wanweipedia

Demographics of Slovenia

Slovenia population pyramid in 2020
Population density in Slovenia by municipality
Historical population
YearPop.±%
1922 1,306,529—    
1930 1,373,082+5.1%
1940 1,448,991+5.5%
1950 1,459,622+0.7%
1960 1,580,535+8.3%
1970 1,719,906+8.8%
1980 1,893,064+10.1%
1990 1,996,337+5.5%
2000 1,987,775−0.4%
2010 2,046,976+3.0%
2019 2,084,301+1.8%
2020 2,100,126+0.8%
Source:[1]

This article is about the demographic features of the population of Slovenia, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

With 101 inhabitants per square kilometre (262/sq mi), Slovenia ranks low among the European countries in population density (compared to 402/km2 (1042/sq mi) for the Netherlands or 195/km2 (505/sq mi) for Italy). The Littoral–Inner Carniola Statistical Region has the lowest population density while the Central Slovenia Statistical Region has the highest.[2]

According to the 2002 census, Slovenia's main ethnic group are Slovenes (83%). At least 13% of the population were immigrants from other parts of Former Yugoslavia, primarily ethnic Bosniaks (Bosnian Muslims), Croats and Serbs and their descendants.[3] They have settled mainly in cities and suburbanised areas.[4] Relatively small but protected by the Constitution of Slovenia are the Hungarian and the Italian national community.[5][6][7] A special position is held by the autochthonous and geographically dispersed Roma ethnic community.[8][9]

Slovenia is among the European countries with the most pronounced ageing of population, ascribable to a low birth rate and increasing life expectancy.[10] Almost all Slovenian inhabitants older than 64 are retired, with no significant difference between the genders.[11] The working-age group is diminishing in spite of immigration.[12] The proposal to raise the retirement age from the current 57 for women and 58 for men was rejected in a referendum in 2011.[13] Also the difference among the genders regarding life expectancy is still significant.[11] In 2007, it was 74.6 years for men and 81.8 years for women.[14] In addition, in 2009, the suicide rate in Slovenia was 22 per 100,000 persons per year, which places Slovenia among the highest ranked European countries in this regard.[15]

Population

census date population population density
(per km2)
1948 1,391,873 20,271
1953 1,466,425 20,271
1961 1,591,523 20,271
1971 1,679,051 20,271
1981 1,838,381 20,271
1991 1,913,355 20,271
2002 1,964,036 20,271
2011 2,050,189 20,271

Vital statistics

[16][17][18][19]

Source: Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia[20]

