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Comparison of Chinese transcription systems

This comparison of Chinese transcription systems comprises a list of all syllables which are considered phonemically distinguishable within Standard Mandarin.

Gwoyeu Romatzyh employs a different spelling for each tone, whereas other systems employ tone marks or superscript numerals.

Comparison table

Hanyu
Pinyin
Bopomofo Tong-
yong
Wade-
Giles
MPS II Yale EFEO Lessing
-Othmer
Gwoyeu Romatzyh IPA Note
Tone 1 Tone 2 Tone 3 Tone 4
a a a a a a a a ar aa ah a
ai ai ai ai ai ngai ai ai air ae ay ai
an an an an an ngan an an arn aan ann an
ang ang ang ang ang ngang ang ang arng aang anq
ao ao ao au au ngao au au aur ao aw au
ba ㄅㄚ ba pa ba ba pa ba ba bar baa bah pa
bai ㄅㄞ bai pai bai bai pai bai bai bair bae bay pai
ban ㄅㄢ ban pan ban ban pan ban ban barn baan bann pan
bang ㄅㄤ bang pang bang bang pang bang bang barng baang banq paŋ
bao ㄅㄠ bao pao bau bau pao bau bau baur bao baw pau
bei ㄅㄟ bei pei bei bei pei be bei beir beei bey pei [1]
ben ㄅㄣ ben pên ben ben pen bën ben bern been benn pən
beng ㄅㄥ beng pêng beng beng peng bëng beng berng beeng benq pəŋ
bi ㄅㄧ bi pi bi bi pi bi bi byi bii bih pi
bian ㄅㄧㄢ bian pien bian byan pien biän bian byan bean biann piɛn
biao ㄅㄧㄠ biao piao biau byau piao biau biau byau beau biaw piau
bie ㄅㄧㄝ bie pieh bie bye pie biä bie bye biee bieh pie
bin ㄅㄧㄣ bin pin bin bin pin bin bin byn biin binn pin
bing ㄅㄧㄥ bing ping bing bing ping bing bing byng biing binq piŋ
bo ㄅㄛ bo po bo bwo po bo bo bor boo boh puo [2]
bu ㄅㄨ bu pu bu bu pou bu bu bwu buu buh pu
ca ㄘㄚ ca tsʻa tsa tsa ts'a tsa tsa tsar tsaa tsah tsʰa
cai ㄘㄞ cai tsʻai tsai tsai ts'ai tsai tsai tsair tsae tsay tsʰai
can ㄘㄢ can tsʻan tsan tsan ts'an tsan tsan tsarn tsaan tsann tsʰan
cang ㄘㄤ cang tsʻang tsang tsang ts'ang tsang tsang tsarng tsaang tsanq tsʰaŋ
cao ㄘㄠ cao tsʻao tsau tsau ts'ao tsau tsau tsaur tsao tsaw tsʰau
ce ㄘㄜ ce tsʻê tse tse ts'ö tsö tse tser tsee tseh tsʰɤ
cen ㄘㄣ cen tsʻên tsen tsen ts'en tsën tsen tsern tseen tsenn tsʰən
ceng ㄘㄥ ceng tsʻêng tseng tseng ts'eng tsëng tseng tserng tseeng tsenq tsʰəŋ
cha ㄔㄚ cha chʻa cha cha tch'a tscha cha char chaa chah ʈʂʰa
chai ㄔㄞ chai chʻai chai chai tch'ai tschai chai chair chae chay ʈʂʰai
chan ㄔㄢ chan chʻan chan chan tch'an tschan chan charn chaan chann ʈʂʰan
chang ㄔㄤ chang chʻang chang chang tch'ang tschang chang charng chaang chanq ʈʂʰaŋ
chao ㄔㄠ chao chʻao chau chau tch'ao tschau chau chaur chao chaw ʈʂʰau
che ㄔㄜ che chʻê che che tch'ö tschö che cher chee cheh ʈʂʰɤ
chen ㄔㄣ chen chʻên chen chen tch'en tschën chen chern cheen chenn ʈʂʰən
cheng ㄔㄥ cheng chʻêng cheng cheng tch'eng tschëng cheng cherng cheeng chenq ʈʂʰəŋ
chi chih chʻih chr chr tch'e tschï chy chyr chyy chyh ʈʂʰɨ
chong ㄔㄨㄥ chong chʻung chung chung tch'ong tschung chong chorng choong chonq ʈʂʰʊŋ
chou ㄔㄡ chou chʻou chou chou tch'eou tschou chou chour choou chow ʈʂʰou
chu ㄔㄨ chu chʻu chu chu tch'ou tschu chu chwu chuu chuh ʈʂʰu
chua ㄔㄨㄚ chua chʻua chua chwa tch'oua tschua chua chuar chuaa chuah ʈʂʰua
chuai ㄔㄨㄞ chuai chʻuai chuai chwai tch'ouai tschuai chuai chwai choai chuay ʈʂʰuai
chuan ㄔㄨㄢ chuan chʻuan chuan chwan tch'ouan tschuan chuan chwan choan chuann ʈʂʰuan
