wanweipedia

Burmish languages

Burmish
Geographic
distribution
Myanmar
Linguistic classificationSino-Tibetan
Subdivisions
  • Burmic
  • Maruic
Glottologburm1266
L1 speakers of Burmish languages and other Sino-Tibetan languages according to Ethnologue

The Burmish languages are Burmese, including Standard Burmese, Arakanese and other Burmese dialects such as the Tavoyan dialects as well as non-literary languages spoken across Myanmar and South China such as Achang, Lhao Vo, Lashi, and Zaiwa.

Names

Many Burmish names are known by various names in different languages (Bradley 1997).

Names of Burmish languages
Autonym Jinghpaw name Burmese name Chinese name
Lawngwaw Maru မရူ Làngsù 浪速
Tsaiwa Atsi ဇီး Zǎiwǎ 载瓦
Lachik Lashi လရှီ Lāqí 喇期, Lèqí 勒期
Ngochang - မိုင်သာ Āchāng 阿昌
Pela - ဖော်လာ Bōlā 波拉

In China, the Zaiwa အဇီး 载瓦 (local Chinese exonym: Xiaoshan ရှောင့်ရှန် 小山), Lhao Vo 浪速 (local Chinese exonym: Lang'e 浪峨), Lashi 勒期 (local Chinese exonym: Chashan 茶山), and Pela 波拉 are officially classified as Jingpo people (Bolayu Yanjiu). The local Chinese exonym for the Jingpho proper is Dashan 大山.

Dai Qingxia (2005:3) lists the following autonyms and exonyms for the various Burmish groups as well as for Jingpho which is not a Burmish language, with both Chinese character and IPA transcriptions (given in square brackets).[1]

Burmish autonyms and exonyms
Language Lhao Vo people

浪速

လန့်စု

လူမျိုး

Jingpho people

景颇

ဂျိန်းဖောလူမျိုး

Zaiwa people

载瓦

အဇီး

လူမျိုး


Lashi people

勒期

လရှီ

လူမျိုး

Pela people

波拉

ဖော်လာလူမျိုး

Lhao Vo name 浪速语

လန့်စုအမည်

Lang'e 浪峨 [lɔ̃51 vɔ31] လန်ကေအ် Bowo 波沃 [pʰauk55 vɔ31] ပေါဝေါ Zha'e 杂蛾 [tsa35 vɔ31] အဇီး Lashi 勒期 [lă31 tʃʰik35] လရှီ Buluo 布洛 [pă31 lɔ31] ပူလူဝ်
Jingpho name 景颇语

ဂျိန်းဖောအမည်

Moru 默汝

[mă31 ʒu31] မိုရူ

Jingpho 景颇 [tʃiŋ31 pʰoʔ31] ဂျိန်းဖော Aji 阿纪 [a31 tsi55] အကျိ Leshi 勒施 [lă31 ʃi55] လေရှီ Boluo 波洛 [po31 lo31] ပေါလူဝ်
Zaiwa name 载瓦语

အဇီးအမည်

Lelang 勒浪[lă21 la̠ŋ51] လေအ်လန် Shidong 石东 [ʃi55 tu̠ŋ55] ရှီဒုင် Zaiwa 载瓦 [tsai31 va51] အဇီး Lashi 勒期 [lă21 tʃʰi55] လရှီ Buluo 布洛 [pă21 lo21] ပူလူဝ်
Lashi name 勒期语

လရှီအမည်

Langwu 浪悟 [laŋ31 vu51] လန်ငူ Puwu 铺悟 [pʰuk55 vu51] ဖူဝူ Zaiwu 载悟 [tsai31 vu51] ဇိုင်ဝု Lashi 勒期 [lă31 tʃʰi51] လရှီ Buluo 布洛 [pă31 lɔ51] ပူလူဝ်
Pela name 波拉语

