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Decagram (geometry)

Regular decagram
Regular star polygon 10-3.svg
A regular decagram
TypeRegular star polygon
Edges and vertices10
Schläfli symbol{10/3}
t{5/3}
Coxeter diagramCDel node 1.pngCDel 10.pngCDel rat.pngCDel d3.pngCDel node.png
CDel node 1.pngCDel 5-3.pngCDel node 1.png
Symmetry groupDihedral (D10)
Internal angle (degrees)72°
Dual polygonself
Propertiesstar, cyclic, equilateral, isogonal, isotoxal

In geometry, a decagram is a 10-point star polygon. There is one regular decagram, containing the vertices of a regular decagon, but connected by every third point. Its Schläfli symbol is {10/3}.[1]

The name decagram combines a numeral prefix, deca-, with the Greek suffix -gram. The -gram suffix derives from γραμμῆς (grammēs) meaning a line.[2]

Regular decagram

For a regular decagram with unit edge lengths, the proportions of the crossing points on each edge are as shown below.

Decagram lengths.svg

Applications

Decagrams have been used as one of the decorative motifs in girih tiles.[3]

Girih tiles.svg

Isotoxal variations

An isotoxal polygon has two vertices and one edge. There are isotoxal decagram forms, which alternates vertices at two radii. Each form has a freedom of one angle. The first is a variation of a double covering of a pentagon {5}, and last is a variation of a double covering of a pentagram {5/2}. The middle is a variation of a regular decagram, {10/3}.

Intersecting isotoxal decagon2.svg
{(5/2)α}
Isotoxal decagram.svg
{(5/3)α}
Intersecting isotoxal decagon.svg
{(5/4)α}

Related figures

A regular decagram is a 10-sided polygram, represented by symbol {10/n}, containing the same vertices as regular decagon. Only one of these polygrams, {10/3} (connecting every third point), forms a regular star polygon, but there are also three ten-vertex polygrams which can be interpreted as regular compounds:

Form Convex Compound Star polygon Compounds
Image Regular polygon 10.svg Regular star figure 2(5,1).svg Regular star polygon 10-3.svg Regular star figure 2(5,2).svg Regular star figure 5(2,1).svg
Symbol {10/1} = {10} {10/2} = 2{5} {10/3} {10/4} = 2{5/2} {10/5} = 5{2}

{10/2} can be seen as the 2D equivalent of the 3D compound of dodecahedron and icosahedron and 4D compound of 120-cell and 600-cell; that is, the compound of two pentagonal polytopes in their respective dual positions.

{10/4} can be seen as the two-dimensional equivalent of the three-dimensional compound of small stellated dodecahedron and great dodecahedron or compound of great icosahedron and great stellated dodecahedron through similar reasons. It has six four-dimensional analogues, with two of these being compounds of two self-dual star polytopes, like the pentagram itself; the compound of two great 120-cells and the compound of two grand stellated 120-cells. A full list can be seen at Polytope compound#Compounds with duals.

Deeper truncations of the regular pentagon and pentagram can produce intermediate star polygon forms with ten equally spaced vertices and two edge lengths that remain vertex-transitive (any two vertices can be transformed into each other by a symmetry of the figure).[6][7][8]

Isogonal truncations of pentagon and pentagram
Quasiregular Isogonal Quasiregular
Double covering
Regular polygon truncation 5 1.svg
t{5} = {10}
Regular polygon truncation 5 2.svg Regular polygon truncation 5 3.svg Regular star polygon 5-2.svg
t{5/4} = {10/4} = 2{5/2}
Regular star truncation 5-3 1.svg
t{5/3} = {10/3}
Regular star truncation 5-3 2.svg Regular star truncation 5-3 3.svg Regular polygon 5.svg
t{5/2} = {10/2} = 2{5}

See also

References

  1. ^ Barnes, John (2012), Gems of Geometry, Springer, pp. 28–29, ISBN 9783642309649.
  2. ^ γραμμή, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus
  3. ^ Sarhangi, Reza (2012), "Polyhedral Modularity in a Special Class of Decagram Based Interlocking Star Polygons", Bridges 2012: Mathematics, Music, Art, Architecture, Culture (PDF), pp. 165–174.
  4. ^ Regular polytopes, p 93-95, regular star polygons, regular star compounds
  5. ^ Coxeter, Introduction to Geometry, second edition, 2.8 Star polygons p.36-38
  6. ^ The Lighter Side of Mathematics: Proceedings of the Eugène Strens Memorial Conference on Recreational Mathematics and its History, (1994), Metamorphoses of polygons, Branko Grünbaum.
  7. ^ *Coxeter, Harold Scott MacDonald; Longuet-Higgins, M. S.; Miller, J. C. P. (1954). "Uniform polyhedra". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series A. Mathematical and Physical Sciences. The Royal Society. 246 (916): 411. Bibcode:1954RSPTA.246..401C. doi:10.1098/rsta.1954.0003. ISSN 0080-4614. JSTOR 91532. MR 0062446.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  8. ^ Coxeter, The Densities of the Regular polytopes I, p.43 If d is odd, the truncation of the polygon {p/q} is naturally {2n/d}. But if not, it consists of two coincident {n/(d/2)}'s; two, because each side arises from an original side and once from an original vertex. Thus the density of a polygon is unaltered by truncation.

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