 rat gadgemish gadgemish
225 red deedrashow deedrashow
226 river shebon; shebin brook shebon; shebin brook
227 rocks ahune ahune
228 rolling odausot odausot
229 rowing huzzagan; osavate huzzagan osavate
230 run wothamashee; ibadinnam; wothamashet ibadinnam wothamashee wothamashet
231 sails ejabathook ejabathook ejabathook
232 salmon wasemook wasemook wasemook
233 saw dedoweet; deddoweet dedoweet deddoweet
234 salt water massoock massoock
235 scab pigathee pigathee pigathee
236 scallop gowet gowet
237 scalping the head nomushrush keawthaw nomushrush keawthaw
238 scissors oseenyet; osegeeu oseenyet osegeeu
239 scratch bashubet bashubet
240 seal momau; bidesuk; beedzuk; bidesook bidesuk; beedzuk momau bidesook
241 seal sunk aparet a bidesook aparet a bidesook
242 seal skin bag bochmoot seal skin sledge full bochmoot seal skin sledge full
243 see ejew ejew
244 shake hands meman momasthus; kawinjemeesh; meman monasthus kawinjemeesh meman momasthus meman monasthus
245 ship, vessel mamzhing; mamashee (cf. boat) mamashee (cf. boat) mamzhing
246 shoes moosin (cf. mocassin) moosin (cf. mocassin)
247 shoot hodthoo shoot a gun; outhaje-arrathunum shoot an arrow perpendicularly; wadshoodet wadshoodet hodthoo shoot a gun; outhaje-arrathunum shoot an arrow perpendicularly
248 short yeech yeech
249 shoulder momezabethon; momegemethon momezabethon momegemethon
250 shovel hadowadet; godawick hadowadet godawick
251 silk handkerchief egibiduish egibiduish egibiduish
252 sinew of deer modthamook modthamook
253 singing tuauthaw; awoodet tuauthaw awoodet
254 sit haddosdoding; athep athep haddosdoding athep
255 sleep puthuauth; bootzhawet; aoseedwit I am sleepy (cf. lie, bed); isedoweet bootzhawet; aoseedwit I am sleepy (cf. lie, bed) puthuauth isedoweet
256 sleeve wobesheet wobesheet
257 smell marot marot
258 smoke possthee; basdiek; besdic basdiek possthee besdic
259 snail aeueece aeueece
260 sneezing midyathew; adjith midyathew adjith
261 snipe auojet auojet
262 snow (corrasoob); causabow; kaasussabook causabow; kaasussabook (corrasoob)
263 song mamatrabet (a long?) mamatrabet (a long?)
264 soon jewmetcheen jewmetcheen
265 sore throat anadrick anadrick anadrick
266 sorrow corrasoob (cf. snow) corrasoob (cf. snow) corrasoob (cf. snow)
267 speak carmtack; jeroothack carmtack; jeroothack
268 spear anun; aaduth seal spear; amina deer spear; hannan anun; aaduth seal spear; amina deer spear hannan
269 spider woadthoowin woadthoowin
270 spoon hanamait; adadiminte, andemin adadiminte, andemin hanamait
271 spouse anwoyding anwoyding
272 spruce trawnasoo trawnasoo trawnasoo
273 spruce rind sousot sousot
274 standing kingabie; kingiabit kingabie kingiabit
275 stars so-ushzeth; shawwayet; adenishit shawwayet so-ushzeth adenishit
276 stinking seal mattik bidesook mattik bidesook mattik bidesook
277 stockings gassek; gasset gassek gasset
278 stones ougen; oun (cf. rocks) oun (cf. rocks) ougen
279 stooping hedy-yan hedy-yan hedy-yan
280 sugar shedothoon shedothoon
281 sun, moon dewis; keeose; keuse; magaragueis sun; washageuis moon; kius; maugerooius sun; washewiush moon keeose; keuse; magaragueis sun; washageuis moon dewis kius; maugerooius sun; washewiush moon
282 swimming tuwedgie; thoowidgee (cf. dancing) tuwedgie thoowidgee (cf. dancing)
283 sword bidisoni bidisoni bidisoni
284 tea butterweye (but probably garbled) butterweye (but probably garbled)
285 teeth outhermay; botomet outhermayet outhermay botomet outhermayet
286 thank you thine thine
287 thigh ipeween; ipweena ipeween ipweena
288 thread meroopish; meroobish (cf. twine) meroopish meroobish (cf. twine)
289 throat tedesheet (cf. neck) tedesheet (cf. neck)
290 throw a trap shaubabuneshaw shaubabuneshaw
291 throw pugatho; pugathoite pugatho pugathoite
292 thumb pooith; buit; boad; pooeth boad pooith pooeth buit
293 thunder petothorish; barodiisick (cf. lightning) petothorish barodiisick (cf. lightning)
294 ticklace (kittiwake) gotheyet gotheyet gotheyet
295 tickle (gut, sound, strait) kaduishuite kaduishuite
296 tinker (razorbill) oothook oothook
297 tobacco nechwa nechwa
298 tomorrow maduck maduck
299 tongue memaza; mamadthuk (cf. mouth); memasuck mamadthuk (cf. mouth) memaza memasuck
300 trap tibethun; lathun; shebathoont lathun tibethun shebathoont
301 tree, woods annooee annooee
302 trousers mowead mowead mowead
303 trout dottomeish dottomeish dottomeish
304 turr (murre) geonet geonet geonet
305 twine meroopish; madobeesh madobeesh meroopish
306 walk woothyan; baysot (cf. run); woothyat woothyan woothyat baysot (cf. run)
307 walking stick cheething cheething
308 warm obosheen warming yourself; boobasha boobasha obosheen warming yourself obosheen warming yourself
309 watch dewis; keeose (cf. sun, moon); kius dewis; keeose (cf. sun, moon) kius
310 water ebauthoo; ebadoe; zebathoong water (drink) ebadoe; zebathoong water (drink) ebauthoo ebauthoo
311 water bucket guinyabutt (with vertical or sloping sides); sunong-guinyabutt (large at bottom, small at top) guinyabutt (with vertical or sloping sides); sunong-guinyabutt (large at bottom, small at top)
312 wet wabee (confusion with white) wabee (confusion with white)
313 whale’s tail owasposhno-un owasposhno-un
314 where do you go becket becket
315 white wobee wobee
316 whortle berries mamoose (cf. berries) mamoose (cf. berries)
317 wife oosuck oosuck
318 wife (white) adizabad-zea adizabad-zea
319 wind tisewthun; gidgeathuc tisewthun gidgeathuc
320 wood adiab adiab adiab
321 woodpecker sheebuint; shebohoweet shebohoweet sheebuint shebohoweet
322 wolf moisamadrook moisamadrook
323 woman imamus; emamoose; woass-sut red Indian woman emamoose; woass-sut red Indian woman emamoose imamus
324 yawning tibeath; jibeath tibeath jibeath
325 yes ethath; yeathun ethath; yeathun


