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COVID-19 vaccine

A COVID-19 vaccine is a hypothetical vaccine against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Although no vaccine exists yet, there are multiple attempts in progress to develop such a vaccine. In late February 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) said it did not expect a vaccine against SARS-CoV-2, the causative virus, to become available in less than 18 months.[1] By early March 2020, some 30 vaccine candidates were in development.

Previous coronavirus vaccine efforts

Vaccines have been produced against several diseases caused by coronaviruses for animal use, including for infectious bronchitis virus in birds, canine coronavirus and feline coronavirus.[2]

Previous efforts to develop vaccines for viruses in the family Coronaviridae that affect humans have been aimed at severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). Vaccines against SARS[3] and MERS[4] have been tested in animal models. As of 2020, there is no cure or protective vaccine for SARS that has been shown to be both safe and effective in humans.[5][6] According to research papers published in 2005 and 2006, the identification and development of novel vaccines and medicines to treat SARS is a priority for governments and public health agencies around the world.[7][8][9]

There is also no proven vaccine against MERS.[10] When MERS became prevalent, it was believed that existing SARS research may provide a useful template for developing vaccines and therapeutics against a MERS-CoV infection.[5][11] As of 2016, vaccine candidates were awaiting clinical trials.[12][13][14]

2020 efforts

SARS-CoV-2 was identified in late 2019 as the cause of what would later be named COVID-19. A major outbreak spread around the world in 2020, leading to considerable investment in research to develop a vaccine.

Many organizations are using published genomes to develop possible vaccines against SARS-CoV-2.[15][16][17] Bodies working to develop vaccines include the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention,[18][19] the University of Hong Kong,[20] the Shanghai East Hospital,[20] and other universities, such as Washington University in St. Louis.[21]

Three vaccine projects are being supported by the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI), including projects by the biotechnology companies Moderna,[22] Inovio Pharmaceuticals, and the University of Queensland.[23] The United States National Institutes of Health (NIH) is cooperating with Moderna to create an RNA vaccine matching a spike of the coronavirus surface and intends to start human trials by May 2020.[15] Inovio Pharmaceuticals is developing a DNA-based vaccination in collaboration with a Chinese firm, planning human clinical trials in the summer of the Northern Hemisphere of 2020.[24] In Australia, the University of Queensland is investigating the potential of a molecular clamp vaccine that would genetically modify viral proteins in order to stimulate an immune reaction.[23] In Canada, the International Vaccine Centre (VIDO-InterVac), University of Saskatchewan, received federal funding to work on a vaccine, aiming to start animal testing in March 2020 and human testing in 2021.[25][26] In January 2020, Janssen Pharmaceutical Companies began work on developing a vaccine, using the same technologies as for its experimental Ebola vaccine.[27] In the following month, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services' Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA) announced that it would collaborate with Janssen and, later, Sanofi Pasteur to develop a vaccine.[28][29] Sanofi has previously worked on a vaccine for SARS, and it stated to expect to have a vaccine candidate within six months that could be ready to test in people within a year to 18 months.[28] Janssen is codeveloping an oral vaccine with its biotechnology partner, Vaxart.[30] Bulgarian biotechnology company Micar21 has been developing a general Coronavirus vaccine in the past four years, and announced that it will begin clinical trials of a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine based on this research in mid-2020.[31]

On 26 February 2020, a U.S. health official from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) said that it will take "at least a year to a year and a half at best" to develop a vaccine for the coronavirus.[32] On 27 February, Folding@home, a distributed computing project that uses volunteer computer resources for disease research, announced it was furthering vaccine development by using computer simulations to model the structure of the 2019-nCoV spike protein.[33][34]

In March 2020, news reported that initial phase 1 testing of a Coronavirus vaccine from biotechnology company Moderna is expected to start soon.[35][36]

Rumors and misinformation

Social media posts have promoted a conspiracy theory claiming the virus behind COVID-19 was known and that a vaccine was already available. PolitiFact and FactCheck.org noted that no vaccine currently exists for COVID-19. The patents cited by various social media posts reference existing patents for genetic sequences and vaccines for other strains of coronavirus such as the SARS coronavirus.[37][38]

