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Demographics of Slovakia

Slovakia population pyramid in 2020
Population density in Slovakia, by district.
Historical population
YearPop.±%
18482,442,000—    
18692,481,811+1.6%
18802,477,521−0.2%
18902,595,180+4.7%
19002,782,925+7.2%
19102,916,657+4.8%
19212,993,859+2.6%
19303,324,111+11.0%
19463,327,803+0.1%
19503,442,317+3.4%
19614,174,046+21.3%
19704,537,290+8.7%
19804,991,168+10.0%
19915,274,335+5.7%
20015,379,455+2.0%
20115,397,036+0.3%
20205,464,060+1.2%
Source:

This article is about the demographic features of the population of Slovakia, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population. The demographic statistics are from the Statistical Office of the SR, unless otherwise indicated.

Population

Total population: 5,453,014[1][2] (as of 2018).

Population censuses in 1848-2011

Census Date Population Population
Density
(per km2)
1848-12-31 2,442,000 (est.) 50
1869-12-31 2,481,811 51
1880-12-31 2,477,521 51
1890-12-31 2,595,180 53
1900-12-31 2,782,925 57
1910-12-31 2,916,657 60
1921-02-15 2,993,859 61
1930-12-01 3,324,111 68
1946-10-04 3,327,803 68
1950-03-01 3,442,317 70
1961-03-01 4,174,046 85
1970-12-01 4,537,290 93
1980-11-01 4,991,168 102
1991-03-03 5,274,335 108
2001-05-26 5,379,455 110
2011-05-21 5,397,036 110
2019-12-31 5,457,873 111

Total Fertility Rate from 1876 to 1918

The total fertility rate is the number of children born per woman. It is based on fairly good data for the entire period. Sources: Our World In Data and Gapminder Foundation.[3]

Years 1876 1877 1878 1879 1880 1881 1882 1883 1884 1885 1886 1887 1888 1889 1890[3]
Total Fertility Rate in Slovakia 5.96 5.96 5.92 5.87 5.83 5.78 5.74 5.77 5.8 5.83 5.86 5.9 5.83 5.76 5.7
Years 1891 1892 1893 1894 1895 1896 1897 1898 1899 1900[3]
Total Fertility Rate in Slovakia 5.63 5.56 5.54 5.52 5.5 5.49 5.47 5.42 5.37 5.31
Years 1901 1902 1903 1904 1905 1906 1907 1908 1909 1910[3]
Total Fertility Rate in Slovakia 5.26 5.21 5.16 5.1 5.04 4.99 4.93 4.86 4.78 4.71
Years 1911 1912 1913 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918[3]
Total Fertility Rate in Slovakia 4.63 4.56 4.13 3.7 3.28 2.85 2.43 3.03

Vital statistics

Slovakia total fertility rate by region (2014)
 1.5 - 1.7
 1.4 - 1.5
 1.3 - 1.4
 < 1.3