chuang ㄔㄨㄤ chuang chʻuang chuang chwang tch'ouang tschuang chuang chwang choang chuanq ʈʂʰuaŋ
chui ㄔㄨㄟ chuei chʻui chuei chwei tch'ouei tschui chuei chwei choei chuey ʈʂʰuei
chun ㄔㄨㄣ chun chʻun chuen chwun tch'ouen tschun chuen chwen choen chuenn ʈʂʰuən
chuo ㄔㄨㄛ chuo chʻo chuo chwo tch'ouo tscho chuo chwo chuoo chuoh ʈʂʰuo
ci cih tzʻŭ tsz tsz ts'eu tsï tsy tsyr tsyy tsyh tsʰɨ
cong ㄘㄨㄥ cong tsʻung tsung tsung ts'ong tsung tsong tsorng tsoong tsonq tsʰʊŋ
cou ㄘㄡ cou tsʻou tsou tsou ts'eou tsou tsou tsour tsoou tsow tsʰou
cu ㄘㄨ cu tsʻu tsu tsu ts'ou tsu tsu tswu tsuu tsuh tsʰu
cuan ㄘㄨㄢ cuan tsʻuan tsuan tswan ts'ouan tsuan tsuan tswan tsoan tsuann tsʰuan
cui ㄘㄨㄟ cuei tsʻui tsuei tswei ts'ouei tsui tsuei tswei tsoei tsuey tsʰuei
cun ㄘㄨㄣ cun tsʻun tsuen tswun ts'ouen tsun tsuen tswen tsoen tsuenn tsʰuən
cuo ㄘㄨㄛ cuo tsʻo tsuo tswo ts'o tso tsuo tswo tsuoo tsuoh tsʰuo
da ㄉㄚ da ta da da ta da da dar daa dah ta
dai ㄉㄞ dai tai dai dai tai dai dai dair dae day tai
dan ㄉㄢ dan tan dan dan tan dan dan darn daan dann tan
dang ㄉㄤ dang tang dang dang tang dang dang darng daang danq taŋ
dao ㄉㄠ dao tao dau dau tao dau dau daur dao daw tau
de ㄉㄜ de de de de der dee deh
dei ㄉㄟ dei tei dei dei tei de dei deir deei dey tei
den ㄉㄣ den tên den den den dern deen denn tən [3]
deng ㄉㄥ deng têng deng deng teng dëng deng derng deeng denq təŋ
di ㄉㄧ di ti di di ti di di dyi dii dih ti
dian ㄉㄧㄢ dian tien dian dyan tien diän dian dyan dean diann tiɛn
diang ㄉㄧㄤ diang tiang diang dyang tiang diäng diang dyang deang dianq tiaŋ
diao ㄉㄧㄠ diao tiao diau dyau tiao diau diau dyau deau diaw tiau
die ㄉㄧㄝ die tieh die dye tie diä die dye diee dieh tie
ding ㄉㄧㄥ ding ting ding ding ting ding ding dyng diing dinq tiŋ
diu ㄉㄧㄡ diou tiu diou dyou tieou diu diou dyou deou diow tiou
dong ㄉㄨㄥ dong tung dung dung tong dung dong dorng doong donq tʊŋ
dou ㄉㄡ dou tou dou dou teou dou dou dour doou dow tou
du ㄉㄨ du tu du du tou du du dwu duu duh tu
duan ㄉㄨㄢ duan tuan duan dwan touan duan duan dwan doan duann tuan
dui ㄉㄨㄟ duei tui duei dwei touei dui duei dwei doei duey tuei
dun ㄉㄨㄣ dun tun duen dwun touen dun duen dwen doen duenn tuən
duo ㄉㄨㄛ duo to duo dwo to do duo dwo duoo duoh tuo
e e ê/o e e ngo o e er ee eh ɤ [4]
ê e eh ê e è èr èe èh ɛ [5]
ei ei ei ei ei ei e ei eir eei ey ei
en en ên en en ngen ën en ern een enn ən
eng ong êng eng eng ngeng ëng eng erng eeng enq əŋ
er er êrh er er eul örl el erl eel ell
fa ㄈㄚ fa fa fa fa fa fa fa far faa fah fa
fan ㄈㄢ fan fan fan fan fan fan fan farn faan fann fan
fang ㄈㄤ fang fang fang fang fang fang fang farng faang fanq faŋ
fei ㄈㄟ fei fei fei fei fei fe fei feir feei fey fei
fen ㄈㄣ fen fên fen fen fen fën fen fern feen fenn fən
feng ㄈㄥ fong fêng feng feng feng fëng feng ferng feeng fenq fəŋ
fo ㄈㄛ fo fo fo fwo fo fo fo for foo foh fuo
fou ㄈㄡ fou fou fou fou feou fou fou four foou fow fou
fu ㄈㄨ fu fu fu fu fou fu fu fwu fuu fuh fu
ga ㄍㄚ ga ka ga ga ka ga ga gar gaa gah ka
gai ㄍㄞ gai kai gai gai kai gai gai gair gae gay kai
gan ㄍㄢ gan kan gan gan kan gan gan garn gaan gann kan
gang ㄍㄤ gang kang gang gang kang gang gang garng gaang ganq kaŋ
gao ㄍㄠ gao kao gau gau kao gau gau gaur gao gaw kau
ge ㄍㄜ ge ko ge ge ge ger gee geh
