wanweipedia

COVAX

COVID-19 Vaccines Global Access, abbreviated as COVAX, is a worldwide initiative aimed at equitable access to COVID-19 vaccines directed by Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance (formerly the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization, or GAVI), the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI), and the World Health Organization (WHO). It is one of the three pillars of the Access to COVID-19 Tools Accelerator, an initiative begun in April 2020 by the WHO, the European Commission, and the government of France as a response to the COVID-19 pandemic. COVAX coordinates international resources to enable low-to-middle-income countries equitable access to COVID-19 tests, therapies, and vaccines.[1] By 15 July 2020, 165 countries – representing 60% of the human population – had joined COVAX.[2] However, as of 11 April 2021, COVAX is falling short of its goal, having delivered 38.5 million doses despite a goal of 100 million by the end of March.[3][4]

Vaccine candidates

Many of the countries that will benefit from COVAX have "limited regulatory capacity" and depend on WHO's authorisations. By early 2021, WHO was reviewing 11 potential COVID-19 vaccines for its Emergency Use Listing (EUL).[5] The first vaccine WHO authorised for its EUL on 31 December 2020 was the Pfizer–BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine—an RNA vaccine developed by BioNTech in cooperation with the American company Pfizer sold under the brand name Comirnaty.[6][7][8]

The WHO stated in a press release on 24 August 2020 that COVAX had nine CEPI-supported vaccine candidates and nine candidates undergoing trials, giving it the largest selection of COVID-19 vaccinations in the world.[9] By December 2020, COVAX had finalized negotiations with other manufacturers that gave it access to two billion vaccine doses.[10]

Distribution (recipients)

Involvement by country
  •  AMC donor
  •  Member of the EC (AMC donor)
  •  Self-financing participant
  •  Self-financing participant and AMC donor
  •  AMC recipient
  •  AMC recipient and donor
  •  Not involved

COVAX provides vaccines to the developing world.[11] A total of 92 low- and middle-income countries are eligible to receive COVID-19 vaccines through the COVAX mechanism[12] through the COVAX Vaccines Advance Market Commitment (AMC) financing instrument.[12][13] COVAX AMC is funded by donor contributions.[13] COVAX AMC funds the COVAX Facility, the vaccine procurement platform.[13]

On 3 February 2021, GAVI, the WHO, and UNICEF published the country-by-country distribution of the Pfizer–BioNTech and Oxford–AstraZeneca vaccines forecast for first half of 2021.[14] The early projection includes 1.2 million doses of the Pfizer–BioNTech vaccine in Q1 2021 and 336 million doses of the Oxford–AstraZeneca vaccine in first half 2021 to the 145 COVAX facility participants.[15][16] It is expected that health care workers and the most vulnerable will receive the first doses, which are anticipated to reach approximately 3.3% of the total population of each participating country by the end of the first half of 2021.[16]

In February 2021, the WHO and Chubb Limited announced the roll out of a no-fault compensation scheme for COVID-19 vaccinations for low and middle-income countries which would be financed initially through Gavi COVAX AMC donor funding.[17]

On 24 February 2021, Ghana became the first country in the world to receive vaccines through COVAX when 600,000 doses of the Oxford–AstraZeneca vaccine were delivered to Accra.[11][18]

On 1 March 2021, frontline workers and public officials from the Ivory Coast became the first persons to be inoculated with COVID-19 vaccines shipped from the COVAX Facility. More than 500,000 doses of the Oxford–AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine manufactured by the Serum Institute of India were shipped to the city of Abidjan the week before. The vaccines were flown in by UNICEF from Mumbai.[19]

On 5 March 2021, Moldova received 14,400 Oxford–AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine units through COVAX, becoming the first European country to do so. The country had already been donated 21,600 doses of the same vaccine by Romania some days earlier.[20]

On 25 March 2021, Bosnia and Herzegovina received 24,300 Pfizer–BioNTech and 26,400 Oxford–AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine units through COVAX, becoming the second European country to do so.[21] The country had already been, in total, donated over 20,000 doses of the Oxford–AstraZeneca vaccine by Serbia and Slovenia some weeks earlier.[22][23]