Average population Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000) Total fertility rate Female fertile population (15–49 years)
1950 1,466,881 35,156 17,335 17,821 24.0 11.8 12.1 3.01 408,581
1951 1,480,245 34,020 18,497 15,523 23.0 12.5 10.5 2.90 404,031
1952 1,493,550 33,444 15,617 17,827 22.4 10.5 11.9 2.86 399,484
1953 1,508,428 33,754 14,948 18,806 22.4 9.9 12.5 2.86 394,935
1954 1,521,485 31,828 14,897 16,931 20.9 9.8 11.1 2.64 399,380
1955 1,533,998 32,096 15,109 16,987 20.9 9.8 11.1 2.61 403,825
1956 1,545,591 31,466 16,351 15,115 20.4 10.6 9.8 2.52 408,271
1957 1,556,521 30,086 14,545 15,541 19.3 9.3 10.0 2.41 405,284
1958 1,566,979 28,283 14,082 14,201 18.0 9.0 9.1 2.22 409,354
1959 1,576,204 28,432 15,357 13,075 18.0 9.7 8.3 2.23 409,202
1960 1,580,145 27,825 15,145 12,680 17.6 9.6 8.0 2.20 405,210
1961 1,595,450 28,955 14,013 14,942 18.1 8.8 9.4 2.33 401,219
1962 1,604,980 29,035 15,866 13,169 18.1 9.9 8.2 2.28 410,687
1963 1,614,414 29,174 15,102 14,072 18.1 9.4 8.7 2.27 410,442
1964 1,630,553 29,184 16,729 12,455 17.9 10.3 7.6 2.30 404,812
1965 1,650,413 30,587 15,987 14,600 18.5 9.7 8.8 2.43 413,598
1966 1,669,606 30,941 15,248 15,693 18.5 9.1 9.4 2.47 421,820
1967 1,690,939 29,824 16,353 13,471 17.6 9.7 8.0 2.37 431,579
1968 1,703,708 28,580 17,446 11,134 16.8 10.2 6.5 2.25 444,518
1969 1,714,022 27,883 18,564 9,319 16.3 10.8 5.4 2.18 447,334
1970 1,726,513 27,432 17,354 10,078 15.9 10.1 5.8 2.11 448,739
1971 1,738,101 28,278 17,425 10,853 16.3 10.0 6.2 2.17 451,193
1972 1,751,506 28,713 18,153 10,560 16.4 10.4 6.0 2.16 447,843
1973 1,766,125 29,548 17,614 11,934 16.7 10.0 6.8 2.21 453,882
1974 1,782,470 28,625 17,206 11,419 16.1 9.7 6.4 2.12 454,814
1975 1,800,022 29,786 18,180 11,606 16.5 10.1 6.4 2.18 460,560
1976 1,819,276 30,339 18,157 12,182 16.7 10.0 6.7 2.19 458,903
1977 1,839,358 29,904 17,633 12,271 16.3 9.6 6.7 2.16 457,783
1978 1,862,620 30,354 18,357 11,997 16.3 9.9 6.4 2.20 452,406
1979 1,882,304 30,604 18,148 12,456 16.3 9.6 6.6 2.19 459,736
1980 1,901,208 29,902 18,820 11,082 15.7 9.9 5.8 2.11 467,064
1981 1,917,469 29,220 18,733 10,487 15.2 9.8 5.5 1.97 476,888
1982 1,924,877 28,894 19,647 9,247 15.0 10.2 4.8 1.93 481,591
1983 1,933,104 27,200 20,703 6,497 14.1 10.7 3.4 1.81 483,848
1984 1,942,802 26,274 20,214 6,060 13.5 10.4 3.1 1.75 485,852
1985 1,973,151 25,933 19,854 6,079 13.1 10.1 3.1 1.72 488,181
1986 1,980,718 25,570 19,499 6,071 12.9 9.8 3.1 1.67 496,670
1987 1,989,462 25,592 19,837 5,755 12.9 10.0 2.9 1.65 505,330
1988 1,999,988 25,209 19,126 6,083 12.6 9.6 3.0 1.63 507,570
1989 1,999,404 23,447 18,669 4,778 11.7 9.3 2.4 1.53 508,739
1990 1,998,090 22,368 18,555 3,813 11.2 9.3 1.9 1.46 510,180
1991 2,001,768 21,583 19,324 2,259 10.8 9.7 1.1 1.42 511,850
1992 1,995,832 19,982 19,333 649 10.0 9.7 0.3 1.33 512,188
1993 1,990,623 19,793 20,012 -219 9.9 10.1 -0.1 1.33 511,701
1994 1,988,850 19,463 19,359 104 9.8 9.7 0.1 1.32 512,918
1995 1,987,505 18,980 18,968 12 9.5 9.5 0.0 1.29 515,495
1996 1,991,169 18,788 18,620 168 9.4 9.4 0.1 1.28 516,639
1997 1,986,848 18,165 18,928 -763 9.1 9.5 -0.4 1.25 516,407
1998 1,982,603 17,856 19,039 -1,183 9.0 9.6 -0.6 1.23 516,296
1999 1,985,557 17,533 18,885 -1,352 8.8 9.5 -0.7 1.21 516,261
2000 1,990,272 18,180 18,588 -408 9.1 9.3 -0.2 1.26 515,258
2001 1,992,035 17,477 18,508 -1,031 8.8 9.3 -0.5 1.21 512,358
2002 1,995,718 17,501 18,701 -1,200 8.8 9.4 -0.6 1.21 510,692
2003 1,996,773 17,321 19,451 -2,130 8.7 9.7 -1.1 1.21 507,713
2004 1,997,004 17,961 18,523 -562 9.0 9.3 -0.3 1.25 504,530
2005 2,001,114 18,157 18,825 -668 9.1 9.4 -0.3 1.26 500,449
2006 2,008,516 18,932 18,180 752 9.4 9.1 0.4 1.32 496,853
2007 2,019,406 19,823 18,584 1,239 9.8 9.2 0.6 1.39 491,536
2008 2,022,629 21,817 18,308 3,509 10.8 9.1 1.7 1.54 486,506
2009 2,042,335 21,856 18,750 3,106 10.7 9.2 1.5 1.54 483,680
2010 2,049,261 22,343 18,609 3,734 10.9 9.1 1.8 1.58 479,815
2011 2,052,496 21,947 18,699 3,248 10.7 9.1 1.6 1.57 474,646
2012 2,056,262 21,938 19,257 2,681 10.7 9.4 1.3 1.59 469,442
2013 2,059,114 21,111 19,334 1,777 10.3 9.4 0.9 1.55 463,138
2014 2,061,623 21,165 18,886 2,279 10.3 9.2 1.1 1.58 456,811
2015 2,063,077 20,641 19,834 807 10.0 9.6 0.4 1.58 450,224
2016 2,064,241 20,345 19,689 656 9.9 9.5 0.3 1.59 443,390
2017 2,066,161 20,241 20,509 -268 9.8 9.9 -0.1 1.62 436,478
2018[21] 2,070,050 19,585 20,485 -900 9.5 9.9 -0.4 1.61 430,225
2019[22][23] 2,089,310 19,328 20,588 -1,260 9.3 9.9 -0.6 1.61 428,255
2020[24][25] 2,100,126 18,767 24,016 -5,249 8.9 11.4 -2.5 1.60 426,155
Average population Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000) Total fertility rate Female fertile population (15–49 years)
Total 1950-2019 1,763,557 1,263,851 499,706 950.8 681.4 269.4
Average 1950-2019 1,854,869 25,194 18,055 7,139 13.6 9.7 3.8 1.86 462,330