Births and deaths since 1919

Average
population
Live births Deaths Natural
change
Births
(per 1000)
Deaths
(per 1000)
Natural
change
(per 1000)
Fertility
rates
Induced
abortions
1919 2,940,000 91,729 56,866 34,863 31.2 19.3 11.9 3.64
1920 3,001,000 97,680 61,084 36,596 32.6 20.4 12.2 4.25
1921 3,006,000 114,947 63,507 51,440 38.2 21.1 17.1 4.96
1922 3,046,000 111,059 62,902 48,157 36.5 20.7 15.8 4.67
1923 3,095,000 111,070 54,176 56,894 35.9 17.5 18.4 4.55
1924 3,135,000 106,062 56,322 49,740 33.8 18.0 15.9 4.25
1925 3,168,000 102,867 56,171 46,696 32.5 17.7 14.7 4.01
1926 3,202,000 103,955 59,701 44,254 32.5 18.6 13.8 3.98
1927 3,232,000 99,891 59,172 40,719 30.9 18.3 12.6 3.76
1928 3,258,000 99,673 58,320 41,353 30.6 17.9 12.7 3.69
1929 3,286,000 95,387 56,447 38,940 29.0 17.2 11.9 3.48
1930 3,315,000 96,898 52,268 44,630 29.2 15.8 13.5 3.49
1931 3,350,000 93,309 54,273 39,036 27.9 16.2 11.7 3.33
1932 3,388,000 93,140 52,992 40,148 27.5 15.6 11.9 3.29
1933 3,424,000 84,975 50,655 34,320 24.8 14.8 10.0 2.96
1934 3,456,000 83,493 50,178 33,315 24.2 14.5 9.6 2.86
1935 3,486,000 82,382 49,830 32,552 23.6 14.3 9.3 2.8
1936 3,515,000 80,923 48,547 32,376 23.0 13.8 9.2 2.79
1937 3,540,000 79,862 49,527 30,335 22.6 14.0 8.6 2.77
1938 3,726,000 80,800 49,700 31,100 21.7 13.3 8.3 2.8
1939 3,577,000 81,200 48,800 32,400 22.7 13.6 9.1 2.83
1940 3,553,000 85,300 52,900 32,400 24.0 14.9 9.1 2.87
1941 3,542,000 85,700 53,600 32,100 24.2 15.1 9.1 2.9
1942 3,523,000 87,200 55,900 31,300 24.8 15.9 8.9 2.93
1943 3,503,000 87,700 50,900 36,800 25.0 14.5 10.5 2.96
1944 3,484,000 91,600 58,100 33,500 26.3 16.7 9.6 3
1945 3,459,000 81,880 67,505 14,375 23.7 19.5 4.2 3.03
1946 3,392,000 82,204 47,589 34,615 24.2 14.0 10.2 3.09
1947 3,399,000 87,659 41,491 46,168 25.8 12.2 13.6 3.21
1948 3,446,000 91,189 40,873 50,316 26.5 11.9 14.6 3.24
1949 3,447,000 91,053 41,727 49,326 26.4 12.1 14.3 3.28
1950 3,463,000 99,721 39,668 60,053 28.8 11.5 17.4 3.56
1951 3,509,000 100,663 40,505 60,158 28.5 11.5 17.0 3.58
1952 3,558,000 100,824 36,897 63,927 28.0 10.2 17.7 3.57
1953 3,599,000 99,124 35,598 63,526 26.9 9.7 17.3 3.50
1954 3,661,000 98,310 34,866 63,444 26.2 9.3 16.9 3.45
1955 3,727,000 99,305 32,917 66,388 26.0 8.6 17.4 3.47
1956 3,787,000 99,467 32,815 66,652 25.5 8.4 17.1 3.46
1957 3,844,000 97,311 35,755 61,556 24.5 9.0 15.5 3.34
1958 3,900,000 93,272 32,106 61,166 23.1 7.9 15.1 3.25 12,383
1959 3,946,000 87,991 34,077 53,914 21.5 8.3 13.1 3.07 17,217
1960 3,994,000 88,412 31,609 56,803 22.1 7.9 14.2 3.08 20,738
1961 4,182,000 87,359 31,403 55,956 21.6 7.8 13.8 3.04 24,244
1962 4,238,000 83,899 34,398 49,501 19.8 8.1 11.7 2.84 23,784
1963 4,282,000 87,158 32,978 54,180 20.4 7.7 12.7 2.95 19,076
1964 4,327,000 86,878 32,875 54,003 20.1 7.6 12.5 2.91 19,174
1965 4,371,000 84,257 35,910 48,347 19.3 8.2 11.1 2.80 21,037
1966 4,412,000 81,453 36,357 45,096 18.5 8.2 10.2 2.68 24,445
1967 4,449,000 77,537 35,458 42,079 17.4 8.0 9.5 2.50 26,571
1968 4,484,000 76,370 38,076 38,294 17.0 8.5 8.5 2.40 27,398
1969 4,519,000 79,769 40,623 39,146 17.7 9.0 8.7 2.43 28,534
