wanweipedia

Boran languages

Boran
Geographic
distribution
northwestern Amazon
Linguistic classificationindependent family or Bora–Witoto
  • Boran
Glottologbora1262[1]

Boran (also known as Bora–Muinane, Bora–Muiname, Bóran, Miranyan, Miranya, Bórano) is a small language family, consisting of just two languages.

Languages

The two Boran languages are:

Loukotka (1968) also lists Nonuya, spoken at the sources of the Cahuinari River, as a Boran language. Only a few words were documented.[2]

Synonymy note:

  • The name Muiname has been used to refer to the Muinane language (Bora Muinane) of the Boran family and also to the Nipode language (Witoto Muinane) of the Witotoan family.

Genetic relations

Aschmann (1993) proposed that the Boran and Witotoan language families were related, in a Bora–Witoto stock. Echeverri & Seifart (2016) refute the connection.

Language contact

Jolkesky (2016) notes that there are lexical similarities with the Choko, Guahibo, Tukano, Witoto-Okaina, Yaruro, Arawak, and Tupi language families due to contact in the Caquetá River basin region.[3]

An automated computational analysis (ASJP 4) by Müller et al. (2013)[4] found lexical similarities with Arawakan (especially the Resigaro language in particular) due to contact.

Vocabulary

Loukotka (1968) lists the following basic vocabulary items.[2]

gloss Bora Imihitä Muinane
one dzonére tenétogüné sánótro
two miniékeʔe mibákö minóke
head mée-níguoe mé-eníkoae nígai
eye ma-ádzik ma-átxe adíge
tooth mée-goaxé me-kuáxe ígaino
man guáxpi koaxpí gáife
water néspakio nögʔbögʔkó negfuáyu
fire köxögua kixúgua köxögai
sun nöʔögbwa nöxbá neʔegbua
maize öxeʔe öxehu bédya
jaguar oíbe ouíbe höku

Proto-language

Proto-Bora–Muinane
Reconstruction ofBoran languages

Proto-Bora–Muinane reconstructions by Seifart and Echeverri (2015):[5]