Current vital statistics

[26][27]

Period Live births Deaths Natural increase
January - April 2020 5,805 7,461 -1,656
January - April 2021 5,788 8,176 -2,388
Difference Decrease -17 (-0.29%) Negative increase +715 (+9.58%) Decrease -732

Life expectancy at birth

Period Life expectancy in

Years[28]

1950–1955 65.60
1955–1960 Increase 67.88
1960–1965 Increase 69.15
1965–1970 Increase 69.17
1970–1975 Increase 69.81
1975–1980 Increase 70.97
1980–1985 Increase 71.21
1985–1990 Increase 72.69
1990–1995 Increase 73.74
1995–2000 Increase 75.26
2000–2005 Increase 76.66
2005–2010 Increase 78.55
2010–2015 Increase 80.31

Marriages and divorces

Vital statistics, marriages and divorces by decade

Births and fertility rates

Immigration

Largest groups of foreign residents[30]
Rank Nationality Population (2020)
1  Bosnia and Herzegovina 73,179
2  Kosovo 19,577
3  Serbia 16,243
4  North Macedonia 13,324
5 European Union Croatia 10,111
6 European Union Bulgaria 3,597
7  Russia 3,261
8 European Union Italy 2,509
9  Ukraine 2,284
10  China 1,322
11 European Union Germany 923
12  Montenegro 861
13 European Union Hungary 688
14  United Kingdom 546
15 European Union Slovakia 469
16  United States 454
17 European Union Austria 442
18 European Union Romania 441
19  Thailand 311
20 European Union France 302

Ethnic groups

The majority of Slovenia's population are ethnic Slovenes (83.06%). Hungarians and Italians have the status of indigenous minorities under the Constitution of Slovenia, which guarantees them seats in the National Assembly. Most other minority groups, particularly those from other parts of the former Yugoslavia (except for one part of autochthonous community of Serbs and Croats), relocated after World War II for economic reasons.