Interim Distribution Forecast as of 3 February 2021 (doses)[16]
AMC: Advance Market Commitment; SFP: Self-Financing Participants
Participant SFP/AMC AstraZeneca
SII
AstraZeneca
SK Bioscience
Pfizer–BioNTech Total
 India AMC 97,164,000 - - 97,164,000
 Pakistan AMC 17,160,000 - - 17,160,000
 Nigeria AMC 16,008,000 - - 16,008,000
 Indonesia AMC - 13,708,800 - 13,708,800
 Bangladesh AMC 12,792,000 - - 12,792,000
 Brazil SFP - 10,672,800 - 10,672,800
 Ethiopia AMC 8,928,000 - - 8,928,000
 Congo, Dem. Rep. AMC 6,948,000 - - 6,948,000
 Mexico SFP - 6,472,800 - 6,472,800
 Philippines AMC - 5,500,800 117,000 5,617,800
 Egypt AMC - 5,138,400 - 5,138,400
 Vietnam AMC - 4,886,400 - 4,886,400
 Myanmar AMC 4,224,000 - - 4,224,000
 Iran SFP - 4,216,800 - 4,216,800
 Kenya AMC 4,176,000 - - 4,176,000
 Uganda AMC 3,552,000 - - 3,552,000
 Sudan AMC 3,396,000 - - 3,396,000
 South Africa SFP - 2,976,000 117,000 3,093,000
 Afghanistan AMC 3,024,000 - - 3,024,000
 South Korea SFP - 2,596,800 117,000 2,713,800
 Colombia SFP - 2,553,600 117,000 2,670,600
 Uzbekistan AMC 2,640,000 - - 2,640,000
 Angola AMC 2,544,000 - - 2,544,000
 Mozambique AMC 2,424,000 - - 2,424,000
 Ghana AMC 2,412,000 - - 2,412,000
 Ukraine AMC - 2,215,200 117,000 2,332,200
 Yemen AMC 2,316,000 - - 2,316,000
 Argentina SFP - 2,275,200 - 2,275,200
   Nepal AMC 2,256,000 - - 2,256,000
 Algeria AMC - 2,200,800 - 2,200,800
 Cameroon AMC 2,052,000 - - 2,052,000
 Cote d'Ivoire AMC 2,040,000 - - 2,040,000
 Iraq SFP - 2,018,400 - 2,018,400
 North Korea AMC 1,992,000 - - 1,992,000
 Canada SFP - 1,903,200 - 1,903,200
 Morocco AMC - 1,881,600 - 1,881,600
 Niger AMC 1,872,000 - - 1,872,000
 Peru SFP - 1,653,600 117,000 1,770,600
 Saudi Arabia SFP - 1,747,200 - 1,747,200
 Sri Lanka AMC 1,692,000 - - 1,692,000
 Malaysia SFP - 1,624,800 - 1,624,800
 Burkina Faso AMC 1,620,000 - - 1,620,000
 Mali AMC 1,572,000 - - 1,572,000
 Malawi AMC 1,476,000 - - 1,476,000
 Zambia AMC 1,428,000 - - 1,428,000
 Venezuela SFP - 1,425,600 - 1,425,600
Non-UN Member States N/A - 1,303,200 - 1,303,200
 Cambodia AMC 1,296,000 - - 1,296,000
 Senegal AMC 1,296,000 - - 1,296,000
 Chad AMC 1,272,000 - - 1,272,000
 Somalia AMC 1,224,000 - - 1,224,000
 Zimbabwe AMC 1,152,000 - - 1,152,000
 Guinea AMC 1,020,000 - - 1,020,000
 Syrian Arab Republic AMC 1,020,000 - - 1,020,000
 Bolivia AMC 900,000 - 92,430 992,430
 Chile SFP - 957,600 - 957,600
 Benin AMC 936,000 - - 936,000
 Rwanda AMC 996,000 - 102,960 1,098,960
 Ecuador SFP - 885,600 - 885,600
 Haiti AMC 876,000 - - 876,000
 South Sudan AMC 864,000 - - 864,000
 Guatemala SFP - 847,200 - 847,200
 Tajikistan AMC 732,000 - - 732,000
 Tunisia AMC - 592,800 93,600 686,400
 Papua New Guinea AMC 684,000 - - 684,000
 Togo AMC 636,000 - - 636,000
