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Inor language Redirected from Endegen language

Inor
Ennemor
Native toEthiopia
Native speakers
(undated figure of 280,000)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3ior
Glottologinor1238
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Inor (pronounced [inoːr]), sometimes called Ennemor, is an Afroasiatic language spoken in central Ethiopia. One of the Gurage languages, it is mainly spoken within the Gurage Zone in the Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples' Region, as well as by speakers of the language who have settled in Ethiopian cities, especially Addis Ababa. In addition to the morphological complexity that is common to all Semitic languages, Inor exhibits the very complex morphophonology characteristic of West Gurage languages.

Endegegn, Enner, Gyeto, and the extinct dialect Mesmes are all sometimes considered dialects of Inor.

Inor possesses nasal vowels, which are unusual for a Gurage language. Many of these may be the result of historical rhinoglottophilia.

Phonology

Consonants

Inor consonants[2]
labial alveolar alveo-
palatal
palatal velar glottal
plain labialized plain palatalized lab. plain lab.
Stops and
affricates
ejective t’ tʃ’ k’ kʲ’ kʷ’
voiceless p t k ʔ ʔʷ
voiced b d ɡ ɡʲ ɡʷ
Fricatives voiceless f s ʃ x
voiced z ʒ
Nasals m n ɳ ɲ ŋ
Approximants plain β̞ (l) j w
nasalized β̞̃
Rhotics plain r
nasalized

Vowels

Inor vowels[3]
front central back
high i ɨ u
mid e ə o
low æ a

[ɨ] may be regarded as largely epenthetic and only marginally phonemic.[4]

References

Bibliography

  • Berhanu Chamora. "Consonant distribution in Inor", in: G. Hudson (ed.), Essays on Gurage Language and Culture (Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag), pp. 53–67.
  • Chamora, Berhanu; Hetzron, Robert (2000), Inor, Munich: Lincom Europa, ISBN 3-89586-977-5
  • Bustorf, Dirk. (2005). "Ennämor Ethnography”, in: Siegbert Uhlig (ed.): Encyclopaedia Aethiopica, vol. 2: D-Ha, Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag, p. 307-08.
  • Boivin, Robert (1996). "Spontaneous Nasalization in Inor", in: G. Hudson (ed.), Essays on Gurage Language and Culture (Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag), pp. 21–33.
  • Hetzron, R. (1977). The Gunnän-Gurage Languages. Napoli: Istituto Orientale di Napoli.
  • Leslau, W. (1979). Etymological Dictionary of Gurage (Ethiopic). 3 vols. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz. ISBN 3-447-02041-5
  • Leslau, W. (1983). Ethiopians Speak: Studies in Cultural Background. Part V : Chaha - Ennemor. Äthiopistische Forschungen, Band 16. Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner Verlag. ISBN 3-515-03965-1
  • Leslau, W. (1996). "Inor Lullabies", in: Africa 66/2, pp. 280–287.
  • Voigt, Rainer.(2005). "Ennämor Language”, in: Siegbert Uhlig (ed.): Encyclopaedia Aethiopica, vol. 2: D-Ha, Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag, p. 307.



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