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Eastern Romance languages

Eastern Romance
Geographic
distribution
Balkans and part of Eastern Europe, western Basilicata (Italy)
Linguistic classificationIndo-European
Subdivisions
Glottologeast2714

The Eastern Romance languages[1] are a group of Romance languages. Today, the group consists of the Balkan Romance (also known as Daco-Romance[1]) subgroup which comprises the Romanian language (Daco-Romanian), Aromanian language (Macedo-Romanian) and two other related minor languages, Megleno-Romanian, and Istro-Romanian; and the Castelmezzano dialect, in southern Italy.[2][3][4]

Some classifications also include the extinct Dalmatian language (otherwise included in the Italo-Dalmatian group) as part of the Balkan Romance subgroup,[5][6][7] considering Dalmatian a bridge between Italian and Romanian.[8][9]

Samples of Eastern Romance languages

Note: the lexicon used below is not universally recognized

Istro-Romanian[10][11][12] Aromanian[13][14] Megleno-Romanian[15] Romanian Italian Spanish Portuguese French Latin source English
pićor cicior picior picior gamba (pierna) perna jambe petiolus/gamba leg
kľeptu cheptu kľeptu piept petto pecho peito poitrine pectus chest
bire ghine bini bine bene bien bem bien bene well, good
bľerå azghirari zber zbiera ruggire rugir rugir rugir bēlāre/rugīre to roar
fiľu hilj iľu fiu figlio hijo filho fils filius son
fiľa hilje iľe fiică figlia hija filha fille fīlia daughter
ficåt hicat ficat fegato hígado fígado foie fīcātum liver
fi hire ire fi essere ser ser être fuī/esse/sum to be
fľer heru ieru fier ferro hierro ferro fer ferrum iron
vițelu yitsãl vițål vițel vitello (ternero) vitelo veau vitellus calf
(g)ľerm iermu ghiarmi vierme verme verme (gusano) verme ver vermis worm
viu yiu ghiu viu vivo vivo vivo vivant vīvus/vīvēns alive
vipt yiptu vipt cibo (vitto) comida (victo) comida (vitualha) victuaille (archaic) victus food, grain, victuals
mľe(lu) njel m'iel miel agnello (cordero), añal (archaic) cordeiro agneau agnellus lamb
mľåre njare m'ari miere miele miel mel miel mel honey

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Schulte 2009, p. 230.
  2. ^ Hammarström 2019, [1].
  3. ^ Agard 1984, p. 250.
  4. ^ Hall 1950, p. 16.
  5. ^ Swiggers 2011, p. 272.
  6. ^ Sampson 1999, p. 298.
  7. ^ Hall 1950, p. 24.
  8. ^ Posner 1996, p. 195.
  9. ^ Harris 1997, p. 22.
  10. ^ Bărdășan, Gabriel (2011), Lexicul Istroromân Moștenit din Latină. Suprapuneri și Diferențieri Interdialectale [Istro-Romanian vocabulary inherited from Latin. Interdialectal Overlaps and Differentiations] (in Romanian), archived from the original on 2019-07-25, retrieved 2019-09-01 – via diacronia.ro
  11. ^ Dănilă, Ioan (2007), "Istroromâna în viziunea lui Traian Cantemir", The Proceedings of the "European Integration – Between Tradition and Modernity" Congress [Istro-Romanian in the vision of Traian Cantemir] (in Romanian), 2, pp. 224–231, archived from the original on 2019-07-25, retrieved 2019-09-01 – via diacronia.ro
  12. ^ Burlacu, Mihai (2010). "Istro-Romanians: The Legacy of a Culture". The IstroRomanian in Croatia.
  13. ^ Marioțeanu, Matilda Caragiu, "Dialectul Aromân" [The Aromanian Dialect] (PDF), Proiect Avdhela – Biblioteca Culturii Aromâne (in Romanian), archived (PDF) from the original on 2018-10-24, retrieved 2019-09-01
  14. ^ Vătășescu, Cătălina (2017), "Atlasul lingvistic al dialectului aromân, bază pentru cercetarea raporturilor aromâno-albaneze" [The linguistic atlas of the Aromanian dialect as a ground for a comparative research with the Albanian language], Fonetică și dialectologie (in Romanian), XXXVI, pp. 215–221, archived from the original on 2019-07-25, retrieved 2019-09-01 – via diacronia.ro
  15. ^ Dialectul Meglenoromân (PDF), archived (PDF) from the original on 2019-07-25, retrieved 2019-09-01

Sources

  • Agard, Frederick Browning (1984). A Course in Romance Linguistics Volume 2: A Diachronic View. Georgetown University Press. ISBN 0-87840-074-5.
  • Hall, Robert A. Jr. (1950). "The Reconstruction of Proto-Romance". Language. Linguistic Society of America. 26 (1): 6–27. doi:10.2307/410406. JSTOR 410406.
  • Harris, Martin (1997). Harris, Martin; Vincent, Nigel (eds.). The Romance Languages. Taylor & Francis. pp. 1–25. ISBN 978-0-415-16417-7.
  • Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin (2019). "Catalogue of languages and families". Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. Archived from the original on 2020-05-02. Retrieved 2019-07-15.
  • Posner, Rebecca (1996). The Romance Languages. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-52-128139-3.
  • Sampson, Rodney (1999). Nasal Vowel Evolution in Romance. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-823848-5.
  • Schulte, Kim (2009). "Loanwords in Romanian". In Haspelmath, Martin; Tadmor, Uri (eds.). Loanwords in the World's Languages: A Comparative Handbook. De Gruyter Mouton. pp. 230–259. ISBN 978-3-11-021843-5.
  • Swiggers, Pierre (2011). "Mapping the Romance Languages of Europe". In Lameli, Alfred; Kehrein, Roland; Rabanus, Stefan (eds.). Language Mapping: Part I. Part II: Maps. De Gruyter Mouton. pp. 269–301. ISBN 978-3-11-021916-6.

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