 Sierra Leone AMC 612,000 - - 612,000
 Laos AMC 564,000 - - 564,000
 Dominican Republic SFP - 542,400 - 542,400
 Jordan SFP - 511,200 - 511,200
 Azerbaijan SFP - 506,400 - 506,400
 Kyrgyz Republic AMC 504,000 - - 504,000
 Nicaragua AMC 504,000 - - 504,000
 Honduras AMC - 496,800 - 496,800
 Congo, Rep. AMC 420,000 - - 420,000
 Liberia AMC 384,000 - - 384,000
 El Salvador AMC - 324,000 51,480 375,480
 Central African Republic AMC 372,000 - - 372,000
 Mauritania AMC 360,000 - - 360,000
 Paraguay SFP - 357,600 - 357,600
 Serbia SFP - 345,600 - 345,600
 Libya SFP - 343,200 - 343,200
 Lebanon SFP - 340,800 - 340,800
 Singapore SFP - 288,000 - 288,000
 West Bank and Gaza AMC - 240,000 37,440 277,440
 Costa Rica SFP - 254,400 - 254,400
 Oman SFP - 254,400 - 254,400
 New Zealand SFP - 249,600 - 249,600
 Panama SFP - 216,000 - 216,000
 Georgia SFP - 184,800 29,250 214,050
 Mongolia AMC - 163,200 25,740 188,940
 Moldova AMC - 156,000 24,570 180,570
 Gambia, The AMC 180,000 - - 180,000
 Bosnia and Herzegovina SFP - 153,600 23,400 177,000
 Uruguay SFP - 172,800 - 172,800
 Lesotho AMC 156,000 - - 156,000
 Armenia SFP - 146,400 - 146,400
 Jamaica SFP - 146,400 - 146,400
 Guinea AMC 144,000 - - 144,000
 Qatar SFP - 144,000 - 144,000
 Albania SFP - 141,600 - 141,600
 Namibia SFP - 127,200 - 127,200
 Botswana SFP - 117,600 - 117,600
 Bhutan AMC 108,000 - 5,850 113,850
 Cabo Verde AMC 108,000 - 5,850 113,850
 Comoros AMC 108,000 - - 108,000
 Djibouti AMC 108,000 - - 108,000
 Eswatini AMC 108,000 - - 108,000
 Solomon Islands AMC 108,000 - - 108,000
 North Macedonia SFP - 103,200 - 103,200
 Maldives AMC 108,000 - 5,850 113,850
 Bahamas SFP - 100,800 - 100,800
 Bahrain SFP - 100,800 - 100,800
 Barbados SFP - 100,800 - 100,800
 Belize SFP - 100,800 - 100,800
 Brunei Darussalam SFP - 100,800 - 100,800
 Fiji AMC - 100,800 - 100,800
 Guyana AMC - 100,800 - 100,800
 Kosovo AMC - 100,800 - 100,800
 Mauritius SFP - 100,800 - 100,800
 Timor-Leste AMC - 100,800 - 100,800
 Trinidad and Tobago SFP - 100,800 - 100,800
 Vanuatu AMC - 100,800 - 100,800
 Sao Tome and Principe AMC 96,000 - - 96,000
 Montenegro SFP - 84,000 - 84,000
 Samoa AMC - 79,200 - 79,200
 Suriname SFP - 79,200 - 79,200
 St. Lucia AMC - 74,400 - 74,400
 Kiribati AMC - 48,000 - 48,000
 Micronesia, Fed. Sts. AMC - 48,000 - 48,000
 Grenada AMC - 45,600 - 45,600
 St. Vincent and the Grenadines AMC - 45,600 - 45,600
 Tonga AMC - 43,200 - 43,200
 Antigua and Barbuda SFP - 40,800 - 40,800
 Dominica AMC - 28,800 - 28,800
 Andorra SFP - 26,400 - 26,400
 Marshall Islands AMC - 24,000 - 24,000
 St. Kitts and Nevis SFP - 21,600 - 21,600
 Monaco SFP - 7,200 - 7,200
 Nauru SFP - 7,200 - 7,200
 Tuvalu AMC - 4,800 - 4,800
TOTAL - 227,664,000 91,200,000 1,200,420 320,064,420