gei ㄍㄟ gei kei gei gei kei ge gei geir geei gey kei
gen ㄍㄣ gen kên gen gen ken gën gen gern geen genn kən
geng ㄍㄥ geng kêng geng geng keng gëng geng gerng geeng genq kəŋ
gong ㄍㄨㄥ gong kung gung gung kong gung gong gorng goong gonq kʊŋ
gou ㄍㄡ gou kou gou gou keou gou gou gour goou gow kou
gu ㄍㄨ gu ku gu gu kou gu gu gwu guu guh ku
gua ㄍㄨㄚ gua kua gua gwa koua gua gua gwa goa guah kua
guai ㄍㄨㄞ guai kuai guai gwai kouai guai guai gwai goai guay kuai
guan ㄍㄨㄢ guan kuan guan gwan kouan guan guan gwan goan guann kuan
guang ㄍㄨㄤ guang kuang guang gwang kouang guang guang gwang goang guanq kuaŋ
gui ㄍㄨㄟ guei kuei guei gwei kouei gui guei gwei goei guey kuei
gun ㄍㄨㄣ gun kun guen gwun kouen gun guen gwen goen guenn kuən
guo ㄍㄨㄛ guo kuo guo gwo kouo guo guo gwo guoo guoh kuo
ha ㄏㄚ ha ha ha ha ha ha ha har haa hah xa
hai ㄏㄞ hai hai hai hai hai hai hai hair hae hay xai
han ㄏㄢ han han han han han han han harn haan hann xan
hang ㄏㄤ hang hang hang hang hang hang hang harng haang hanq xaŋ
hao ㄏㄠ hao hao hau hau hao hau hau haur hao haw xau
he ㄏㄜ he ho he he ho he her hee heh
hei ㄏㄟ hei hei hei hei hei he hei heir heei hey xei
hen ㄏㄣ hen hên hen hen hen hën hen hern heen henn xən
heng ㄏㄥ heng hêng heng heng heng hëng heng herng heeng henq xəŋ
hong ㄏㄨㄥ hong hung hung hung hong hung hong horng hoong honq xʊŋ
hou ㄏㄡ hou hou hou hou heou hou hou hour hoou how xou
hu ㄏㄨ hu hu hu hu hou hu hu hwu huu huh xu
hua ㄏㄨㄚ hua hua hua hwa houa hua hua hwa hoa huah xua
huai ㄏㄨㄞ huai huai huai hwai houai huai huai hwai hoai huay xuai
huan ㄏㄨㄢ huan huan huan hwan houan huan huan hwan hoan huann xuan
huang ㄏㄨㄤ huang huang huang hwang houang huang huang hwang hoang huanq xuaŋ
hui ㄏㄨㄟ huei hui huei hwei houei hui huei hwei hoei huey xuei
hun ㄏㄨㄣ hun hun huen hwun houen hun huen hwen hoen huenn xuən
huo ㄏㄨㄛ huo huo huo hwo houo huo huo hwo huoo huoh xuo
ji ㄐㄧ ji chi ji ji ki dji ji jyi jii jih tɕi
jia ㄐㄧㄚ jia chia jia jya kia djia jia jya jea jiah tɕia
jian ㄐㄧㄢ jian chien jian jyan kien djiän jian jyan jean jiann tɕiɛn
jiang ㄐㄧㄤ jiang chiang jiang jyang kiang djiang jiang jyang jeang jianq tɕiaŋ
jiao ㄐㄧㄠ jiao chiao jiau jyau kiao djiau jiau jyau jeau jiaw tɕiau
jie ㄐㄧㄝ jie chieh jie jye kie djiä jie jye jiee jieh tɕie
jin ㄐㄧㄣ jin chin jin jin kin djin jin jyn jiin jinn tɕin
jing ㄐㄧㄥ jing ching jing jing king djing jing jyng jiing jinq tɕiŋ
jiong ㄐㄩㄥ jyong chiung jiung jyung kiong djiung jiong jyong jeong jionq tɕiʊŋ
jiu ㄐㄧㄡ jiou chiu jiou jyou kieou djiu jiou jyou jeou jiow tɕiou
ju ㄐㄩ jyu chü jiu jyu kiu djü jiu jyu jeu jiuh tɕy
juan ㄐㄩㄢ jyuan chüan jiuan jywan kiuan djüan jiuan jyuan jeuan jiuann tɕyɛn
jue ㄐㄩㄝ jyue chüeh jiue jywe kiue djüä jiue jyue jeue jiueh tɕye
jun ㄐㄩㄣ jyun chün jiun jyun kiun djün jiun jyun jeun jiunn tɕyn
ka ㄎㄚ ka kʻa ka ka k'a ka ka kar kaa kah kʰa
kai ㄎㄞ kai kʻai kai kai k'ai kai kai kair kae kay kʰai
kan ㄎㄢ kan kʻan kan kan k'an kan kan karn kaan kann kʰan
kang ㄎㄤ kang kʻang kang kang k'ang kang kang karng kaang kanq kʰaŋ
kao ㄎㄠ kao kʻao kau kau k'ao kau kau kaur kao kaw kʰau
ke ㄎㄜ ke kʻo ke ke k'ö ke ker kee keh kʰɤ
kei ㄎㄟ kei kʻei kei kei kei keir keei key kʰei [6]
ken ㄎㄣ ken kʻên ken ken k'en kën ken kern keen kenn kʰən