Around 12.4% of the inhabitants of Slovenia were born abroad.[31] According to data from 2008, there were around 100,000 non-EU citizens living in Slovenia, or around 5% of the overall population of the country.[32] The highest number came from Bosnia and Herzegovina, followed by immigrants from Serbia, Macedonia, Croatia (which has since joined the EU itself) and Kosovo. In April 2019, there were 143,192 foreign citizens living in Slovenia, representing 6.87% of Slovenia's population.[33] The number of people migrating to Slovenia has been steadily rising from 1995;[34] and the rate of immigration itself has been increasing year-on-year, reaching its peak in 2016. Since Slovenia joined the EU in 2004, the yearly inflow of immigrants has doubled by 2006 and tripled by 2009.[35] In 2007, Slovenia was one of the countries with the fastest growth of net migration rate in the European Union.[34]

Population of Slovenia according to ethnic group 1948-20021
Ethnic
group
census 1948 census 1953 census 1961 census 1971 census 1981 census 1991 census 2002
Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number %
Slovenes 1,350,149 97.0 1,415,448 96.5 1,522,248 95.6 1,578,963 94.0 1,668,623 90.8 1,689,657 88.3 1,631,363 83.1
Serbs 7,048 0.5 11,225 0.8 13,609 0.9 20,209 1.2 41,695 2.3 47,401 2.5 38,964 2.0
Croats 16,069 1.2 17,978 1.2 31,429 2.0 41,556 2.5 53,882 2.9 52,876 2.8 35,642 1.8
ethnic Muslims 179 0.0 1,617 0.1 465 0.0 3,197 0.2 13,339 0.7 26,577 1.4 10,467 0.5
Bosniaks 21,542 1.1
Hungarians 10,579 0.8 11,019 0.8 10,498 0.7 8,943 0.5 8,777 0.5 8,000 0.4 6,243 0.3
Albanians 216 0.0 169 0.0 282 0.0 1,266 0.1 1,933 0.1 3,534 0.2 6,186 0.3
Macedonians 366 0.0 640 0.0 1,009 0.1 1,572 0.1 3,227 0.2 4,371 0.2 3,972 0.2
Romani 46 0.0 1,663 0.1 158 0.0 951 0.1 1,393 0.1 2,259 0.1 3,246 0.2
Montenegrins 521 0.0 1,356 0.1 1,384 0.1 1,950 0.1 3,175 0.2 4,339 0.2 2,667 0.1
Italians 1,458 0.1 854 0.1 3,072 0.2 2,987 0.2 2,138 0.1 2,959 0.2 2,258 0.1
Others/undeclared 5,242 0.4 4,456 0.3 7,369 0.5 19,212 1.1 40,199 2.2 79,374 4.1 201,486 10.3
Total 1,391,873 1,466,425 1,591,523 1,679,051 1,838,381 1,913,355 1,964,036
1 Source: [1].

Religion

Traditionally, Slovenes are predominantly Roman Catholic. Before World War II, 97% of Slovenes declared as Roman Catholics, around 2.5% were Lutheran, and only around 0.5% belonged to other denominations. Catholicism was an important feature of both social and political life in pre-Communist Slovenia. After 1945, the country underwent a process of gradual but steady secularization. After a decade of severe persecution of religions, the Communist regime adopted a policy of relative tolerance towards the churches, but limited their social functioning. After 1990, the Roman Catholic Church regained some of its former influence, but Slovenia remains a largely secularized society. According to the 2002 census, 57.8% of the population is Roman Catholic. As elsewhere in Europe, affiliation with Roman Catholicism is dropping: in 1991, 71.6% were self-declared Catholics, which means a drop of more than 1% annually.[36] The vast majority of Slovenian Catholics belong to the Latin Rite. A small number of Greek Catholics live in the White Carniola region.[37]

Despite a relatively small number of Protestants (less than 1% in 2002), the Protestant legacy is important because of its historical significance, since the bases of Slovene standard language and Slovene literature were established by the Protestant Reformation in the 16th century. Nowadays, a significant Lutheran minority lives in the easternmost region of Prekmurje, where they represent around a fifth of the population and are headed by a bishop with the seat in Murska Sobota.[38]

Besides these two Christian denominations, a small Jewish community has also been historically present. Despite the losses suffered during the Holocaust, Judaism still numbers a few hundred adherents, mostly living in Ljubljana, site of the sole remaining active synagogue in the country.[39]

According to the 2002 census, Islam is the second largest religious denomination with around 2.4% of the population. Most Slovenian Muslims came from Bosnia, Kosovo, and Macedonia.[40] The third largest denomination, with around 2.2% of the population, is Orthodox Christianity, with most adherents belonging to the Serbian Orthodox Church while a minority belongs to the Macedonian and other Orthodox churches.

