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Constitution of Liechtenstein

The Constitution of Liechtenstein was promulgated on 5 October 1921, replacing the 1862 constitution. It was granted by Johann II, Prince of Liechtenstein, and established the rule of partial parliamentary democracy mixed with that of constitutional monarchy, as well as providing for referendums on decisions of the Landtag.[1] It also abolished the three seats in the Landtag appointed by the Prince and lowered the voting age from 24 to 21.[2]

The country replaced universal male suffrage with universal suffrage, following a national referendum in 1984.

Chapters

The constitution has twelve chapters:

  • Chapter I. The Principality
  • Chapter II. The Reigning Prince
  • Chapter III. Responsibilities of the State
  • Chapter IV. General Rights and Obligations of Liechtenstein Citizens
  • Chapter V. The Parliament
  • Chapter VI. The National Committee
  • Chapter VII. The Government
  • Chapter VIII. The Courts
    • A. General Provisions
    • B. The Ordinary Courts
    • C. The Administrative Court
    • D. The Constitutional Court
  • Chapter IX. Administrative Bodies and Civil Servants
  • Chapter X. The Municipalities
  • Chapter XI. Constitutional Amendments and Interpretation
  • Chapter XII. Final Clauses

Amendments

The constitution has been amended several times, including:[3]

  • 1939: Article 49, paragraph 4 inserted (allowing substitutions for Landtag members unable to attend), article 53 amended
  • 1947: Article 48, paragraphs 2 and 3 and Article 64 paragraphs 2 and 4 amended
  • 1958: Article 47, paragraph 1 and Article 59 amended.
  • 1972: Article 16, paragraphs 6 and 7 annulled. Article 17, paragraph 1 amended.
  • 1973: Article 46, paragraph 3 inserted setting the electoral threshold at 8%. Approved by referendum.
  • 1982: Article 61 amended
  • 1984: Article 48 paragraphs 2 and 3 and Article 64 paragraphs 2 and 4 amended.
  • 1988: Article 46, paragraph 1 amended to increase number of Landtag members from 15 to 25. Approved by referendum.
  • 1989: Article 52, paragraph 2 annulled. Article 63bis inserted.
  • 1992: Article 31, paragraph 2 and 3 amended.
  • 1994: Article 46, paragraph 2 amended and corrected.
  • 1997: Article 46, paragraph 4 amended, paragraph 5 inserted, article 47 paragraph 2 annulled. Article 63ter inserted.
  • 2000: Article 29, paragraph 2 on citizenship amended. Approved by referendum.
  • 2003: Articles 1, 3, 4, 7 (paragraph 2), 10, 11, 13, 13bis, 13ter, 51, 62f, 62g, 63 (paragraphs 1 and 2) all amended. Article 62h inserted. Article 63, paragraph 3 annulled. Approved by referendum.

References

  1. ^ Nohlen, D & Stöver, P (2010) Elections in Europe: A data handbook, p1156 ISBN 978-3-8329-5609-7
  2. ^ Nohlen & Stöver, p1158
  3. ^ Constitution of Liechtenstein Archived December 27, 2013, at the Wayback Machine Government of Liechtenstein

External links


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