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Bilabial nasal

  (Redirected from Bilabial nasal)
Voiced bilabial nasal
m
IPA Number114
Encoding
Entity (decimal)m
Unicode (hex)U+006D
X-SAMPAm
Braille⠍ (braille pattern dots-134)
Audio sample

The voiced bilabial nasal is a type of consonantal sound used in almost all spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨m⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is m. The bilabial nasal occurs in English, and it is the sound represented by "m" in map and rum.

It occurs nearly universally, and few languages (e.g. Mohawk) are known to lack this sound.

Features

Features of the voiced bilabial nasal:

  • Its manner of articulation is occlusive, which means it is produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract. Because the consonant is also nasal, the blocked airflow is redirected through the nose.
  • Its place of articulation is bilabial, which means it is articulated with both lips.
  • Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
  • It is a nasal consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the nose, either exclusively (nasal stops) or in addition to through the mouth.
  • Because the sound is not produced with airflow over the tongue, the centrallateral dichotomy does not apply.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Adyghe мазэ/māză [maːza] 'moon'
Arabic Standard[1] مطابخ/maṭābiḫ [maˈtˤaːbɪχ] 'kitchens' See Arabic phonology
Armenian Eastern[2] մայր/mayr About this sound[mɑjɾ]  'mother'
Assyrian ܡܪܐ mara [maːra] 'owner'
Basque maitatu [majt̪at̪u] 'to love'
Bengali মা/ma [ma] 'mother' See Bengali phonology
Bulgarian мъгла/măgla [mɐɡla] 'fog'
Catalan[3] mare [ˈmaɾə] 'mother' See Catalan phonology
Cherokee /ama [ama˦] 'water'
Chinese Cantonese / māau About this sound[maːu̯˥] 'cat' See Cantonese phonology
Mandarin / māo About this sound[mɑʊ̯˥] See Mandarin phonology
Chuvash манăн/manăn manɑ̆n 'my'
Czech m [mʊʃ] 'man' See Czech phonology
Dutch[4] mond [mɔnt] 'mouth' See Dutch phonology
English him About this sound[hɪm] 'him' See English phonology
Esperanto tempo [ˈtempo] 'time' See Esperanto phonology
Filipino manok [maˈnok] 'rooster' See Filipino phonology
Finnish minä [ˈminæ] 'I' See Finnish phonology
French[5] manger [mɑ̃ʒe] 'to eat' See French phonology
Georgian[6] სა/sami [ˈsɑmi] 'three'
German Maus [maʊ̯s] 'mouse' See Standard German phonology
Greek[7] μάζα / maza [ˈmaza] 'clump' See Modern Greek phonology
Gujarati મો / mōr [moːɾ] 'male peacock' See Gujarati phonology
Hawaiian[8] maka [maka] 'eye' See Hawaiian phonology
Hindi धु/madhū [məd̪ʱuː] 'honey' See Hindi-Urdu phonology
Hebrew אמא/ima [ˈʔimäʔ] 'mother' See Modern Hebrew phonology
Hungarian ma [mɒ] 'today' See Hungarian phonology
Indonesian[9] masuk [ˈmäsʊʔ] 'enter'
Italian[10] mamma [ˈmamma] 'mommy' See Italian phonology
Japanese[11] 乾杯 / kampai [kampai] 'cheers' See Japanese phonology
Kabardian мазэ/mazè [maːza] 'moon'
Kagayanen[12] manang [manaŋ] 'older sister'
Korean 마을 / maeul [ma̠ɯɭ] 'village' See Korean phonology
Lithuanian mama [ˈmɐmɐ] 'mom'
Macedonian мајка/majka [ˈmajka] 'mother' See Macedonian phonology
Malay malam [mäläm] 'night'
Malayalam[13] കമ്മി/kammi [kəmmi] 'shortage'
Maltese ilma [ilma] 'water'
Marathi /man [mən] 'mind' See Marathi phonology
Mutsun muruṭ [muɾuʈ] 'night'
Nepali मा/āmā [ämä] 'mother' See Nepali phonology
Norwegian mamma [ˈmɑmːɑ] 'mom' See Norwegian phonology
Ojibwe /anaamim [ənaːˈmɪm] 'accuse' See Ojibwe phonology
Odia ମା/mä [mä] 'mother'
Persian مادر/mâdar [mɒdær] 'mother' See Persian phonology
Pirahã baíxi [ˈmàí̯ʔì] 'parent' allophone of /b/
Polish[14] masa About this sound[ˈmäsä]  'mass' See Polish phonology
Portuguese[15] mato [ˈmatu] 'bush' See Portuguese phonology
Punjabi ਮੈਂ/mēm̐ [mɛ̃ː] 'I'
Russian[16] муж/muzh About this sound[muʂ]  'husband' Contrasts with palatalized version. See Russian phonology
Serbo-Croatian[17] мој / moj [mȏːj] 'my' See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Slovak m [mu̞ʃ] 'man'
Slovene m [míʃ] 'mouse'
Spanish[18] grumete [ɡɾuˈme̞te̞] 'cabin boy' See Spanish phonology
Swahili miti [ˈmiti] 'trees'
Swedish mask [mask] 'worm' See Swedish phonology
Thai มม / mommaem [mɔːm.mɛːm] 'shabby' See Thai phonology
Toki Pona mani [mani] 'money'
Tsez мец/mec [mɛ̝t͡s] 'tongue'
Turkish benim [be̞nim] 'mine' See Turkish phonology
Ukrainian[19] молоко/moloko [mɔɫɔˈkɔ] 'milk' See Ukrainian phonology
Urdu مکان‎/makān [məkaːn] 'house' See Hindi-Urdu phonology
Uyghur مهن/men [mæn] 'I'
Vietnamese[20] muối [mwojˀ˧˥] 'salt' See Vietnamese phonology
Welsh mam [mam] 'mother' See Welsh phonology
West Frisian mar [mar] 'lake' See West Frisian phonology
Yi / ma [ma˧] 'bamboo'
Zapotec Tilquiapan[21] man [maŋ] 'animal'