1970 4,550,000 80,666 42,240 38,426 17.7 9.3 8.4 2.40 27,873
1971 4,557,000 83,062 42,856 40,206 18.2 9.4 8.8 2.42 28,619
1972 4,597,000 87,794 41,410 46,384 19.1 9.0 10.1 2.49 26,213
1973 4,641,000 92,953 43,759 49,194 20.0 9.4 10.6 2.56 25,335
1974 4,690,000 97,585 44,934 52,651 20.8 9.6 11.2 2.60 26,086
1975 4,739,000 97,649 45,248 52,401 20.6 9.5 11.1 2.53 26,160
1976 4,790,000 99,814 45,420 54,394 20.8 9.5 11.4 2.52 27,700
1977 4,841,000 99,533 47,181 52,352 20.6 9.7 10.8 2.47 27,875
1978 4,890,000 100,193 47,778 52,415 20.5 9.8 10.7 2.45 28,641
1979 4,939,000 100,240 47,837 52,403 20.3 9.7 10.6 2.44 29,981
1980 4,984,000 95,100 50,579 44,521 19.1 10.1 8.9 2.31 31,240
1981 5,016,000 93,290 49,632 43,658 18.6 9.9 8.7 2.28 31,943
1982 5,055,000 92,618 50,393 42,225 18.3 10.0 8.4 2.26 33,107
1983 5,092,000 92,053 52,433 39,620 18.1 10.3 7.8 2.27 33,625
1984 5,127,000 90,843 51,739 39,104 17.7 10.1 7.6 2.25 34,268
1985 5,162,000 90,155 52,464 37,691 17.5 10.2 7.3 2.26 36,283
1986 5,193,000 87,138 53,233 33,905 16.8 10.3 6.5 2.20 40,624
1987 5,224,000 84,006 52,980 31,026 16.1 10.1 5.9 2.18 49,690
1988 5,251,000 83,242 52,475 30,767 15.9 10.0 5.9 2.15 51,000
1989 5,276,000 80,116 53,902 26,214 15.2 10.2 5.0 2.08 48,602
1990 5,298,000 79,989 54,619 25,370 15.1 10.3 4.8 2.09 48,437
1991 5,283,000 78,569 54,618 23,951 14.9 10.3 4.5 2.05 45,902
1992 5,307,000 74,640 53,423 21,217 14.1 10.1 4.0 1.99 42,626
1993 5,325,000 73,256 52,707 20,549 13.8 9.9 3.9 1.93 38,815
1994 5,347,000 66,370 51,386 14,984 12.4 9.6 2.8 1.67 34,883
1995 5,364,000 61,427 52,686 8,741 11.5 9.8 1.6 1.52 29,409
1996 5,374,000 60,123 51,236 8,887 11.2 9.5 1.7 1.47 25,173
1997 5,383,000 59,310 52,080 7,230 11.0 9.7 1.3 1.43 22,318
1998 5,391,000 57,582 53,156 4,426 10.7 9.9 0.8 1.37 21,109
1999 5,396,000 56,223 52,402 3,821 10.4 9.7 0.7 1.33 19,949
2000 5,401,000 55,151 52,724 2,427 10.2 9.8 0.4 1.29 18,468
2001 5,379,000 51,136 51,980 -844 9.5 9.7 -0.2 1.20 18,026
2002 5,379,000 50,841 51,532 -691 9.5 9.6 -0.1 1.19 17,382
2003 5,379,000 51,713 52,230 -517 9.6 9.7 -0.1 1.20 16,222
2004 5,383,000 53,747 51,852 1,895 10.0 9.6 0.4 1.24 15,307
2005 5,387,000 54,430 53,475 955 10.1 9.9 0.2 1.25 14,427
2006 5,391,000 53,904 53,301 603 10.0 9.9 0.1 1.24 14,243
2007 5,398,000 54,424 53,856 568 10.1 10.0 0.1 1.26 13,424
2008 5,407,000 57,360 53,164 4,196 10.6 9.8 0.8 1.32 13,394
2009 5,418,000 61,217 52,913 8,304 11.3 9.8 1.5 1.41 13,240
2010 5,431,000 60,410 53,445 6,965 11.1 9.8 1.3 1.40 12,582
2011 5,398,000 60,813 51,903 8,910 11.3 9.6 1.7 1.45 11,789
2012 5,408,000 55,535 52,437 3,098 10.3 9.7 0.6 1.34 11,214
2013 5,416,000 54,823 52,089 2,734 10.1 9.6 0.5 1.34 11,105
2014 5,421,000 55,033 51,346 3,687 10.2 9.5 0.7 1.37 10,582
2015 5,426,000 55,604 53,826 1,778 10.3 9.9 0.3 1.40 10,058
2016 5,435,000 57,557 52,351 5,206 10.6 9.6 1.0 1.48 9,390
2017[4][5] 5,443,000 57,969 53,914 4,055 10.7 9.9 0.7 1.52 9,083
2018 5,450,000 57,639 54,293 3,346 10.6 10.0 0.6 1.5435 9,039
2019 5,458,000 57,054 53,234 3,820 10.5 9.8 0.7 1.5642 6,682
2020 5,459,781 56,650 59,089 -2,439 10.4 10.8 -0.4 1.5884 6,180