ဖော်လာအမည်

Longwa 龙瓦 [lõ31 va31] လုင်းငွာ Baowa 泡瓦 [pʰauk31 va31] ပါဝ်ဝါ Diwa 氐瓦 [ti31 va31] သိဝါ Lashi 勒期 [lă31 tʃʰi55] လရှီ Pela 波拉 [po31 la31] ဖော်လာ

Autonyms are:[1]

  • Lhao Vo လန့်စု 浪速 (Lang'e 浪峨): lɔ̃51 vɔ31
  • Jingpho ဂျိန်းဖော 景颇: tʃiŋ31 pʰoʔ31
  • Zaiwa အဇီး 载瓦: tsai31 va51
  • Lashi လရှီ 勒期: lă31 tʃʰi51
  • Pela ဖော်လာ 波拉: po31 la31

The Chashan refer to themselves as ŋɔ31 tʃʰaŋ55 (Echang 峨昌), the Jingpho as phuk55, the Lashi as tsai33wu31 (tsai33 wu51), the Lhao Vo as lă31 laŋ31, the Lisu as lji33 səu31, and the Han Chinese as la31 xɛ31 (Dai 2010:153).[2]

Languages

Lama (2012)

Based on innovations in their tonal systems, Lama (2012: 177–179) classifies the languages as follows:

External image
image icon Map of the Burmish-Loloish languages. Demonstrates the Southern, Burmese cluster vs. Northern, Achang-Zaiwa cluster classification found in Lama (2012). Languages in the Burmish group of the Lolo-Burmese group appear in shades of blue.[3]

Chashan, a recently discovered Northern Burmish language, is closely related to Lashi.

Maingtha is a Northern Burmish language whose speakers are classified as a Shan subgroup.[4]

Nishi (1999)

Based on distinct treatment of the pre-glottalized initials of proto-Burmish, Nishi (1999: 68-70) divides the Burmish languages into two branches, Burmic and Maruic. The Burmic languages changed voiceless preglottalized stops into voiceless aspirate stops and preglottalized voiced sonorants into voiceless sonorants. The Maruic languages in contrast reflect voiceless preglottalized and affricate consonants as voiceless unaspirated and affricates with largyngealized vowels, and voiced preglottalized sonorants as voiced sonorants with laryngealized vowels. The Burmic Languages include Burmese, Achang, and Xiandao. The Maruic languages include Atsi (Zaiwa), Lashi (Leqi), Maru (Langsu), and Bola. Nishi does not classify Hpon and Nusu.

Burmic

The Arakanese language retains r- separate from y-, whereas the two fall together in most Burmese dialects and indeed most Burmish languages. Tavoyan has kept kl- distinct. No dialect has kept ry- distinct from r-, but this may be an independent innovation in the various dialects. Merguiese is apparently the least well studied Burmese dialect.

Maruic
  • Atsi (Zaiwa) (Burling 1967, Dai 1981, Yabu 1982, Xu and Xu 1984, Luce 1985: Charts S, T, V; Dai 1986, Huang et al. 1992, Wannemacher 1995-7, Wannemacher 1998)
  • Bola (Dai et al.: 1991; Huang et al. 1992, Edmondson 1992)
  • Lashi (Luce 1985: Charts S, T, V; Huang et al. 1992; Wannemacher 1995-7)
  • Maru (Lhao Vo) (Clerk 1911, Burling 1967, Luce 1985: Charts S, T, V; Okell 1988; Dai et al.: 1991; Huang et al. 1992; Wannemacher 1995-7)
  • Chashan also goes here

Mann (1998)

Mann (1998: 16, 137) in contrast groups together Achang, Bela (by which he probably means Bola), Lashi, Maru, and Atsi together as North Burmic.

