wanweipedia

Caesar (title)

Caesar
Retrato de Julio César (26724093101).jpg
PronunciationEnglish: /ˈszər/ SEE-zər
Classical Latin: [ˈkae̯sar]
GenderMale
Language(s)Latin
Origin
MeaningEmperor
Region of originRoman Empire
Other names
Variant form(s)ΚΑΙϹΑΡ
Kaiser
Tsar
Popularitysee popular names

Caesar (Latin: [ˈkae̯.sar] English pl. Caesars; Latin pl. Caesares; in Greek: Καῖσᾰρ Kaîsar) is a title of imperial character. It derives from the cognomen of Julius Caesar, the Roman dictator. The change from being a familial name to a title adopted by the Roman Emperors can be dated to about 68/69 AD, the so-called "Year of the Four Emperors".[dubious

The history of "Caesar" as an imperial title is reflected by the following monarchic titles, usually reserved for "emperor" and "empress" in many languages (note that the name Caesar, pronounced /szər/ in English, was pronounced [kaisar] in Classical Latin):

Afro-Asiatic languages:

  • Arabic: Qays'r قصر;قيصر Qas'r
  • Hebrew: Kesár‎ קיסר (male) and Kesarít קיסרית (female);

Albanian:

Armenian:

  • Armenian: կայսր Kaysr, and Armenian: կայսրություն Kaysrutiun meaning empire;

Greek:

Austronesian languages:

Baltic languages:

Germanic languages:

Indo-Iranian languages:

Kartvelian languages

  • Georgian: კეისარი (Keisari)

Romance languages

  • Italian, Cesare, used as a first name.
  • Romanian, cezar as a common noun in certain contexts; Cezar, used as a first name.
  • Spanish, Portuguese and French, César: commonly used as first or second name.

Slavic languages:

  • Belarusian: Цар, царыца (transliterated as tsar, tsarytsa)
  • Bulgarian: Цар, царица (transliterated as tsar, tsaritsa);
  • Czech: Císař, císařovna;
  • Macedonian: Цар, царица (transliterated as tsar, tsarica)
  • Polish: Cesarz, Cesarzowa;
  • Russian: Царь, Царица, (transliterated as tsar, tsaritsa); however in the Russian Empire (also reflected in some of its other languages), which aimed to be the "third Rome" as successor to the Byzantine Empire, it was abandoned (not in the foreign language renderings though) as imperial style—in favor of Imperator and Autocrator—and used as a lower, royal style as within the empire in chief of some of its parts, e.g. Georgia and Siberia
    • In the United States and, more recently, Britain, the title "czar" (an archaic transliteration of the Russian title) is a slang term for certain high-level civil servants, such as the "drug czar" for the director of the Office of National Drug Control Policy and "terrorism czar" for a Presidential advisor on terrorism policy. More specifically, a czar refers to a sub-cabinet-level advisor within the executive branch of the U.S. government.
  • Serbo-Croatian: Car, carica (цар, царица)
  • Slovak: Cisár, cisárovná;
  • Slovene: cesar, cesarica or car, carica;
  • Ukrainian: Цісар, цісарева (tsisar, tsisareva), also Ukrainian: цар/царь, царина (archaic transliteration: czar and czarina), Tsar, tsaryna (modern transliteration)

Turkic languages:

  • Turkish: Kayser (historical), Sezar (modern). Kayser-i-Rûm "Caesar of [Constantinople, the second] Rome", one of many subsidiary titles proclaiming the Ottoman Sultan (main imperial title Padishah) as (Muslim) successor to "Rum" as the Turks called the (Christian) Roman Empire (as Byzantium had continued to call itself), continuing to use the name for part of formerly Byzantine territory (compare the Seljuk Rum-sultanate)

Uralic languages:

In various Romance and other languages, the imperial title was based on the Latin Imperator (a military mandate or a victory title), but Caesar or a derivation is still used for both the name and the minor ranks (still perceived as Latin).[citation needed]

There have been other cases of a noun proper being turned into a title, such as Charlemagne's Latin name, including the epithet, Carolus (magnus), becoming Slavonic titles rendered as King: Kralj (Serbo-Croatian), Král (Czech) and Król (Polish), etc.[citation needed]

However certain languages, especially Romance languages, also commonly use a "modernized" word (e.g., César in French) for the name, both referring to the Roman cognomen and modern use as a first name, and even to render the title Caesar, sometimes again extended to the derived imperial titles above.[citation needed]

Yoruba language:

Translation of the name Caesar first recorded in the first book translated to Yoruba, the bible. The Caesar in the bible refers to Emperor Augustus, who was referred to as Caesar. It was not used as a title for kings as it did not reach the language till the late 19th century and was not widely known till the 20th century. The main title for king was "Kábíyèsi", meaning one who cannot be questioned (Ká-bí-yò-èsi).

Historiography

Oswald Spengler used the term, Caesarism, in his book, The Decline of the West.