References

  1. ^ Grenfell, Rob; Drew, Trevor (17 February 2020). "Here's Why It's Taking So Long to Develop a Vaccine for the New Coronavirus". ScienceAlert. Archived from the original on 28 February 2020. Retrieved 26 February 2020.
  2. ^ Cavanagh, Dave (2003). "Severe acute respiratory syndrome vaccine development: Experiences of vaccination against avian infectious bronchitis coronavirus". Avian Pathology. 32 (6): 567–582. doi:10.1080/03079450310001621198. PMID 14676007.
  3. ^ Gao, Wentao; Tamin, Azaibi; Soloff, Adam; d'Aiuto, Leonardo; Nwanegbo, Edward; Robbins, Paul D.; Bellini, William J.; Barratt-Boyes, Simon; Gambotto, Andrea (2003). "Effects of a SARS-associated coronavirus vaccine in monkeys". The Lancet. 362 (9399): 1895–1896. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(03)14962-8. PMID 14667748.
  4. ^ Kim, Eun; Okada, Kaori; Kenniston, Tom; Raj, V. Stalin; Alhajri, Mohd M.; Farag, Elmoubasher A.B.A.; Alhajri, Farhoud; Osterhaus, Albert D.M.E.; Haagmans, Bart L.; Gambotto, Andrea (2014). "Immunogenicity of an adenoviral-based Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus vaccine in BALB/C mice". Vaccine. 32 (45): 5975–5982. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2014.08.058. PMID 25192975.
  5. ^ a b Jiang, Shibo; Lu, Lu; Du, Lanying (2013). "Development of SARS vaccines and therapeutics is still needed". Future Virology. 8 (1): 1–2. doi:10.2217/fvl.12.126.
  6. ^ "SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome)". National Health Service. 5 March 2020. Archived from the original on 9 March 2020. Retrieved 31 January 2020.
  7. ^ Greenough, Thomas C.; Babcock, Gregory J.; Roberts, Anjeanette; Hernandez, Hector J.; et al. (15 February 2005). "Development and Characterization of a Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome–Associated Coronavirus–Neutralizing Human Monoclonal Antibody That Provides Effective Immunoprophylaxis in Mice". The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 191 (4): 507–14. doi:10.1086/427242. PMID 15655773.
  8. ^ Tripp, Ralph A.; Haynes, Lia M.; Moore, Deborah; Anderson, Barbara; et al. (September 2005). "Monoclonal antibodies to SARS-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV): Identification of neutralizing and antibodies reactive to S, N, M and E viral proteins". Journal of Virological Methods. 128 (1–2): 21–8. doi:10.1016/j.jviromet.2005.03.021. PMID 15885812.
  9. ^ Roberts, Anjeanette; Thomas, William D.; Guarner, Jeannette; Lamirande, Elaine W.; et al. (March 2006). "Therapy with a Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome–Associated Coronavirus–Neutralizing Human Monoclonal Antibody Reduces Disease Severity and Viral Burden in Golden Syrian Hamsters". The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 193 (5): 685–92. doi:10.1086/500143. PMID 16453264.
  10. ^ Shehata, M.M., Gomaa, M.R., Ali, M.A. et al. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus: a comprehensive review. Front. Med. 10, 120–136 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-016-0430-6
  11. ^ Butler, Declan (October 2012). "SARS veterans tackle coronavirus". Nature. 490 (7418): 20. Bibcode:2012Natur.490...20B. doi:10.1038/490020a. PMID 23038444.
  12. ^ Parrish, Ryan (7 June 2013). "Novavax creates MERS-CoV vaccine candidate". Vaccine News Daily. Archived from the original on 2 May 2014. Retrieved 24 June 2013.
  13. ^ "MERS: Greffex Does It Again" (Press release). Greffex Inc. 26 June 2013. Archived from the original on 1 August 2014. Retrieved 27 June 2013 – via Business Wire.
  14. ^ "Vaccines for the prevention against the threat of MERS-CoV" (Press release). NCBI. 6 April 2016. Retrieved 12 March 2020 – via NIH.
  15. ^ a b Steenhuysen J, Kelland K (24 January 2020). "With Wuhan virus genetic code in hand, scientists begin work on a vaccine". Reuters. Archived from the original on 25 January 2020. Retrieved 25 January 2020.
  16. ^ Praveen Duddu. Coronavirus outbreak: Vaccines/drugs in the pipeline for Covid-19 Archived 19 February 2020 at the Wayback Machine. clinicaltrialsarena.com 19 February 2020.