keng ㄎㄥ keng kʻêng keng keng k'eng këng keng kerng keeng kenq kʰəŋ
kong ㄎㄨㄥ kong kʻung kung kung k'ong kung kong korng koong konq kʰʊŋ
kou ㄎㄡ kou kʻou kou kou k'eou kou kou kour koou kow kʰou
ku ㄎㄨ ku kʻu ku ku k'ou gu ku kwu kuu kuh kʰu
kua ㄎㄨㄚ kua kʻua kua kwa k'oua kua kua kwa koa kuah kʰua
kuai ㄎㄨㄞ kuai kʻuai kuai kwai k'ouai kuai kuai kwai koai kuay kʰuai
kuan ㄎㄨㄢ kuan kʻuan kuan kwan k'ouan kuan kuan kwan koan kuann kʰuan
kuang ㄎㄨㄤ kuang kʻuang kuang kwang k'ouang kuang kuang kwang koang kuanq kʰuaŋ
kui ㄎㄨㄟ kuei kʻuei kuei kwei k'ouei kue kuei kwei koei kuey kʰuei
kun ㄎㄨㄣ kun kʻun kuen kwun k'ouen kun kuen kwen koen kuenn kʰuən
kuo ㄎㄨㄛ kuo kʻuo kuo kwo k'ouo kuo kuo kwo kuoo kuoh kʰuo
la ㄌㄚ la la la la la la lha la laa lah la
lai ㄌㄞ lai lai lai lai lai lai lhai lai lae lay lai
lan ㄌㄢ lan lan lan lan lan lan lhan lan laan lann lan
lang ㄌㄤ lang lang lang lang lang lang lhang lang laang lanq laŋ
lao ㄌㄠ lao lao lau lau lao lau lhau lau lao law lau
le ㄌㄜ le le le lhe le lee leh
lei ㄌㄟ lei lei lei lei lei le lhei lei leei ley lei
leng ㄌㄥ leng lêng leng leng leng lëng lheng leng leeng lenq ləŋ
li ㄌㄧ li li li li li li lhi li lii lih li
lia ㄌㄧㄚ lia lia lia lya lea lia lhia lia lea liah lia
lian ㄌㄧㄢ lian lien lian lyan lien liän lhian lian lean liann liɛn
liang ㄌㄧㄤ liang liang liang lyang leang liang lhiang liang leang lianq liaŋ
liao ㄌㄧㄠ liao liao liau lyau liao liau lhiau liau leau liaw liau
lie ㄌㄧㄝ lie lieh lie lye lie liä lhie lie liee lieh lie
lin ㄌㄧㄣ lin lin lin lin lin lin lhin lin liin linn lin
ling ㄌㄧㄥ ling ling ling ling ling ling lhing ling liing linq liŋ
liu ㄌㄧㄡ liou liu liou lyou lieou liou lhiou liou leou liow liou
lo ㄌㄛ lo lo lo lo lo lo lo lor loo loh
long ㄌㄨㄥ long lung lung lung long lung lhong long loong lonq lʊŋ
lou ㄌㄡ lou lou lou lou leou lou lhou lou loou low lou
lu ㄌㄨ lu lu lu lu lou lu lhu lu luu luh lu
ㄌㄩ lyu liu lyu liu lhiu liu leu liuh ly
luan ㄌㄨㄢ luan luan luan lwan louan luan lhuan luan loan luann luan
lüan ㄌㄩㄢ lyuan lüan liuan lwan? liuan lüän lhiuan? liuan? leuan? liuann? lyɛn [7]
lüe ㄌㄩㄝ lyue lüeh liue lywe liue lüä lhiue liue leue liueh lye
lun ㄌㄨㄣ lun lun luen lwun loun lun lhuen luen loen luenn luən
lün ㄌㄩㄣ lyun lün liun lyun liun lün lhiun liun leun liunn lyn
luo ㄌㄨㄛ luo lo luo lwo louo lo lhuo luo luoo luoh luo
ma ㄇㄚ ma ma ma ma ma ma mha ma maa mah ma
mai ㄇㄞ mai mai mai mai mai mai mhai mai mae may mai
man ㄇㄢ man man man man man man mhan man maan mann man
mang ㄇㄤ mang mang mang mang mang mang mhang mang maang manq maŋ
mao ㄇㄠ mao mao mau mau mao mau mhau mau mao maw mau
me ㄇㄜ me me me mhe me mee meh
mei ㄇㄟ mei mei mei mei mei me mhei mei meei mey mei
men ㄇㄣ men mên men men men mën mhen men meen menn mən
meng ㄇㄥ meng mêng meng meng meng mëng mheng meng meeng menq məŋ
mi ㄇㄧ mi mi mi mi mi mi mhi mi mii mih mi
mian ㄇㄧㄢ mian mien mian myan mian miän mhian mian mean miann miɛn
miao ㄇㄧㄠ miao miao miau myau miao miau mhiau miau meau miaw miau
mie ㄇㄧㄝ mie mieh mie mye mie miä mhie mie miee mieh mie
min ㄇㄧㄣ min min min min min min mhin min miin minn min
ming ㄇㄧㄥ ming ming ming ming ming ming mhing ming miing minq miŋ
miu ㄇㄧㄡ miou miu miou myou mieou miu mhiou miou meou miow miou