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Thelwall (1990:37)
  2. ^ Dum-Tragut (2009:19)
  3. ^ Carbonell & Llisterri (1992:53)
  4. ^ Gussenhoven (1992:45)
  5. ^ Fougeron & Smith (1993:73)
  6. ^ Shosted & Chikovani (2006:255)
  7. ^ Newton (1972:10)
  8. ^ Ladefoged (2005:139)
  9. ^ Soderberg & Olson (2008:210)
  10. ^ Rogers & d'Arcangeli (2004:117)
  11. ^ Okada (1999:117)
  12. ^ Olson et al. (2010:206–207)
  13. ^ Ladefoged (2005:165)
  14. ^ Jassem (2003:103)
  15. ^ Cruz-Ferreira (1995:91)
  16. ^ Padgett (2003:42)
  17. ^ Landau et al. (1999), p. 67.
  18. ^ Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté (2003:255)
  19. ^ Danyenko & Vakulenko (1995), p. 4.
  20. ^ Thompson (1959:458–461)
  21. ^ Merrill (2008:108)

References

  • Carbonell, Joan F.; Llisterri, Joaquim (1992), "Catalan", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 22 (1–2): 53–56, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004618
  • Dum-Tragut, Jasmine (2009), Armenian: Modern Eastern Armenian, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company
  • Cruz-Ferreira, Madalena (1995), "European Portuguese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 25 (2): 90–94, doi:10.1017/S0025100300005223
  • Danyenko, Andrii; Vakulenko, Serhii (1995), Ukrainian, Lincom Europa, ISBN 9783929075083
  • Fougeron, Cecile; Smith, Caroline L (1993), "Illustrations of the IPA:French", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 23 (2): 73–76, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004874
  • Gussenhoven, Carlos (1992), "Dutch", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 22 (2): 45–47, doi:10.1017/S002510030000459X
  • Jassem, Wiktor (2003), "Polish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 33 (1): 103–107, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001191
  • Ladefoged, Peter (2005), Vowels and Consonants (Second ed.), Blackwell
  • Martínez-Celdrán, Eugenio; Fernández-Planas, Ana Ma.; Carrera-Sabaté, Josefina (2003), "Castilian Spanish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 33 (2): 255–259, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001373
  • Merrill, Elizabeth (2008), "Tilquiapan Zapotec" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 38 (1): 107–114, doi:10.1017/S0025100308003344
  • Newton, Brian (1972), The generative Interpretation of Dialect: A Study of Modern Greek Phonology, Cambridge Studies in Linguistics, 8, Cambridge University Press
  • Olson, Kenneth; Mielke, Jeff; Sanicas-Daguman, Josephine; Pebley, Carol Jean; Paterson, Hugh J., III (2010), "The phonetic status of the (inter)dental approximant", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 40 (2): 199–215, doi:10.1017/S0025100309990296
  • Okada, Hideo (1999), "Japanese", in International Phonetic Association (ed.), Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A Guide to the Use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge University Press, pp. 117–119, ISBN 978-0-52163751-0
  • Padgett, Jaye (2003), "Contrast and Post-Velar Fronting in Russian", Natural Language & Linguistic Theory, 21 (1): 39–87, doi:10.1023/A:1021879906505
  • Rogers, Derek; d'Arcangeli, Luciana (2004), "Italian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 34 (1): 117–121, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001628
  • Shosted, Ryan K.; Vakhtang, Chikovani (2006), "Standard Georgian" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 36 (2): 255–264, doi:10.1017/S0025100306002659
  • Landau, Ernestina; Lončarića, Mijo; Horga, Damir; Škarić, Ivo (1999), "Croatian", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 66–69, ISBN 978-0-521-65236-0
  • Soderberg, Craig D.; Olson, Kenneth S. (2008), "Illustrations of the IPA:Indonesian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 38 (2): 209–213, doi:10.1017/S0025100308003320
  • Thelwall, Robin (1990), "Illustrations of the IPA: Arabic", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 20 (2): 37–41, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004266
  • Thompson, Laurence (1959), "Saigon phonemics", Language, 35 (3): 454–476, doi:10.2307/411232, JSTOR 411232

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