Participants (donors)

COVAX is principally funded by rich Western countries.[11] As of 19 February 2021, 30 countries have signed commitment agreements to the COVAX Facility as well as the European Union. Although more than $6 billion was pledged, not all of the funding has been delivered yet. In April, the initiative wrote that it had not yet received its target of $3.2 billion for 2021.[24]

Although mainly funded by governments ("Official Development Assistance"), the COVAX scheme is also funded by private-sector and philanthropic contributions, and recipient countries may share some costs for vaccines and delivery.[13]

COVAX-AMC donors as of 19 February 2021 (million USD)[25]
Donor Contributions
 United States 2,500
 Germany 1,093
 United Kingdom 735
 European Union 489
 Japan 200
 Canada 181
Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation 156
 Saudi Arabia 153
 Norway 141
 France 122
 Italy 104
 Australia 61
 Spain 61
 Netherlands 37
 Austria 32
Reed Hastings and Patty Quillin 30
 Sweden 24
Anonymous Foundation 22
  Switzerland 22
 India 15
 New Zealand 12
 Kuwait 10
 Qatar 10
Shell 10
 South Korea 10
TikTok 10
 Denmark 8
 Belgium 5
 Ireland 5
 Singapore 5
Wise 5
Soccer Aid 4
Thistledown Foundation 4
 Greece 2
 Iceland 2
 Colombia 1
KSRelief 1
 Luxembourg 1
Mastercard 1
Nikkei, Inc. 1
 Estonia 0.1
 Monaco 0.1
Medline International 0.02
 Bhutan 0.01
Total 6,268

European Union

As of November 2020, the European Union (EU) and EU members have pledged €870 million to COVAX.[26] The European Commission (EC) brought the EU into COVAX on 31 August 2020 and pledged €400 million in guarantees,[27] but did not state how this money would be paid out or its conditions.[28] The EC pledged a further €100 million from the 11th European Development Fund to COVAX via a grant to GAVI on 12 November. Individual EU member states have also made additional pledges; France donated an additional €100 million, Spain an additional €50 million, and Finland an additional €2 million.[26]

According to the Foreign Office of the Federal Republic of Germany, Germany has joined COVAX through the European Union and has pledged €300 million for the treatment of COVID-19 in developing nations bringing the total EU contribution to over €2.2 billion.[29]

United Kingdom

The United Kingdom has provided £548 million to Covax.[30] The United Kingdom was the biggest single donor to COVAX-AMC until being overtaken by the European Union and the United States.[31]

United States

As part of its America First policy,[32] the Trump administration stated on 1 September 2020 that it would not join COVAX because of its association with the WHO,[33][34] from which it had begun a year-long withdrawal process on 6 July 2020.[35]

After defeating Trump in the 2020 election, Joe Biden announced that the United States would remain in the WHO and would join COVAX on January 20, 2021. This reversal of American policy (announced by Anthony Fauci, Chief Medical Advisor to the President) was welcomed globally.[36][37] On 19 February, the US pledged $4 billion, making it the single largest contributor to the fund.[38]

India

India joined COVAX through a membership with the GAVI alliance and contributed $15 million for 2021-2025, but is also a recipient.[39] The Serum Institute of India is the main producer for the Oxford–AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine ("Covishield"), and the principal source for the COVAX facility worldwide; up to 700 million doses were expected for 2021. After initial deliveries to North Africa, West Africa, Eastern Europe and the Middle East in March and April 2021, Indian officials have begun to limit "Covishield" exports until June 2021, due to soaring case numbers in their own states and territories.[40][41] Based on the high infection rates in India, COVAX is now projected to only deliver 145 million doses instead of 240 million by May 2021. Production of the vaccine was also negatively affected because of a ban by the U.S. on the export of key raw materials.[42]

China

China has joined COVAX on 9 October 2020.[43] On 4 June 2020, China has decided to increase its donation to GAVI for 2020-2025 to $20 million compared to $5 million for 2016-2020.[44] China declared on 3February 2021 that it will provide 10million vaccine doses to COVAX.[45] On 23 April 2021, the WHO confirmed the final review of two Chinese Covid-19 vaccines for emergency use licensing. Approvals of the BBIBP-CorV and CoronaVac vaccines are expected by the beginning of May 2021, allowing for their equitable distribution on a global scale.[46]