mo ㄇㄛ mo mo mo mwo mo mo mho mo moo moh muo
mou ㄇㄡ mou mou mou mou meou mou mhou mou moou mow mou
mu ㄇㄨ mu mu mu mu mou mu mhu mu muu muh mu
na ㄋㄚ na na na na na na nha na naa nah na
nai ㄋㄞ nai nai nai nai nai nai nhai nai nae nay nai
nan ㄋㄢ nan nan nan nan nan nan nhan nan naan nann nan
nang ㄋㄤ nang nang nang nang nang nang nhang nang naang nanq naŋ
nao ㄋㄠ nao nao nau nau nao nau nhau nau nao naw nau
ne ㄋㄜ ne ne ne nhe ne nee neh
nei ㄋㄟ nei nei nei nei nei ne nhei nei neei ney nei
nen ㄋㄣ nen nên nen nen nen nën nhen nen neen nenn nən
neng ㄋㄥ neng nêng neng neng neng nëng nheng neng neeng nenq nəŋ
ni ㄋㄧ ni ni ni ni ni ni nhi ni nii nih ni
nia ㄋㄧㄚ nia nia nia nya nia nia nia niar niaa niah nia
nian ㄋㄧㄢ nian nien nian nyan nien niän nhian nian nean niann niɛn
niang ㄋㄧㄤ niang niang niang nyang niang niang nhiang niang neang nianq niaŋ
niao ㄋㄧㄠ niao niao niau nyau niao niau nhiau niau neau niaw niau
nie ㄋㄧㄝ nie nieh nie nye nie niä nhie nie niee nieh nie
nin ㄋㄧㄣ nin nin nin nin nin nin nhin nin niin ninn nin
ning ㄋㄧㄥ ning ning ning ning ning ning nhing ning niing ninq niŋ
niu ㄋㄧㄡ niou niu niou nyou nieou niu nhiou niou neou niow niou
nong ㄋㄨㄥ nong nung nung nung nong nung nhong nong noong nonq nʊŋ
nou ㄋㄡ nou nou nou nou neou nou nhou nou noou now nou
nu ㄋㄨ nu nu nu nu nou nu nhu nu nuu nuh nu
ㄋㄩ nyu niu nyu niu nhiu niu neu niuh ny
nuan ㄋㄨㄢ nuan nuan nuan nwan nouan nuan nhuan nuan noan nuann nuan
nüe ㄋㄩㄝ nyue nüeh niue nywe nio nüä nhiue niue neue niueh nye
nun ㄋㄨㄣ nun nun nuen nwun nouen nun nhuen nuen noen nuenn nuən
nuo ㄋㄨㄛ nuo no nuo nwo no no nhuo nuo nuoo nuoh nuo
o o o o o? o o o or oo oh ɔ? [8]
ou ou ou ou ou ngeou ou ou our oou ow ou
pa ㄆㄚ pa pʻa pa pa p'a pa pa par paa pah pʰa
pai ㄆㄞ pai pʻai pai pai p'ai pai pai pair pae pay pʰai
pan ㄆㄢ pan pʻan pan pan p'an pan pan parn paan pann pʰan
pang ㄆㄤ pang pʻang pang pang p'ang pang pang parng paang panq pʰaŋ
pao ㄆㄠ pao pʻao pau pau p'ao pau pau paur pao paw pʰau
pei ㄆㄟ pei pʻei pei pei p'ei pe pei peir peei pey pʰei
pen ㄆㄣ pen pʻên pen pen p'en pën pen pern peen penn pʰən
peng ㄆㄥ peng pʻêng peng peng p'eng pëng peng perng peeng penq pʰəŋ
pi ㄆㄧ pi pʻi pi pi p'i pi pi pyi pii pih pʰi
pian ㄆㄧㄢ pian pʻien pian pyan p'ien piän pian pyan pean piann pʰiɛn
piao ㄆㄧㄠ piao pʻiao piau pyau p'iao piau piau pyau peau piaw pʰiau
pie ㄆㄧㄝ pie pʻieh pie pye p'ie piä pie pye piee pieh pʰie
pin ㄆㄧㄣ pin pʻin pin pin p'in pin pin pyn piin pinn pʰin
ping ㄆㄧㄥ ping pʻing ping ping p'ing ping ping pyng piing pinq pʰiŋ
po ㄆㄛ po pʻo po pwo p'o po po por poo poh pʰuo
pou ㄆㄡ pou pʻou pou pou p'eou pou pou pour poou pow pʰou
pu ㄆㄨ pu pʻu pu pu p'ou pu pu pwu puu puh pʰu
qi ㄑㄧ ci chʻi chi chi k'i tji chi chyi chii chih tɕʰi
qia ㄑㄧㄚ cia chʻia chia chya k'ia tjia chia chya chea chiah tɕʰia
qian ㄑㄧㄢ cian chʻien chian chyan k'ien tjiän chian chyan chean chiann tɕʰiɛn
qiang ㄑㄧㄤ ciang chʻiang chiang chyang k'iang tjiang chiang chyang cheang chianq tɕʰiaŋ
qiao ㄑㄧㄠ ciao chʻiao chiau chyau k'iao tjiau chiau chyau cheau chiaw tɕʰiau
qie ㄑㄧㄝ cie chʻieh chie chye k'ie tjiä chie chye chiee chieh tɕʰie
qin ㄑㄧㄣ cin chʻin chin chin k'in tjin chin chyn chiin chinn tɕʰin
qing ㄑㄧㄥ cing chʻing ching ching k'ing tjing ching chyng chiing chinq tɕʰiŋ