no. gloss Proto-Bora-Muinane
1 tongue *nehe
2 mouth *i-hɨ
3 lip *hɨni-ba
4 tooth *iʔgai
5 nose *tɨhɨ-ʔu
6 eye *aʤɨ-ɨ
7 ear *nɨ()-meeʔu
8 head *niga-ɨ
9 forehead *ɨme-ku
10 hair *-hee-
12 beard *hɨkk()
14 chest *ppeeɨ-he
15 woman’s breast *mɨppaino
16 abdomen *iiʔba
18 shoulder *hɨhe-ba
19 arm *nokkɨ-gai
21 elbow *()o()i
22 hand *ʔutʦe
23 finger *ʔutʦe-gai
24 fingernail *ʔutʦe-gai-meeʔu
27 knee *memu
29 foot *ttɨʔaai
30 toe *ttɨ-gaai
31 skin *meeʔo
32 bone *bakkɨ
33 blood *tɨɨ
34 heart *heebɨ-ɨ
35 lungs *βaβa-ga
38 man *m()a-mɨnaa-ppi
39 man *gai-ppi
40 woman *gai-go
41 people *m()a-mɨnaa
42 husband *tahe
43 wife *taaba
44 father *giʔiru, kaani
45 mother *gaʔa-ro, *ʦeehɨ
46 baby, infant *ʦeemono
47 old man *amia
48 water *nɨ-ppai()u
49 river *too-ʔi, *muuai
52 swamp *kaaha
56 fire *kɨɨhɨ-gai
57 ash *bai-giihɨ
58 charcoal *kɨɨhɨgai-
60 firewood *kuu
61 sky *nikko-he
62 rain *niiha-ba
64 sun *nɨʔba
65 moon *nɨʔba
66 star *meekɨrɨ-gai
67 day *kuuhe
68 night *pokku
69 thunder *ʦitʦi
71 rainbow *tɨɨ-ʔi
72 earth *hiinɨ-he
74 sand *n()gai-jɨʔai
75 house *ha
77 doorway *gooʔu-ga
78 seat, stool *ikka-ga
79 mat *kɨga-
80 hammock *gaaiba
81 bed *kɨga-
82 cooking pot *giri-ʔʤu
83 cultivated clearing *gaikkuʔai
84 village *kuumii
85 path, trail *hɨɨ-
86 fish net *ʦ()nɨkuʔu
87 fish hook *piikkɨ-gai
88 steel axe *hɨgaa-he
89 knife *n()ʦ()-ga-
90 canoe *meeno
91 paddle *buʔdu-ga
92 club *gai-ʔuɨ
93 spear *aamɨ-
94 bow *tɨɨbu-ga
95 arrow *tɨɨbu-
96 blowgun *gitʦɨ-hɨ
99 puma *tɨpai-ʔuu()
100 armadillo *gooɨ
101 dog *ʔuuʔi
102 red deer *niiβɨ-gai
103 bat *kikiih()
104 otter *ʦukku
105 cebus, monkey *kɨʔʤiba
107 spider monkey *kɨɨmɨ
109 anteater *heehɨ, *tuuʔhe
110 paca *takkɨ
111 crocodile *niʔba, *m()ʔduba
112 iguana *maaina-ʔu
115 collared peccary *mooni
116 white-lipped peccary *paapaiba
117 agouti *pattɨ
118 rat *giʔpo
119 cat *miiʧii
120 mouse *giʔpo
121 tail *bu
122 snake *hiinimo
123 anaconda, water boa *buua, *iigai-
124 rattlesnake *taakaʔo
125 coral snake *ʧiraagai
126 toad *hakuga, ()ɨɨriʔi, nihaga, mɨɨʔmeba, haakkɨba
128 hummingbird *paaibe
129 macaw *heeβaa, *in()ʔai
130 toucan *nɨgo
133 buzzard *ainɨ
134 curassow *kɨga-
136 guan *peeka-he
137 hen *ka()a()a
139 piranha *gaikku-he, *nitta
142 flea *hɨɨku-ga
143 louse *gaaini-ʔu
144 mosquito *gaaihɨ
145 termite *maʔarɨ
146 ant *piimo
147 spider *paaga-
148 jigger (Tunga penetrans) *niipahe
149 bush *bahɨ
150 open grassland *namettɨhe, *ʦukkum()he
151 hill *gahɨɨ, *baaɨɨ
152 tree *ɨmo-ʔo
153 leaf *aame
154 tree leaf *-ʔaame
158 root *ba(i)(k)ko-
159 seed *batʦu-
160 stick ɨmoo-ʔi
161 grass *ʦukkume-he
163 cassava (bread) *máaʔu
165 tobacco *baino
166 cotton *haʔdi
167 gourd *duutu
168 yam *kɨnii-
170 annatto *nooba-ba
171 chili pepper *dee-ʔuɨ
172 coca *hiibii-
173 banisterium[6] *bakko
174 plantain *ɨhe-
175 chonta palm *moomo
179 salt *ɨmo
180 chicha (of peach palm fruits) *moomo-ba
181 one *ʦaa-no
182 two *mi-no-kɨ
185 five *sa-ʔutʦe
191 first *ttɨkkonɨ
192 last *niiʔnoo-