Numerals in Beothuk:[11]

Gloss Cormack Latham / King (1850) Leigh
one yaseek yazeek gathet
two adzeich adzeech adasic
three shendeek shendee shedsic
four dabseek dabzeek abodoesic
five ninezeek nunyetheek nijeek
six bashedtheek beshed bigadosick
seven oodzook odeozook oodosook
eight aadazook adosook aodoosook
nine yeothoduk yeothoduck yeothoduck
ten shansee shansee theant
eleven ee-zaziech
twelve ee-adzide
thirteen ee-shendeek
fourteen ee-dabzook
fifteen ee-ninezeek
sixteen ee-beshedtheek
seventeen ee-oodzook
eighteen ee-aadazook
nineteen ee-yeothoduck
twenty adzeich dthoonut
thirty shendeek dthoonut


Months in Beothuk:[11]

Gloss Cormack list
(from Shanawdithit)
January cobshuneesamut
February kosthobonong bewajoite
March manamiss
April wasumaweeseek
May bedejamish bewajowite
June wasumaweeseek
July cowazaseek
August wadawhegh
September wasumaweeseek
October godabonyegh
November godabonyeesh
December odasweeteeshamut


  1. ^ Hewson, John (1971). "Beothuk Consonant Correspondences". International Journal of American Linguistics. 37 (4): 244–249. doi:10.1086/465172. JSTOR 1264516. S2CID 145190678.
  2. ^ Voegelin, C.F.; Voegelin, E.W. (1946). "Linguistic considerations of northeastern North America". In Johnson, F. (ed.). Man in Northeastern North America. Andover, MA: Philip's Academy. pp. 178–194.
  3. ^ Mithun, Marianne (2001). The Languages of Native North America (First paperback ed.). Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. p. 368. ISBN 0-521-23228-7.
  4. ^ Campbell, Lyle (1997). American Indian Languages: The Historical Linguistics of Native America. Oxford University Press. p. 290. ISBN 0-19-509427-1.
  5. ^ Perry, SJ (2008-09-10). "Santu's Song: Memorable day for Beothuk Interpretation Centre". Porte Pilot. Archived from the original on 2012-03-09. Retrieved 2010-01-13.
  6. ^ Santu’s Song | Hewson | Newfoundland and Labrador Studies
  7. ^ Pulling, George C. 1792. A few facts by G.C. Pulling respecting the Native Indians of the Isle of Newfoundland. Manuscript in British Museum, additional MSS 38352.
  8. ^ Robinson, Sir Hercules. 1834. "Vocabulary of the Natives of Newfoundland." Royal Geographical Society Journal 4:218-220.
  9. ^ Latham, Robert G. 1850. Natural History of the Varieties of Man. London: J. Van Voorst.
  10. ^ Howley, James P. 1915. The Beothucks or Red Indians. Cambridge University Press.
  11. ^ a b c d Hewson, John. 1978. Beothuk Vocabularies. (Technical Papers of the Newfoundland Museum, 2.) St. John's: Newfoundland: Newfoundland Museum. 178pp.

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