In the 2002, around 10% of Slovenes declared themselves as atheists, another 10% professed no specific denomination, and around 16% decided not to answer the question about their religious affiliation. According to the Eurobarometer Poll 2005,[41] 37% of Slovenian citizens responded that "they believe there is a god", whereas 46% answered that "they believe there is some sort of spirit or life force" and 16% that "they do not believe there is any sort of spirit, god, or life force".

The distribution of the residents of Slovenia by religion is the following: Roman Catholic 57.8%, atheist 10.1%, Muslim 2.4%, Orthodox Christian 2.3%, Protestant 0.9%, other and unknown 26.5% (2002).

According to the published data from the 2002 Slovenian census, out of a total of 47,488 Muslims (2.4% of the total population) 2,804 Muslims (5.90% of the total Muslims in Slovenia) declared themselves as ethnic Slovenian Muslims.[42]

Language

The official language in Slovenia is Slovene, which is a member of the South Slavic language group. In 2002, Slovene was the native language of around 88% of Slovenia's population according to the census, with more than 92% of the Slovenian population speaking it in their home environment.[43][44] This places Slovenia among the most homogeneous countries in the EU in terms of the share of speakers of predominant mother tongue.[45] Slovene is sometimes characterized as the most diverse Slavic language in terms of dialects,[46] with different degrees of mutual intelligibility.[citation needed] Accounts of the number of dialects range from as few as seven[47][48][49] dialects, often considered dialect groups or dialect bases that are further subdivided into as many as 50 dialects.[50] Other sources characterize the number of dialects as nine[51] or eight.[52]

The distribution of speakers by language is the following: Slovene 87.7%, Serbo-Croatian 8%, Hungarian 0.4%, Albanian 0.4%, Macedonian 0.2%, Romani 0.2%, Italian 0.2%, German 0.1%, other 0.1% (Russian, Czech, Ukrainian, English, Slovak, Polish, Romanian, Turkish, French, Bulgarian, Arabic, Spanish, Dutch, Vlach, Rusyn, Greek, Swedish, Danish or Armenian), unknown 2.7% (2002)

CIA World Factbook demographic statistics

The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated.

Population

2,102,678 (July 2020 est.)

Age structure


0–14 years: 13.4% (male 138,604/female 130,337)
15–64 years: 69.8% (male 703,374/female 692,640)
65 years and over: 16.8% (male 132,096/female 203,068) (2011 est.)

Median age

total: 42.8 years
male: 41.1 years
female: 44.5 years (2012 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 50% of total population (2012 est.)
rate of urbanization: 0.2% annual rate of change (2010-2015 est.)

Sex ratio


at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15–64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.66 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2011 est.)

Infant mortality rate

4.12 deaths/1,000 live births (2010)

Life expectancy at birth


total population: 80 years
male: 77 years
female: 83 years (2013 est)

See also

References

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  2. ^ "Napaka 404". www.stat.si.
  3. ^ Medvešek, Mojca (2007). "Kdo so priseljenci z območja nekdanje Jugoslavije" [Who Are the Immigrants from the Area of Former Yugoslavia] (PDF). Razprave in Gradivo (in Slovenian) (53–54). Institute for Ethnic Studies. p. 34.
  4. ^ Repolusk, Peter (2006). "Narodnostno neopredeljeno prebivalstvo ob popisih 1991 in 2002 v Sloveniji" [Ethnically Undeclared Population in Slovenian Population Censuses 1991 and 2002] (PDF). Dela (in Slovenian and English). 25. Anton Melik Geographical Institute. pp. 87–96. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 March 2012.
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  52. ^ Priestly, Tom M. S. 1993. "On 'Drift' in Indo-European Gender Systems.' Journal of Indo-European Studies 11: 339–363.

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