qiong ㄑㄩㄥ cyong chʻiung chiung chyung k'iong tjiung chiong chyong cheong chionq tɕʰiʊŋ
qiu ㄑㄧㄡ ciou chʻiu chiou chyou k'ieou tjiu chiou chyou cheou chiow tɕʰiou
qu ㄑㄩ cyu chʻü chiu chyu k'iu tjü chiu chyu cheu chiuh tɕʰy
quan ㄑㄩㄢ cyuan chʻüan chiuan chywan k'iuan tjüan chiuan chyuan cheuan chiuann tɕʰyɛn
que ㄑㄩㄝ cyue chʻüeh chiue chywe k'iue tjüä chiue chyue cheue chiueh tɕʰye
qun ㄑㄩㄣ cyun chʻün chiun chyun k'iun tjün chiun chyun cheun chiunn tɕʰyn
ran ㄖㄢ ran jan ran ran jan jan rhan ran raan rann ɻan
rang ㄖㄤ rang jang rang rang jang jang rhang rang raang ranq ɻaŋ
rao ㄖㄠ rao jao rau rau jao jau rhau rau rao raw ɻau
re ㄖㄜ re re re rhe re ree reh ɻɤ
ren ㄖㄣ ren jên ren ren jen jën rhen ren reen renn ɻən
reng ㄖㄥ reng jêng reng reng jeng jëng rheng reng reeng renq ɻəŋ
ri rih jih r r je rhy ry ryy ryh ɻɨ
rong ㄖㄨㄥ rong jung rung rung jong jung rhong rong roong ronq ɻʊŋ
rou ㄖㄡ rou jou rou rou jeou jou rhou rou roou row ɻou
ru ㄖㄨ ru ju ru ru jou ju rhu ru ruu ruh ɻu
ruan ㄖㄨㄢ ruan juan ruan rwan jouan juan rhuan ruan roan ruann ɻuan
rui ㄖㄨㄟ ruei jui ruei rwei jouei jui rhuei ruei roei ruey ɻuei
run ㄖㄨㄣ run jun ruen rwun jouen jun rhuen ruen roen ruenn ɻuən
ruo ㄖㄨㄛ ruo jo ruo rwo jo jo rhuo ruo ruoo ruoh ɻuo
sa ㄙㄚ sa sa sa sa sa sa sa sar saa sah sa
sai ㄙㄞ sai sai sai sai sai sai sai sair sae say sai
san ㄙㄢ san san san san san san san sarn saan sann san
sang ㄙㄤ sang sang sang sang sang sang sang sarng saang sanq saŋ
sao ㄙㄠ sao sao sau sau sao sau sau saur sao saw sau
se ㄙㄜ se se se se ser see seh
sei ㄙㄟ sei sei sei sei sei seir seei sey sei [9]
sen ㄙㄣ sen sên sen sen sën sën sen sern seen senn sən
seng ㄙㄥ seng sêng seng seng sëng sëng seng serng seeng senq səŋ
sha ㄕㄚ sha sha sha sha cha scha sha shar shaa shah ʂa
shai ㄕㄞ shai shai shai shai chai schai shai shair shae shay ʂai
shan ㄕㄢ shan shan shan shan chan schan shan sharn shaan shann ʂan
shang ㄕㄤ shang shang shang shang chang schang shang sharng shaang shanq ʂaŋ
shao ㄕㄠ shao shao shau shau chao schau shau shaur shao shaw ʂau
she ㄕㄜ she shê she she chö schö she sher shee sheh ʂɤ
shei ㄕㄟ shei shei shei shei chei schei shei sheir sheei shey ʂei
shen ㄕㄣ shen shên shen shen chen schën shen shern sheen shenn ʂən
sheng ㄕㄥ sheng shêng sheng sheng cheng schëng sheng sherng sheeng shenq ʂəŋ
shi shih shih shr shr che schï shy shyr shyy shyh ʂɨ
shong ㄕㄨㄥ shong shung shung shung shong shorng shoong shonq ʂʊŋ [10]
shou ㄕㄡ shou shou shou shou cheou schou shou shour shoou show ʂou
shu ㄕㄨ shu shu shu shu chou schu shu shwu shuu shuh ʂu
shua ㄕㄨㄚ shua shua shua shwa choua schua shua shwa shoa shuah ʂua
shuai ㄕㄨㄞ shuai shuai shuai shwai chouai schuai shuai shwai shoai shuay ʂuai
shuan ㄕㄨㄢ shuan shuan shuan shwan chouan schuan shuan shwan shoan shuann ʂuan
shuang ㄕㄨㄤ shuang shuang shuang shwang chouang schuang shuang shwang shoang shuanq ʂuaŋ
shui ㄕㄨㄟ shuei shui shuei shwei chouei schui shuei shwei shoei shuey ʂuei
shun ㄕㄨㄣ shun shun shuen shwun chouen schun shuen shwen shoen shuenn ʂuən
shuo ㄕㄨㄛ shuo shuo shuo shwo chouo scho shuo shwo shuoo shuoh ʂuo
si sih ssŭ sz sz sseu sy syr syy syh
song ㄙㄨㄥ song sung sung sung song sung song sorng soong sonq sʊŋ
sou ㄙㄡ sou sou sou sou seou sou sou sour soou sow sou