Bradley (1997)

David Bradley places aberrant Ugong with Burmish rather than with Loloish:

  • Ugong–Burmish
    • Ugong
    • Burmish
      • Burmese
      • Burmish
        • Hpun
        • Core Burmish
          • Maru, Atsi
          • Lashi, Achang; Bola; Chintau (= Xiandao)

Footnotes

  1. ^ a b Dai Qingxia (2005). A study of Langsu [浪速语研究]. Beijing: Ethnic Publishing House.
  2. ^ Dai Qingxia [戴庆厦] (2010). The Chashan people of Pianma and their language [片马茶山人及其语言]. Beijing: The Commercial Press [商务印书馆].
  3. ^ "Research Foundation Language and Religion". Retrieved 2020-02-17. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  4. ^ Sawada, Hideo. 2017. Two Undescribed Dialects of Northern Burmish Sub-branch: Gyannoʔ and Thoʔlhang. Presented at ICSTLL 50, Beijing, China.

References

  • Bernot, D. (1958). "rapports phonetiques entre le dialecte marma et le birman." Bulletin de la Société de Linguistique de Paris 53: 273-294.
  • Bernot, D. (1965). "The vowel systems of Arakanese and Tavoyan." Lingua 15: 463-474.
  • Burling, Robbins (1967). Proto Lolo–Burmese. Bloomington: Indiana University.
  • Clerk, F. V. (1911). A manual of the Lawngwaw or Măru language, containing: the grammatical principles of the language, glossaries of special terms, colloquial exercises, and Maru-English and English-Maru vocabularies. Rangoon: American Baptist mission press.
  • Dai, Qing-xia (1981). "Zai-wa-yu shi-dong fan-chou di xing-tai bian-hua" (Morphological changes in the Zaiwa causative-verb category), in Min-zu yu-wen 1981.4:36-41.
  • Dai, Qing-xia (1986). Zaiwa-yu (the Atsi language). 中國大百科全書: 民族 Zhong-guo da-bai-ke quan-shu: Min-zu. (Magna Encyclopedia Sinica: Ethnology Volume). Beijing : 中國大百科全書出版社 : 新華書店經銷 Zhongguo da bai ke quan shu chu ban she : Xin hua shu dian jing xiao
  • Edmondson, Jerold A. (1992) Trip Notebook and Tapes on Bela Language. Unpublished, cited by Mann 1998.
  • Henderson, Eugénie J. A. (1986). "Some hitherto unpublished material on Northern (Megyaw) Hpun." John McCoy and Timothy Light, eds. Contributions to Sino-Tibetan Studies: 101-134.
  • Xun Gong, & Nathan Hill. (2020, June 9). Materials for an Etymological Dictionary of Burmish. Zenodo. http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4311182
  • Hill, Nathan, & Cooper, Douglas. (2020). A machine readable collection of lexical data on the Burmish languages [Data set]. Zenodo. http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3759030
  • Huang Bufan 黃布凡, ed. (1992). 藏緬語族語言詞匯 Zangmianyuzu yuyan cihui / A Tibeto-Burman Lexicon. Beijing: 中央民族大學出版社 Zhongyang minzu daxue chubanshe, 1992.
  • Luce, G. H. (1985). Phases of Pre-Pagán Burma: Languages and History. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Mann, Noel Walter. 1998. A phonological reconstruction of Proto Northern Burmic. Unpublished thesis. Arlington: The University of Texas.
  • Maran, L. R. (1971a). "A note on the development of tonal systems in Tibeto-Burman." Occasional Publications of the Wolfenden Society on Tibeto-Burman Linguistics 2.
  • Maran, L. R. (1971b). "Burmese and Jingpho: a study of tonal linguistic processes." Occasional Publications of the Wolfenden Society on Tibeto-Burman Linguistics 4.