Private donors

It is possible for private donors to donate to COVAX through the "Go Give One" campaign. According to a WHO estimate, vaccines provided in developing countries through the campaign cost about US$7 per dose.[47]

See also

References

  1. ^ "COVAX explained". gavi.org. GAVI. Retrieved 25 February 2021. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  2. ^ World Health Organization (15 July 2020). "More than 150 countries engaged in COVID-19 vaccine global access facility". Retrieved 3 February 2021.
  3. ^ Gleeson, Deborah (11 April 2021). "The best hope for fairly distributing COVID-19 vaccines globally is at risk of failing. Here's how to save it". The Conversation. Retrieved 25 April 2021. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  4. ^ "Coronavirus: WHO chief criticizes 'shocking' global vaccine divide". BBC. 10 April 2021. Retrieved 25 April 2021. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  5. ^ Widianto, Stanley (29 January 2021). "COVAX to ship enough shots for 3% of poor countries' populations in H1 - WHO". Reuters. Jakarta. Retrieved 3 February 2021.
  6. ^ "Comirnaty EPAR". European Medicines Agency (EMA). Retrieved 23 December 2020.
  7. ^ "WHO issues its first emergency use validation for a COVID-19 vaccine and emphasizes need for equitable global access". World Health Organization (WHO) (Press release). 31 December 2020. Retrieved 6 January 2021.
  8. ^ "Interim recommendations for use of the Pfizer–BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine, BNT162b2, under Emergency Use Listing". World Health Organization (WHO). 8 January 2021. Retrieved 6 May 2021.
  9. ^ World Health Organization (24 August 2020). "172 countries and multiple candidate vaccines engaged in COVID-19 vaccine Global Access Facility" (Press release). Retrieved 4 February 2021. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  10. ^ World Health Organization (18 December 2020). "COVAX Announces additional deals to access promising COVID-19 vaccine candidates; plans global rollout starting Q1 2021" (Press release). Retrieved 4 February 2021. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  11. ^ a b c Gabriele Steinhauser, Ghana Is First Nation to Get Free Covid-19 Vaccines Under Covax Plan, Wall Street Journal (February 24, 2021).
  12. ^ a b 92 low- and middle-income economies eligible to get access to COVID-19 vaccines through Gavi COVAX AMC, Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance (31 July 2020).
  13. ^ a b c d Seth Berkley. "The Gavi COVAX AMC Explained". Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance.
  14. ^ Jerving, Sara (3 February 2021). "COVAX releases country-by-country of vaccine distribution figures". Devex. Retrieved 3 February 2021.
  15. ^ "COVAX publishes first interim distribution forecast". Gavi. 3 February 2021.
  16. ^ a b c "The Covax Facility: Interim Distribution Forecast – latest as of 3 February 2021" (PDF). COVAX. 3 February 2021.
  17. ^ "World's first COVID-19 vaccination compensation scheme launched". Health Europa. Retrieved 24 February 2021. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  18. ^ "Covid: WHO scheme Covax delivers first vaccines". BBC. Retrieved 24 February 2021. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  19. ^ Ducharme, Jamie (MARCH 1, 2021). "The First COVID-19 Vaccines Shipped Through COVAX Were Administered in the Ivory Coast". time.com. Retrieved 1 March 2021.
  20. ^ "Moldova becomes first European country to receive COVID-19 vaccines under COVAX scheme". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 5 March 2021.
  21. ^ I.S. (25 March 2021). "U BiH preko COVAX-a došla i pošiljka vakcina AstraZenece" (in Bosnian). Klix.ba. Retrieved 25 March 2021.
  22. ^ R.D. (2 March 2021). "Predsjednik Srbije Aleksandar Vučić sletio u Sarajevo s donacijom vakcina" (in Bosnian). Klix.ba. Retrieved 2 March 2021.
  23. ^ G.M. (5 March 2021). "Borut Pahor u Predsjedništvu BiH, Slovenija donira 4.800 vakcina našoj zemlji" (in Bosnian). Klix.ba. Retrieved 5 March 2021.
  24. ^ "How can we vaccinate the world? Five challenges facing the UN-backed COVAX programme". UN News. 5 April 2021. Retrieved 25 April 2021. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  25. ^ "Key Outcomes: COVAX AMC 2021" (PDF). Gavi.