su ㄙㄨ su su su su sou su su swu suu suh su
suan ㄙㄨㄢ suan suan suan swan souan suan suan swan soan suann suan
sui ㄙㄨㄟ suei sui suei swei souei sui suei swei soei suey suei
sun ㄙㄨㄣ sun sun suen swun souen sun suen swen soen suenn suən
suo ㄙㄨㄛ suo so suo swo so so suo swo suoo suoh suo
ta ㄊㄚ ta tʻa ta ta t'a ta ta tar taa tah tʰa
tai ㄊㄞ tai tʻai tai tai t'ai tai tai tair tae tay tʰai
tan ㄊㄢ tan tʻan tan tan t'an tan tan tarn taan tann tʰan
tang ㄊㄤ tang tʻang tang tang t'ang tang tang tarng taang tanq tʰaŋ
tao ㄊㄠ tao tʻao tau tau t'ao tau tau taur tao taw tʰau
te ㄊㄜ te tʻê te te t'ö te ter tee teh tʰɤ
tei ㄊㄟ tei tʻei tei tei t'ei te tei teir teei tey tʰei
teng ㄊㄥ teng tʻêng teng teng t'eng tëng teng terng teeng tenq tʰəŋ
ti ㄊㄧ ti tʻi ti ti t'i ti ti tyi tii tih tʰi
tian ㄊㄧㄢ tian tʻien tian tyan t'ien tiän tian tyan tean tiann tʰiɛn
tiao ㄊㄧㄠ tiao tʻiao tiau tyau t'iao tiau tiau tyau teau tiaw tʰiau
tie ㄊㄧㄝ tie tʻieh tie tye t'ie tiä tie tye tiee tieh tʰie
ting ㄊㄧㄥ ting tʻing ting ting t'ing ting ting tyng tiing tinq tʰiŋ
tong ㄊㄨㄥ tong tʻung tung tung t'ong tung tong torng toong tonq tʰʊŋ
tou ㄊㄡ tou tʻou tou tou t'eou tou tou tour toou tow tʰou
tu ㄊㄨ tu tʻu tu tu t'ou tu tu twu tuu tuh tʰu
tuan ㄊㄨㄢ tuan tʻuan tuan twan t'ouan tuan tuan twan toan tuann tʰuan
tui ㄊㄨㄟ tuei tʻui tuei twei t'ouei tui tuei twei toei tuey tʰuei
tun ㄊㄨㄣ tun tʻun tuen twun t'ouen tun tuen twen toen tuenn tʰuən
tuo ㄊㄨㄛ tuo tʻo tuo two t'o to tuo two tuoo tuoh tʰuo
wa ㄨㄚ wa wa wa wa wa wa ua wa waa wah ua
wai ㄨㄞ wai wai wai wai wai wai uai wai woai way uai
wan ㄨㄢ wan wan wan wan wan wan uan wan woan wann uan
wang ㄨㄤ wang wang wang wang wang wang uang wang woang wanq uaŋ
wei ㄨㄟ wei wei wei wei wei we uei wei woei wey uei
wen ㄨㄣ wun wên wen wen wen wën uen wen woen wenn uən
weng ㄨㄥ wong wêng weng weng weng wëng ueng weng woeng wenq uəŋ
wo ㄨㄛ wo wo wo wo wo wo uo wo woo woh uo
wu wu wu wu wu wou wu u wu wuu wuh u
xi ㄒㄧ si hsi shi syi hi hsi shi shyi shii shih ɕi
xia ㄒㄧㄚ sia hsia shia sya hia hsia shia shya shea shiah ɕia
xian ㄒㄧㄢ sian hsien shian syan hie hsiän shian shyan shean shiann ɕiɛn
xiang ㄒㄧㄤ siang hsiang shiang syang hiang hsiang shiang shyang sheang shianq ɕiaŋ
xiao ㄒㄧㄠ siao hsiao shiau syau hiao hsiao shiau shyau sheau shiaw ɕiau
xie ㄒㄧㄝ sie hsieh shie sye hien hsiä shie shye shiee shieh ɕie
xin ㄒㄧㄣ sin hsin shin syin hin hsin shin shyn shiin shinn ɕin
xing ㄒㄧㄥ sing hsing shing sying hing hsing shing shyng shiing shinq ɕiŋ
xiong ㄒㄩㄥ syong hsiung shiung syung hiong hsiung shiong shyong sheong shionq ɕiʊŋ
xiu ㄒㄧㄡ siou hsiu shiou syou hieou hsiu shiou shyou sheou shiow ɕiou
xu ㄒㄩ syu hsü shiu syu hiu hsü shiu shyu sheu shiuh ɕy
xuan ㄒㄩㄢ syuan hsüan shiuan sywan hiuan hsüan shiuan shyuan sheuan shiuann ɕyɛn
xue ㄒㄩㄝ syue hsüeh shiue sywe hiue hsüä shiue shyue sheue shiueh ɕye
xun ㄒㄩㄣ syun hsün shiun syun hiun hsün shiun shyun sheun shiunn ɕyn
ya ㄧㄚ ya ya ya ya ya ya ia ya yea yah ia
yan ㄧㄢ yan yen yan yan yen yän ian yan yean yann iɛn
yang ㄧㄤ yang yang yang yang yang yang iang yang yeang yanq iaŋ
yao ㄧㄠ yao yao yau yau yao yau iau yau yeau yaw iau
ye ㄧㄝ ye yeh ye ye ye ie ye yee yeh ie
yi yi i/yi yi yi yi i i yi yii yih i