  • Müller, André (2016). Linguistic convergence within the 'Kachin' languages. The Newsletter: International Institute for Asian Studies, (75):34-35. ‹See Tfd›doi:10.5167/uzh-127702
  • Pe Maung Tin (1933). "The dialect of Tavoy." Journal of the Burma Research Society 23.1: 31-46.
  • Okell, John (1988). "Notes on Tone Alternation in Maru Verbs". David Bradley, et al. eds. Prosodic Analysis and Asian Linguistics: to honour R.K. Sprigg. (Pacific Linguistics C-104). Canberra, A.C.T., Australia: Dept. of Linguistics, Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University:109-114.
  • Okell, John (1989). "Yaw: a dialect of Burmese". South East Asian linguistics: essays in honour of Eugénie J A Henderson. Ed. J H C S Davidson. London, SOAS:199-219.
  • Sawada Hideo (1999). "Outline of Phonology of Lhaovo (Maru) of Kachin State/". Linguistic & Anthropological Study of the Shan Culture Area, report of research project, Grant-in-Aid for International Scientific Research (Field Research):97-147.
  • Sprigg, R. K. (1963). "A comparison of Arakanese and Burmese based on phonological formulae." Shorto, H.L. (ed.) Linguistic Comparison in South East Asia and the Pacific: 109-132.
  • Taylor, L. F. (1922). "The dialects of Burmese." Journal of the Burma Research Society 11: 89-97.
  • Wannemacher, Mark W. (1995-7). Notes on Achang, Atsi, Jinghpaw, Lashi, and Maru. (unpublished manuscript cited by Mann 1998).
  • Wannemacher, Mark W. (1998) Aspects of Zaiwa Prosody: an Autosegmental Account. Summer Institute of Linguistics/University of Texas at Arlington.
  • Xu Xijian 徐悉艱 and Xu Guizhen 徐桂珍 (1984). 景頗族語言簡誌(載瓦語) / Jingpozu yuyan jianzhi (Zaiwa yu). Beijing: 民族出版社Minzu chubanshe, 1984.
  • Yabu Shirō 藪 司郎 (1980). "ビルマ語ヨー方言の資料 Birumago Yō hōgen no shiryō / Linguistic Data of the Yaw Dialect of the Burmese Language." アジア・アフリカ言語文化研究 Ajia Afurika gengo bunka kenkyū / Journal of Asian and African Studies 19: 164-182.
  • Yabu Shirō 藪 司郎 (1981a). "ビルマ語タウンヨウ方言の資料 Birumago Taunyou hōgen no shiryō / Linguistic Data of the Taung'yo Dialect of the Burmese Language." アジア・アフリカ言語文化研究 Ajia Afurika gengo bunka kenkyū / Journal of Asian and African Studies 21: 154-187.
  • Yabu Shirō 藪 司郎 (1981b). "ビルマ語ダヌ方言の会話テキスト Birumago Danu hōgen no kaiwa tekisuto / Conversational Texts of the Danu Dialect of Burmese." アジア・アフリカ言語文化研究 Ajia Afurika gengo bunka kenkyū / Journal of Asian and African Studies 22: 124-138.
  • Yabu Shirō 藪 司郎 (1982). アツィ語基礎語彙集 / Atsigo kiso goishū / Classified dictionary of the Atsi or Zaiwa language (Sadon dialect) with Atsi, Japanese and English indexes. Tokyo: 東京外国語大学アジア・アフリカ言語文化研究所 Tōkyō Gaikokugo Daigaku Ajia Afurika Gengo Bunka Kenkyūjo.
  • Yabu Shirō 藪 司郎 (1988). A preliminary report on the study of the Maru, Lashi and Atsi languages of Burma. In Yoshiaki Ishizawa (ed.), Historical and cultural studies in Burma, 65-132. Tokyo: Institute of Asian Studies, Sophia University.

This page was last updated at 2021-05-13 23:37, update this pageView original page

All information on this site, including but not limited to text, pictures, etc., are reproduced on Wikipedia (wikipedia.org), following the . Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License


Top

If the math, chemistry, physics and other formulas on this page are not displayed correctly, please useFirefox or Safari