External history

External history of a language refers to the social and geopolitical history of the language: migrations, conquests, language contact, and uses of the language in trade, education, literature, law, liturgy, mass media, etc. It is contrasted with internal history, which refers to linguistic forms (phonology, morphology, syntax, and lexicon) and semantics.


  • Matthews, Peter H. (1997). The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Linguistics. Oxford/New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-280008-6.
  • Trask, R[obert] L[awrence] (2000). The Dictionary of Historical and Comparative Linguistics. Chicago/London: Fitzroy Dearborn. ISBN 1-57958-218-4.

This page was last updated at 2019-11-11 16:24, update this pageView original page

All information on this site, including but not limited to text, pictures, etc., are reproduced on Wikipedia (wikipedia.org), following the . Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License


If the math, chemistry, physics and other formulas on this page are not displayed correctly, please useFirefox or Safari