yin ㄧㄣ yin yin yin yin yin yin in yn yiin yinn in
ying ㄧㄥ ying ying ying ying ying ying ing yng yiing yinq
yong ㄩㄥ yong yung yung yung yong yung iong yong yeong yonq iʊŋ
you ㄧㄡ you yu you you yeou yu iou you yeou yow iou
yu yu yu yu yu iu yu yeu yuh y
yuan ㄩㄢ yuan yüan yuan ywan yuan yüan iuan yuan yeuan yuann yɛn
yue ㄩㄝ yue yüeh yue ywe yue yüä iue yue yeue yueh ye
yun ㄩㄣ yun yün yun yun yun yün iun yun yeun yunn yn
za ㄗㄚ za tsa tza dza tsa dsa tza tzar tzaa tzah tsa
zai ㄗㄞ zai tsai tzai dzai tsai dsai tzai tzair tzae tzay tsai
zan ㄗㄢ zan tsan tzan dzan tsan dsan tzan tzarn tzaan tzann tsan
zang ㄗㄤ zang tsang tzang dzang tsang dsang tzang tzarng tzaang tzanq tsaŋ
zao ㄗㄠ zao tsao tzau dzau tsao dsau tzau tzaur tzao tzaw tsau
ze ㄗㄜ ze tsê tze dze tsö dsö tze tzer tzee tzeh tsɤ
zei ㄗㄟ zei tsei tzei dzei tsei dse tzei tzeir tzeei tzey tsei
zen ㄗㄣ zen tsên tzen dzen tsen dsën tzen tzern tzeen tzenn tsən
zeng ㄗㄥ zeng tsêng tzeng dzeng tseng dsëng tzeng tzerng tzeeng tzenq tsəŋ
zha ㄓㄚ jha cha ja ja tcha dscha ja jar jaa jah ʈʂa
zhai ㄓㄞ jhai chai jai jai tchai dschai jai jair jae jay ʈʂai
zhan ㄓㄢ jhan chan jan jan tchan dschan jan jarn jaan jann ʈʂan
zhang ㄓㄤ jhang chang jang jang tchang dschang jang jarng jaang janq ʈʂaŋ
zhao ㄓㄠ jhao chao jau jau tchao dschau jau jaur jao jaw ʈʂau
zhe ㄓㄜ jhe chê je je tchö dschö je jer jee jeh ʈʂɤ
zhei ㄓㄟ jhei chei jei jei tchei dsche jei jeir jeei jey ʈʂei
zhen ㄓㄣ jhen chên jen jen tchen dschën jen jern jeen jenn ʈʂən
zheng ㄓㄥ jheng chêng jeng jeng tcheng dschëng jeng jerng jeeng jenq ʈʂəŋ
zhi jhih chih jr jr tche dschï jy jyr jyy jyh ʈʂɨ
zhong ㄓㄨㄥ jhong chung jung jung tchong dschung jong jorng joong jonq ʈʂʊŋ
zhou ㄓㄡ jhou chou jou jou tcheou dschou jou jour joou jow ʈʂou
zhu ㄓㄨ jhu chu ju ju tchou dschu ju jwu juu juh ʈʂu
zhua ㄓㄨㄚ jhua chua jua jwa tchoua dschua jua jwa joa juah ʈʂua
zhuai ㄓㄨㄞ jhuai chuai juai jwai tchouai dschuai juai jwai joai juay ʈʂuai
zhuan ㄓㄨㄢ jhuan chuan juan jwan tchouan dschuan juan jwan joan juann ʈʂuan
zhuang ㄓㄨㄤ jhuang chuang juang jwang tchouang dschuang juang jwang joang juanq ʈʂuaŋ
zhui ㄓㄨㄟ jhuei chui juei jwei tchouei dschui juei jwei joei juey ʈʂuei
zhun ㄓㄨㄣ jhun chun juen jwun tchouen dschun juen jwen joen juenn ʈʂuən
zhuo ㄓㄨㄛ jhuo cho juo jwo tchouo dscho juo jwo juoo juoh ʈʂuo
zi zih tzŭ tz dz tseu dsï tzy tzyr tzyy tzyh tsɨ
zong ㄗㄨㄥ zong tsung tzung dzung tsong dsung tzong tzorng tzoong tzonq tsʊŋ
zou ㄗㄡ zou tsou tzou dzou tseou dsou tzou tzour tzoou tzow tsou
zu ㄗㄨ zu tsu tzu dzu tsou dsu tzu tzwu tzuu tzuh tsu
zuan ㄗㄨㄢ zuan tsuan tzuan dzwan tsouan dsuan tzuan tzwan tzoan tzuann tsuan
zui ㄗㄨㄟ zuei tsui tzuei dzwei tsouei dsue tzuei tzwei tzoei tzuey tsuei
zun ㄗㄨㄣ zun tsun tzuen dzwun tsouen dsun tzuen tzwen tzoen tzuenn tsuən
zuo ㄗㄨㄛ zuo tso tzuo dzwo tso dso tzuo tzwo tzuoo tzuoh tsuo

See also

Notes

  1. ^ To verify: lessingothmer.
  2. ^ To verify: ipa.
  3. ^ To verify: efeo, lessingothmer.
  4. ^ To verify: efeo.
  5. ^ To verify: efeo, lessingothmer.
  6. ^ To verify: efeo, lessingothmer.
  7. ^ To verify: all.
  8. ^ To verify: all.
  9. ^ To verify: efeo, lessingothmer.
  10. ^ To verify: efeo, lessingothmer.

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