  26. ^ a b European Commission (12 November 2020). "EU increases its contribution to COVAX to €500 million to secure COVID-19 vaccines for low and middle-income countries" (Press release). Retrieved 3 February 2021. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  27. ^ European Commission (31 August 2020). "Coronavirus Global Response: Commission joins the COVID-19 Vaccine Global Access Facility (COVAX)" (Press release). Retrieved 4 February 2021. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  28. ^ Guarascio, Francesco; Nebehay, Stephanie (31 August 2020). "EU offers 400 million euros to WHO-led COVID-19 vaccine initiative". Reuters. Retrieved 4 February 2021. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  29. ^ "Corona-Impfstoff weltweit fair verteilen: GAVI kündigt erste Lieferung von Impfdosen über COVAX an". Federal Foreign Office (in German). Federal Republic of Germany. 3 February 2021. Retrieved 3 February 2021. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  30. ^ "Corona-Covax: How will Covid vaccines be shared with poorer countries? an". BBC News. BBC. 26 January 2021. Retrieved 4 February 2021. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  31. ^ "Key Outcomes: COVAX AMC" (PDF). Gavi.
  32. ^ Williams, Abigail (3 September 2020). "U.S. opts out of WHO-linked global COVID-19 vaccine effort". NBC News. Retrieved 3 February 2021. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  33. ^ Beer, Thomas (1 September 2020). "U.S. Won't Join Global Coronavirus Vaccine Effort Because It's Led By The WHO". Forbes. Retrieved 15 November 2020. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  34. ^ Rauhala, Emily; Abutaleb, Yasmeen (1 September 2020). "U.S. says it won't join WHO-linked effort to develop, distribute coronavirus vaccine". The Washington Post. Retrieved 4 February 2021. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  35. ^ Smith, Allan; Perlmutter-Gumbiner, Elyse (7 July 2020). "Trump administration gives formal notice of withdrawal from WHO". NBC News. Retrieved 3 February 2021. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  36. ^ Nebehay, Stephanie (21 January 2021). "U.S., staying in WHO, to join COVID vaccine push for poor nations: Fauci". Reuters. Retrieved 3 February 2021. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  37. ^ Donato Paolo Mancini (21 January 2021). "US joins global vaccine efforts on Biden's first day". Financial Times.
  38. ^ "Covid vaccines: G7 increase support for Covax scheme". BBC News. 19 February 2021. Retrieved 19 February 2021.
  39. ^ GAVI (The Vaccine Alliance) – India. Retrieved 25 March 2021.
  40. ^ Beaumont, Peter (24 March 2021) "Delhi reportedly halts AstraZeneca Covid vaccine exports as cases soar". theguardian.com. Retrieved 25 March 2021.
  41. ^ McGregor, Grady (April 7, 2021). "India’s record wave of COVID-19 infections threatens the global vaccine supply". Fortune. Retrieved 9 April 2021.
  42. ^ "Why Covid-19 Vaccination in Poorer Nations Has Slowed, Posing Global Risks". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 24 April 2021.
  43. ^ Qian, Colin; Nebehay, Stephanie (9 October 2020). "China joins WHO-backed vaccine programme COVAX rejected by Trump". Reuters. Retrieved 10 March 2021.
  44. ^ "China". www.gavi.org. Retrieved 10 March 2021.
  45. ^ Crossley, Gabriel; Woo, Ryan; Hogue, Tom; Cameron-Moore, Simon (3 February 2021). "China to provide 10 million vaccine doses to COVAX initiative". Reuters. Retrieved 10 March 2021.
  46. ^ Ma, Josephine (23 Apr, 2021). "China’s Covid-19 vaccines reach final stage of WHO approval process". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 24 April 2021.
  47. ^ "Donate $7 for a COVID-19 vaccine to help end pandemic, WHO urges". Reuters. 28 April 2021. Retrieved 4 May 2021.

External links


This page was last updated at 2021-05-07 03:32, update this pageView original page

All information on this site, including but not limited to text, pictures, etc., are reproduced on Wikipedia (wikipedia.org), following the . Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License


Top

If the math, chemistry, physics and other formulas on this page are not displayed correctly, please useFirefox or Safari