  17. ^ Lee, Jaimy (7 March 2020). "These nine companies are working on coronavirus treatments or vaccines — here's where things stand". MarketWatch. Retrieved 7 March 2020.
  18. ^ "China CDC developing novel coronavirus vaccine". Xinhua News Agency. 26 January 2020. Archived from the original on 26 January 2020. Retrieved 28 January 2020.
  19. ^ Jeong-ho, Lee; Zheng, William; Zhou, Laura (26 January 2020). "Chinese scientists race to develop vaccine as coronavirus death toll jumps". South China Morning Post. Archived from the original on 26 January 2020. Retrieved 28 January 2020.
  20. ^ a b Cheung, Elizabeth (28 January 2020). "Hong Kong researchers have developed coronavirus vaccine, expert reveals". South China Morning Post. Archived from the original on 28 January 2020. Retrieved 28 January 2020.
  21. ^ Chen, Eli (5 March 2020). "Wash U Scientists Are Developing A Coronavirus Vaccine". St. Louis Public Radio. Archived from the original on 7 March 2020. Retrieved 6 March 2020.
  22. ^ Ziady, Hanna (26 February 2020). "Biotech company Moderna says its coronavirus vaccine is ready for first tests". CNN. Archived from the original on 28 February 2020. Retrieved 2 March 2020.
  23. ^ a b Devlin, Hannah (24 January 2020). "Lessons from SARS outbreak help in race for coronavirus vaccine". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 25 January 2020. Retrieved 25 January 2020.
  24. ^ Mazumdar, Tulip (30 January 2020). "Coronavirus: Scientists race to develop a vaccine". BBC News. Archived from the original on 30 January 2020. Retrieved 3 February 2020.
  25. ^ "Saskatchewan lab joins global effort to develop coronavirus vaccine". CBC News. The Canadian Press. 24 January 2020. Archived from the original on 25 January 2020. Retrieved 25 January 2020.
  26. ^ Vescera, Zak (6 March 2020). "U of S team gets federal dollars to develop COVID-19 vaccine". Saskatoon StarPhoenix. Archived from the original on 9 March 2020. Retrieved 7 March 2020.
  27. ^ Mishra, Manas (29 January 2020). Orr, Bernard; Kuber, Shailesh (eds.). "Johnson & Johnson working on vaccine for deadly coronavirus". Reuters. Archived from the original on 29 January 2020. Retrieved 19 February 2020.
  28. ^ a b Branswell, Helen (18 February 2020). "Sanofi announces it will work with HHS to develop coronavirus vaccine". STAT. Archived from the original on 19 February 2020. Retrieved 19 February 2020.
  29. ^ "HHS Engages Sanofi's Recombinant Technology for 2019 Novel Coronavirus Vaccine" (Press release). U.S. Department of Health & Human Services (HHS). 14 February 2020. Archived from the original on 18 February 2020. Retrieved 19 February 2020.
  30. ^ "Vaxart (VXRT) - A long shot or perfect shot?". NASDAQ, RTTNews.com. 25 February 2020. Retrieved 1 March 2020.
  31. ^ "Костадин Петков, София Тех Парк: Работим с иновативни фирми, които са разработили молекула за лечение на коронавирус". Focus. 10 March 2020. Retrieved 10 March 2020.
  32. ^ Deese, Kaelan (26 February 2020). "Health official says coronavirus vaccine will take 'at least a year to a year and a half' to develop". The Hill. Retrieved 26 February 2020.
  33. ^ Broekhuijsen, Niels (3 March 2020). "Help Cure Coronavirus with Your PC's Leftover Processing Power". Tom's Hardware. Retrieved 12 March 2020.
  34. ^ Bowman, Greg (27 February 2020). "Folding@home takes up the fight against COVID-19 / 2019-nCoV". Folding@home. Retrieved 12 March 2020.
  35. ^ Staff (3 March 2020). "Moderna Press Release - 3 March 2020". Moderna. Retrieved 11 March 2020.
  36. ^ Prvulovic, Mark (11 March 2020). "Will Moderna Make a Fortune Off Its Coronavirus Vaccine? - There's a lot of excitement surrounding this vaccine, but is there any money to be made from it?". The Motley Fool. Retrieved 11 March 2020.
  37. ^ Kertscher, Tom (23 January 2020). "No, there is no vaccine for the Wuhan coronavirus". PolitiFact. Poynter Institute. Archived from the original on 7 February 2020. Retrieved 7 February 2020.
  38. ^ McDonald, Jessica (24 January 2020). "Social Media Posts Spread Bogus Coronavirus Conspiracy Theory". FactCheck.org. Annenberg Public Policy Center. Archived from the original on 6 February 2020. Retrieved 8 February 2020.

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