Current natural increase

  • Number of live births in January-April 2019 = Decrease 18,014
  • Number of live births in January-April 2020 = Decrease 17,967
  • Number of live births in January-April 2021 = Increase 18,214


  • Number of deaths in January-April 2019 = Positive decrease 18,722
  • Number of deaths in January-April 2020 = Positive decrease 18,359
  • Number of deaths in January-April 2021 = Negative increase 29,765


  • Natural growth in January-April 2019 = Decrease -708
  • Natural growth in January-April 2020 = Increase -392
  • Natural growth in January-April 2021 = Decrease -11551

[6]

Other demographics statistics

Demographic statistics according to the World Population Review in 2019.[7]

  • One birth every 9 minutes
  • One death every 9 minutes
  • One net migrant every 480 minutes
  • Net gain of one person every 360 minutes

The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook.[8]

Population

5,445,040 (July 2018 est.)

Age structure

Population pyramid of Slovakia in 2017
0-14 years: 15.2% (male 424,921 /female 402,483)
15-24 years: 10.48% (male 293,573 /female 277,041)
25-54 years: 45.04% (male 1,239,670 /female 1,212,687)
55-64 years: 13.32% (male 345,114 /female 380,077)
65 years and over: 15.97% (male 339,350 /female 530,124) (2018 est.)
0–14 years: 15.6% (male 437,755; female 417,797)
15–64 years: 71.6% (male 1,955,031; female 1,965,554)
65 years and over: 12.8% (male 262,363; female 438,538 (2011 est)

Median age

total: 41 years. Country comparison to the world: 46th
male: 39.3 years
female: 42.7 years (2018 est.)
total: 38 years
male: 36.5 years
female: 39.5 years (2012 est)

Birth rate

Birth and death rates in Slovakia, 1950–2008.
9.6 births/1,000 population (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 198th

Death rate

9.9 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 38th

Total fertility rate

1.42 children born/woman (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 210th

Net migration rate

0.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 73rd

Population growth rate

-0.02% (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 197th

Mother's mean age at first birth

27.6 years (2014 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 77.4 years
male: 73.9 years
female: 81.2 years (2018 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 41.5 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 21.6 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 19.9 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 5 (2015 est.)

Ethnic groups

Slovak 80.7%, Hungarian 8.5%, Romani 2%, other 1.8% (includes Czech, Rusyn, Ukrainian, Russian, German, Polish), unspecified 7% (2011 est.)

Languages

Slovak (official) 78.6%, Hungarian 9.4%, Roma 2.3%, Rusyn 1%, other or unspecified 8.8% (2011 est.)

Religions

Roman Catholic 62%, Protestant 8.2%, Greek Catholic 3.8%, other or unspecified 12.5%, none 13.4% (2011 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 15 years
male: 14 years
female: 16 years (2016)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24

total: 22.2%. Country comparison to the world: 59th
male: 19.8%
female: 26.3% (2016 est.)

Sex ratio


at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15–64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.6 male(s)/female
total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2011 est.)

Immigration

Foreign population of Slovakia in 2010.

Immigration to Slovakia is one of the lowest in the European Union.[citation needed]

Largest groups of foreign residents
Nationality Population (2020)[9]
 Ukraine 42,162
 Serbia 16,005
European Union Czech Republic 12,246
European Union Hungary 9,492
European Union Romania 7,372
 Vietnam 6,798
European Union Poland 6,133
 Russia 5,658
European Union Germany 4,572
European Union Italy 3,057
 United Kingdom 2,828
 China 2,695
European Union Austria 2,563
European Union Bulgaria 1,740
 North Macedonia 1,675
European Union France 1,563
 South Korea 1,493
European Union Spain 1,300
European Union Croatia 1,274
 Iran 1,221

Infant mortality rate


total: 6.47 deaths/1,000 live births
male 7.54 deaths/1,000 live births
female 5.34 deaths/1,000 live births (2012 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

Life expectancy from 1950 to 2015 (UN World Population Prospects):[10]

Period Life expectancy in
Years
1950–1955 64.43
1955–1960 Increase 68.64
1960–1965 Increase 70.63
1965–1970 Decrease 70.32
1970–1975 Decrease 70.08
1975–1980 Increase 70.48
1980–1985 Increase 70.63
1985–1990 Increase 70.97
1990–1995 Increase 71.61
1995–2000 Increase 72.74
2000–2005 Increase 73.82
2005–2010 Increase 74.77
2010–2015 Increase 76.30
Linguistic structure of Slovakia in 1910
Linguistic structure of Slovakia in 2011


Ethnic groups

Ethnic composition of territory of Slovakia in 1880
Ethnic structure of Slovakia according to Census 2011

The majority of the 5.4 million inhabitants of Slovakia are Slovak (80.7%). Hungarians are the largest ethnic minority (8.5%) and are concentrated in the southern and eastern regions of Slovakia. Other ethnic groups include Roma (2.0%), Czechs, Croats, Rusyns, Ukrainians, Germans, Poles, Serbs[11] and Jews (about 2,300 remain of the estimated pre-WWII population of 120,000).