194 drum *kɨɨmɨ-ba
196 ear ornament *nɨhɨ-ga
197 mask *maaʔnii
198 medicine man *taabu-mɨnaa-ppi
199 chief *aiβohɨɨ-bo
200 I *uu
201 thou *ɨɨ
202 he *aanɨɨ, *dii-bo
203 she *aaimoo, *dii-go
204 it *haa-no
205 we *mɨɨʔai
206 ye *amɨɨai
207 they *dii-to
208 my hand *tai-ʔutʦe
209 thy hand *dii-ʔutʦe
210 ʔutʦe his hand *dii-bo
211 our hands *mo-ʔutʦe-no
212 your hands *amɨɨʔai ʔutʦe-no
213 their hands *diito ʔutʦe-no
214 my bow *tai-tɨɨbu-ga
215 thy bow *dii-tɨɨbu-ga
216 his bow *dii-bo tɨɨbu-ga
217 our bow *mo-tɨɨbu-ga
218 your bow *amɨɨʔai tɨɨbu-ga
219 their bow *dii-to tɨɨbu-ga
220 big *mita-no, *giraa
221 small *nume-
222 cold *ʦɨɨku
223 hot *aiguukku
224 good *imi
225 bad *imi-tɨ-no
226 white *ʦeʦee
227 black *kɨβo-
228 go! *di-po
229 come! *di-ʦaa
230 eat! *matʧu
231 drink! *d-aduu
232 sleep! *kɨga
234 front teeth, incisors *iiʔgai-noo
235 tip of tongue *nehe-()-nih()kk()
236 long hair *niiga
240 lower arm *nokkɨ-
241 wrist *ʔutʦe-kkohe
242 lower leg *takki-
243 body hair *iʔhee-no
244 stomach *iiʔba
245 intestines *iiʔba
246 old woman *koomo-go
249 corn field *gaikkuʔai, *-pagi
250 stream *too-ʔi
251 pebbles *n()gai-ɨʔai
253 path *hɨɨ()ai
255 shelter *nɨɨh()-ga
256 this *hi-
257 that *hoʔ-
258 who *mɨ-, *ka-
260 not *ʦaʔa, *-tɨ
261 all *pa-no
262 many *mita-
263 long *kaamo-
264 bark *-meeʔu
265 flesh *ʔookuu, *duu
266 blood *tɨɨ-
267 grease *dɨɨrɨ-ba
268 egg *iiʔɨ
269 horn *-ttu
270 feather *i-hee-no
271 claw *ʔutʦe-gai-meeʔu
272 belly *iiʔba
273 liver *iʔganoo
274 drink *adu
275 eat (non meat) *matʧu
276 bite *eeʔdu-
277 see *aittɨme
278 hear *goobu-
279 know *gaaha
280 sleep *kɨga
281 die *gihe-βo
282 kill *gɨhe-βo-ʦu
283 swim *itʦi
284 fly *gaʔpo
285 walk *ɨgo, *poo
286 come *ʦaa-
290 give *akkɨ
291 say *hɨɨb()go, *noo
293 mountain *gahɨɨ, *baaɨɨ
294 red *tɨ-ppai-no
295 green *aittɨβa
296 yellow *gi()
297 full *gaʔpo
298 new *boʔ-no
301 name *momo
302 how *mɨʔ()ɨ
305 here *hi-noo-ri
306 there *oo-no
307 other *ʦi-ppi
309 fog *tʦu-
310 flow *niiβa
311 sea *muuai
312 wet *peepai-no, *maa-
313 wash *nittɨ-
314 worm *hɨʔba
316 fur *iʔhe-
318 saliva *hɨɨ-
319 milk *mɨppaino-ppai()u
320 with *-ma
321 in *paino
322 at *-βɨ
323 if *-ʔatʧiihɨ
327 child *ʦee-mo-no
328 dark *kɨβo-
330 wide *kare-
331 narrow *iihe
334 thick *peeme
335 thin *ɨtʦi-, aini-
336 short *baaʔr()-no
338 dull *ʦɨɨʔhe-βa-tɨ-no
339 sharp *ʦɨɨhe-βa
340 dirty *hiinɨ-βa-, beeβa-
341 rotten *tuukɨ-
342 smooth *p()rɨɨkɨ-, *mooβa-
343 straight *ʦa-tɨkko-βo
344 correct *m()aa-
345 left *nani-
346 right *()m()a-
347 old *ʦɨk()-, *koomo-
349 pull *giiɨkɨ
351 throw *piku
352 hit *iʤaaju
353 split *ga()er()-
354 pierce *kapaitɨ-ɨ()ɨ-nɨ
355 dig *ʦooʔdi
356 tie *ʦitʦɨ, *duʔhe-nɨ
358 fall *aak()()o-
359 swell *huuri-
360 think *etʦam()i-
361 sing *matʦi-βa
362 smell *hɨgikk(), *utʦu
365 blow *ebaʦu-, buuʦu-
366 fear *igi
367 squeeze *aamɨ-ʦu
368 hold *ikka
369 down *giino, baa-ri
370 up *kamo
371 ripe *naamo-
372 dust *-giihɨ
373 alive *buʔee-
374 rope *gaaiba-ɨ