List of holders

  • Titus (proclaimed caesar, 69 AD) (augustus 24 June 79–13 September 81)
  • Domitian (proclaimed caesar, 69 AD) (augustus 14 September 81–18 September 96)
  • Antoninus Pius (proclaimed caesar, 25 February 138 ) (augustus 10 July 138 – 7 March 161)
  • Marcus Aurelius (proclaimed caesar, 5 December 139) (augustus 7 March 161 – 17 March 180)
  • Lucius Verus (proclaimed caesar, 12 October 166) (augustus 7 March 161 – January/February 169)
  • Commodus (proclaimed caesar, 12 October 166) (augustus 27 November 176 – 31 December 192)
  • Caracalla (proclaimed caesar, 195/6) (augustus 4 February 211 – 8 April 217)
  • Geta (proclaimed caesar, 28 January 198) (augustus 4 February 211 – 2 February 212)
  • Diadumenian (proclaimed caesar, April 217) (augustus May – June 218)
  • Gordian III (proclaimed caesar, April 238) (augustus early August 238 – late January/early February 244)
  • Volusianus (proclaimed caesar, June? 251) (augustus late June/early August 251 – late July/early August 253)
  • Maximian (proclaimed caesar, 21 July 285 ) (augustus 1 April 286 – 1 May 305; end 306/early 307 – November 308)
  • Constantius I (proclaimed caesar, 1 March 293) (augustus 1 May 305 – 25 July 306)
  • Galerius (proclaimed caesar, 21 March 293) (augustus 1 May 305 – early May 311)
  • Valerius Severus (proclaimed caesar, 1 May 305) (augustus 25 July 306 – April 307)
  • Maximinus Daia (proclaimed caesar, 1 May 305) (augustus 1 May 310 – summer 313)
  • Maxentius (proclaimed caesar, 28 October 306) (augustus Apr? 307 – 28 October 312)
  • Constantine the Great (proclaimed caesar, 25 July 306) (augustus 25 July 306 – 22 May 337)
  • Crispus (proclaimed caesar, 1 March 317)
  • Licinius II (proclaimed caesar, 1 March 317)
  • Constantine II (proclaimed caesar, 1 March 317) (augustus 9 Sep. 337 – early April 340)
  • Constans (proclaimed caesar, 25 December 333) (augustus 9 Sep. 337 – 18 January 350)
  • Constantius II (proclaimed caesar, 8 November 324) (augustus 9 Sep. 337 – 3 November 361)
  • Constantius Gallus
  • Julian (proclaimed caesar, 6 November 355) (augustus 3 November 361 – 26/7 June 363)
  • Valentinian III (proclaimed caesar, 23 October 424) (augustus 23 October 425 – 16 March 455)
  • Majorian (proclaimed caesar, 1 April 457) (augustus 28 December 457 – 2 August 461)
  • Procopius Anthemius (proclaimed caesar, 25 March 467) (augustus 12 April 467 – 11 July 472)
  • Leo II (proclaimed caesar, October 473) (augustus January – November 474)
Byzantine
Serbian

See also

References

  1. ^ Bury 1911, p. 36.
  2. ^ a b c ODB, "Caesar" (A. Kazhdan), p. 363.
  3. ^ Bury 1911, pp. 20, 36.
  4. ^ Verpeaux 1966, pp. 134–136.
  5. ^ Verpeaux 1966, pp. 147–149.
  6. ^ Middle Persian: 𐭪𐭩𐭮𐭫𐭩‎ kysly (Inscriptional Pahlavi), kysl (Book Pahlavi), transcribed as kēsar
  7. ^ Hurbanič, Martin (2019). The Avar Siege of Constantinople in 626: History and Legend. Springer. p. 234. ISBN 978-3-030-16684-7.
  8. ^ Michalis N. Michael; Matthias Kappler; Eftihios Gavriel (2009). Archivum Ottomanicum. Mouton. p. 10.
  9. ^ Christine Isom-Verhaaren; Kent F. Schull (11 April 2016). Living in the Ottoman Realm: Empire and Identity, 13th to 20th Centuries. Indiana University Press. pp. 38–. ISBN 978-0-253-01948-6.
  10. ^ Crowley, Roger (2009). Constantinople: The Last Great Siege, 1453. Faber & Faber. pp. 13–. ISBN 978-0-571-25079-0.
  11. ^ "Gennadios II Scholarios". Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved 13 July 2020.
  12. ^ Norwich, John Julius (1995). Byzantium:The Decline and Fall. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. pp. 81–82. ISBN 0-679-41650-1.
  13. ^ Halil, Inançik (2017). Kırım Hanlığı Tarihi Üzerine Araştırmalar 1441-1700: Seçme Eserleri - XI. ISBN 978-6052952511.
  14. ^ Juan Signes Codoñer (23 March 2016). The Emperor Theophilos and the East, 829–842: Court and Frontier in Byzantium During the Last Phase of Iconoclasm. Routledge. pp. 121–. ISBN 978-1-317-03427-8.

Bibliography


This page was last updated at 2021-05-10 01:09, update this pageView original page

All information on this site, including but not limited to text, pictures, etc., are reproduced on Wikipedia (wikipedia.org), following the . Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License


Top

If the math, chemistry, physics and other formulas on this page are not displayed correctly, please useFirefox or Safari