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Emilian dialect

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Emilian
emigliàn, emiliân
PronunciationIPA: [emiˈʎaːŋ]
Native toItaly
RegionPrimarily Emilia
Ethnicity3.3 million (2008)[1]
Native speakers
Unknown, c. 1.3 million (2006 estimate) (2006)[2]
DialectsBolognese, Ferrarese, Modenese, Reggiano, Parmigiano, Piacentino, Mantovano, Carrarino, Vogherese-Pavese
Latin
Language codes
ISO 639-3egl
Glottologemil1241
Linguasphere51-AAA-oka ... -okh
Emiliano-Romagnolo area.jpg
Geographic distribution of Emilian (shown in light pink)
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

Emilian dialects (Emilian: emigliàn, emiliân; Italian: emiliano) are a group of closely-related dialects spoken in the historical region of Emilia, the western portion of today's Emilia-Romagna region, in Northern Italy.

There is no standardised version of Emilian.

Emilian has a default word order of subject–verb–object and both grammatical gender (masculine and feminine) and grammatical number (singular and plural). There is a strong T–V distinction, which distinguishes varying levels of politeness, social distance, courtesy, familiarity or insult. The alphabet uses a considerable number of diacritics.

Classification

Emilian language is one of the two branches of the Emilian-Romagnol language, today an obsolete term to define the Emilian and Romagnol languages, considered as separated, one of unstandardized Gallo-Italic languages. The Emilian dialects naturally form a natural dialect continuum with the bordering Romagnol varieties, while the more distant dialects might be less mutually intelligible. Besides Emilian-Romagnol, the Gallo-Italic family includes Piedmontese, Ligurian and Lombard, all of which maintain a level of mutual intelligibility with Emilian and Romagnol, the latter further influenced by Italian.

Dialects

Linguasphere Observatory recognises the following dialects:[3]

Other definitions include the following:[citation needed]

  • Massese (mixed with some Tuscan features)
  • Casalasco, spoken in Cremona, Lombardy.

Phonology

Consonants

Consonants in the Bolognese dialect
Labial Dental Alveolar Post-
alveolar
Palatal Velar
Stop voiceless p t k
voiced b d ɡ
Affricate voiceless (t͡s) t͡ʃ
voiced (d͡z) d͡ʒ
Fricative voiceless f θ s
voiced v ð z
Nasal m n ɲ ŋ
Rhotic r
Approximant central j w
lateral l ʎ
  • Affricates [t͡s, d͡z] are heard as alternates of fricative sounds /θ, ð/ particularly among southern dialects.
  • In the Piacentino dialect, an /r/ sound can be heard as either an alveolar trill [r], or as a uvular fricative [ʁ] sound.

Vowels

Front Central Back
Close i y u
Mid e ø ə o
ɛ œ ʌ ɔ
Open æ a
  • Rounded front vowel sounds /y, ø, œ/ and a mid-central vowel sound /ə/ are mainly common in the Piacentino and western dialects.
  • In the Piacentino dialect, five vowel sounds being followed by /n/, are then recognized as nasalized [ĩ ẽ ã õ ũ], unless /n/ occurs between two vowel sounds.
  • Vowel length is also distinguished for the following vowels [iː eː ɛː aː ɔː oː uː].[4][5][6]

Writing system

Emilian is written using a Latin script that has never been standardised. As a result, spelling varies widely across the dialects. The dialects were largely oral and rarely written until some the late 20th century; a number of written media in Emilian-Romagnol have been made since World War II.

References

  1. ^ ISO change request
  2. ^ La lingua italiana, i dialetti e le lingue straniere Anno 2006
  3. ^ "51-AAA-ok. emiliano + romagnolo". Linguasphere.
  4. ^ Foresti, Fabio (2009). Profilo linguistico dell'Emilia-Romagna. Roma: Laterza.
  5. ^ Lepri, Luigi; Vitali, Daniele (2009). Dizionario bolognese-italiano, italiano bolognese. Bologna: Pendragon.
  6. ^ Hajek, John (1997). Emilia-Romagna. The dialects of Italy: London: Routledge. p. 275.

Bibliography

  • Colombini, F. 2007. La negazione nei dialetti emiliani: microvariazione nell’area modenese. University of Padua, MA Thesis.

Further reading

  • Pietro Mainoldi, Manuale dell'odierno dialetto bolognese, Suoni e segni, Grammatica – Vocabolario, Bologna, Società tipografica Mareggiani 1950 (Rist. anast.: Sala Bolognese, A. Forni 2000)
  • Fabio Foresti, Bibliografia dialettale dell'Emilia-Romagna e della Repubblica di San Marino (BDER), Bologna, IBACN Emilia-Romagna / Compositori 1997
  • E. F. Tuttle, Nasalization in Northern Italy: Syllabic Constraints and Strength Scales as Developmental Parameters, Rivista di Linguistica, III: 23–92 (1991)
  • Luigi Lepri e Daniele Vitali, Dizionario Bolognese-Italiano Italiano-Bolognese, ed. Pendragon 2007

External links


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