While both international organizations (the United Nations and the World Bank) and the official Slovak statistics office offer population figures for ethnic groups, these figures seldom come close to agreement. Figures for the Roma population (for a variety of reasons) vary between 1% and 10% of the population. In the most recent survey carried out by the Slovak Government's Roma Plenipotentiary, the figure for the percentage of Roma was arrived at through interview with municipality representatives and mayors, according to how many Roma they think live in their jurisdictions. The figure arrived at by this means was in the region of 300,000 (about 5.6%). Note that in the case of the 5.6%, however, the above percentages of Hungarians and Slovaks are lower accordingly.[citation needed]

Population of Slovakia according to ethnic group 1950–2018[12][13]
Ethnic
group
census 1950 census 1961 census 1970 census 1980 census 1991 census 2001 census 2011 statistics 2018[14]
Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number %
Slovaks 86.6 85.3 85.5 4,317,008 86.5 4,519,328 85.7 4,614,854 85.8 4,352,775 80.7 4,444,758 81.5%
Hungarians 10.3 12.4 12.2 559,490 11.2 567,296 10.8 520,528 9.7 458,467 8.5 451,914 8.3%
Romani1 - - - - - 75,802 1.4 89,920 1.7 105,738 2.0 111,889 2.1%
Czechs 1.2 1.1 1.0 57,197 1.1 59,326 1.1 44,620 0.8 30,367 0.6 37,219 0.7%
Rusyns 1.4 - 0.9 36,850 0.7 17,197 0.3 24,201 0.4 33,482 0.6 30,153 0.6%
Ukrainians 13,281 0.3 10,814 0.2 7,430 0.1 10,501 0.2%
Others/undeclared 0.5 1.2 0.4 20,623 0.4 22,105 0.4 74,518 1.4 408,777 7.5 363,987 6.7%
Total 3,442,317 4,174,046 4,537,290 4,991,168 5,274,335 5,379,455 5,397,036 5,450,421
1 Before 1991 the Romani were not recognized as a separate ethnic group

The official state language is Slovak, and Hungarian is widely spoken in the southern regions.

Despite its modern European economy and society, Slovakia has a significant rural element. About 45% of Slovaks live in villages with fewer than 5,000 inhabitants, and 14% in villages with fewer than 1,000.

Religion

Religious structure of Slovakia in 2011

The Slovak constitution guarantees freedom of religion. The majority of Slovak citizens (62%) practice Roman Catholicism; the second-largest group consider themselves atheists (13%). About 6.9% are Protestants, 4.1% are Greek Catholics, and 0.9% are Orthodox. Reformed Christian Church 2.0%, other 6.4% (2004 survey).

See also

References

  1. ^ ""World Population prospects – Population division"". population.un.org. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved November 9, 2019.
  2. ^ ""Overall total population" – World Population Prospects: The 2019 Revision" (xslx). population.un.org (custom data acquired via website). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved November 9, 2019.
  3. ^ a b c d e Max Roser (2014), "Total Fertility Rate around the world over the last centuries", Our World In Data, Gapminder Foundation, archived from the original on 2019-03-09, retrieved 2019-05-02
  4. ^ "Štatistický úrad SR". Portal.statistics.sk. Retrieved 29 August 2017.
  5. ^ "Main demographic data". Infostat.sk. Retrieved 29 August 2017.
  6. ^ "DATAcube: Prehľad pohybu obyvateľstva - SR-oblasť-kraj-okres, m-v (mesačne) [om7104mr]". Datacube.statistics.sk. Retrieved 27 May 2021.
  7. ^ "Slovakia Population 2019", World Population Review
  8. ^ "The World FactBook - Serbia", The World Factbook, July 12, 2018 This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  9. ^ https://www.minv.sk/swift_data/source/policia/hranicna_a_cudzinecka_policia/rocenky/rok_2020/2020-rocenka-UHCP-EN.pdf
  10. ^ "World Population Prospects – Population Division – United Nations". Retrieved 2017-07-15.
  11. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2010-09-18. Retrieved 2010-09-18.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  12. ^ "Demographic data from population and housing censuses in Slovakia". Sodb.infostat.sk. Retrieved 29 August 2017.
  13. ^ "Development of prices in production area in July 2017" (PDF). Portal.statistics.sk. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 July 2007. Retrieved 29 August 2017.
  14. ^ "Bilancia podľa národnosti a pohlavia - SR-oblasť-kraj-okres, m-v [om7002rr]". Statistics of Slovakia (in Slovak). Statistics of Slovakia. Retrieved 28 April 2019.

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