375 year *pi(k)kaba
378 diminutive *-g()ɨ
379 big river *muuai
380 longhouse *baa-(ʔ)o-ha
382 stone axe *hɨgaa-he
383 machete *n()ʦ()ga
384 deer *hiibai
385 macaw (blue) *in()ʔai
386 ant (conga) *tɨɨp()-megai
387 bitter manioc (plant) *peeka
388 push ?*ká()()()ʔaaku
389 find *áittɨme
390 get ill *dɨʔkɨ
391 squeeze manioc dough *gáirɨɨʔaiɲɨ
392 germinate *ííno
394 scream *kóóβádííkku, *gái()a
395 keep *toomo-
398 make *móónɨ
401 cry *taa
402 order, command *gáʤúu, *táhɨɨʔba
403 get wet *máa-, *péépai-
406 manicuera, manioc *paikuumɨɨ
407 be born *pííβo
408 urinate *níppai
410 fart *nobú
412 ask *díʤu
413 taste *nɨtʦu
414 stay *pítá()
417 want *ím()-go-, gáihɨ-, káβa-
418 grate *kaʦu
426 alone *i()-ro
427 dream *tɨga
429 sweat *tugaa
431 be hungry áih()ba
434 itch *áhé
435 roast *garééku, ʦúʔkúʦu-
437 bring *ʦ()βa
440 pay a visit *ba
441 grassland *namettɨhe
442 yesterday *ííhɨ
444 inside *paino
445 soft, tender *paiβoo
446 happy *im()
447 bitter *paapai
448 fast *góóβá
450 blind *ái()ɨme-tɨ
451 dock, port *mɨkku
454 face *ɨme
456 basket *hɨβiiba
458 foam ?*hɨ()aʔʦ()
461 middle *pééno
462 thorn *hanoo-tto
463 tall *káamo
464 palm, Oenocarpus bataua *kúume
465 medicine *táábú
467 later on *buun()
468 a lot *giraa-
469 behind *dóhɨku
471 full *gaʔpo
474 peanuts *máʦakka
475 yard, court (of maloca) *g()-ʔátʦ()
476 crested oropendola *héékkɨ
477 manioc starch drink *kaʔgɨnɨku
478 arrive *gátʦe-
479 oil *dɨɨrɨ-ba-
482 sifter *níttɨ-ba
484 spicy *áiβo
489 dancing festival *hɨɨbaimo
491 manioc squeezer *gádameeʔu
492 mirror *méékɨme
494 son *ʔatʧi
495 we two *mɨʦi, *mɨpe
496 you two *amɨʦi, *amɨpe
497 they two (m.) *dii-t()-ʦi
498 they two (f.) *dii-t()-pe
499 her *i-
500 eat meat *duu
501 weave *nɨɨ
502 lick *neheʔku
503 healing blow *hɨbu
504 downriver *aam()hɨ
506 wake up *aikko
507 fireplace *kɨɨhɨgai
508 sieve *níttɨba
509 dancing beam *ʤari-ga
510 caimito fruit (Pouteria caimito) *mɨʦééʦe
511 palm, Socratea exorrhiza *háaʤa
512 leaves that produce black color *kaatɨ
513 peach palm (Bactris gasipaes) *moomo
514 Cecropia sp. *taaβi-ʔo
515 macambo fruit (Theobroma bicolor) *haaʔo
518 Inga edulis *tɨɨʦi-ʔo
519 ceramic saucepan *hɨgo-ba
520 uvilla fruit (Pourouma cecropiaefolia) *báaku
521 rifle *áinɨ-hɨ
522 palm, Astrocaryum chambira *nehe
523 umarí fruit (Poraqueiba sericea) *niimɨ
525 edible ant *m()níiko
526 avocado (Persea americana) *kúúhɨ
527 edible larvae áppai-ku
529 grater *kaʦu
530 miriti palm (Mauritia flexuosa) *íno-ʔo
532 pillars (of roundhouse) *-ʔakkɨ
533 Lepidocaryum tenue palm (for thatching roofs) *háhe
534 eat fruit *geen()
535 chew coca *dooikkɨ
536 feces *namo
539 drown *mákká-nɨ
541 pull out *gáihúkku
542 get scared *ígi
543 shame *n()kúppé-go-
544 dance *gaʔʦe
547 hunt *taaβa
549 cook *tɨ
550 catch *ɨkkɨ
551 tell, narrate *hɨɨb()go
553 cut *βɨrɨ
554 shoot *ainɨ
556 get drunk *gírííká-βo-
557 woolly monkey (Lagothrix lagotricha) *kɨmɨ
558 sweet *naamo
560 masculine (suffix) *-bo
562 conjure *apiiʧu, *ʤɨɨ()a-nɨ

References

  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Boran". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. ^ a b Loukotka, Čestmír (1968). Classification of South American Indian languages. Los Angeles: UCLA Latin American Center.
  3. ^ Jolkesky, Marcelo Pinho de Valhery (2016). Estudo arqueo-ecolinguístico das terras tropicais sul-americanas (Ph.D. dissertation) (2 ed.). Brasília: University of Brasília.
  4. ^ Müller, André, Viveka Velupillai, Søren Wichmann, Cecil H. Brown, Eric W. Holman, Sebastian Sauppe, Pamela Brown, Harald Hammarström, Oleg Belyaev, Johann-Mattis List, Dik Bakker, Dmitri Egorov, Matthias Urban, Robert Mailhammer, Matthew S. Dryer, Evgenia Korovina, David Beck, Helen Geyer, Pattie Epps, Anthony Grant, and Pilar Valenzuela. 2013. ASJP World Language Trees of Lexical Similarity: Version 4 (October 2013).
  5. ^ Seifart, Frank, & Echeverri, Juan Alvaro (2015). Proto Bora-Muinane. LIAMES: Línguas Indígenas Americanas, 15(2), 279 - 311. doi:10.20396/liames.v15i2.8642303
  6. ^ Banisterium. Database of Cross-Linguistic Colexifications.

Bibliography

  • Aschmann, Richard P. (1993). Proto Witotoan. Publications in linguistics (No. 114). Arlington, TX: SIL & the University of Texas at Arlington.
  • Campbell, Lyle. (1997). American Indian languages: The historical linguistics of Native America. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-509427-1.
  • Echeverri, Juan Alvaro & Frank Seifart. (2016). Proto-Witotoan: A re-evaluation of the distant genealogical relationship between the Boran and Witotoan linguistic families.
  • Kaufman, Terrence. (1990). Language history in South America: What we know and how to know more. In D. L. Payne (Ed.), Amazonian linguistics: Studies in lowland South American languages (pp. 13–67). Austin: University of Texas Press. ISBN 0-292-70414-3.
  • Kaufman, Terrence. (1994). The native languages of South America. In C. Mosley & R. E. Asher (Eds.), Atlas of the world's languages (pp. 46–76). London: Routledge.
  • Thiesen, W.; Thiesen, E. (1998). Diccionario: Bora - Castellano, Castellano - Bora. (Serie Lingüística Peruana, 46). Pucallpa: Summer Institute of Linguistics.
  • Walton, J. W.; Walton, J. P.; Pakky de Buenaventura, C. (1997). Diccionario bilingüe muinane-español, español-muinane. Santafé de Bogotá: Editorial Alberto Lleras Camargo.

External links


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