Favorlang language

Native toTaiwan
Extinct(documented mid-17th century)
Language codes
ISO 639-3bzg (with Babuza)
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Favorlang is an extinct Formosan language closely related to Babuza.

Although Favorlang is considered by Taiwanese linguist Paul Jen-kuei Li to be a separate language, it is nevertheless very closely related to Babuza. In fact, the name Favorlang is derived from Babuza.[2] Alternatively, Favorlang may also have represented a dialect of Babuza at an earlier stage, since Favorlang was documented in the mid-17th century, while Babuza was documented only around the turn of the 20th century by Japanese linguists.[3]


Favorlang has gone through the following sound changes. Except for the *t, *s, *Z > /t/ merger, all of these sound changes are shared by the five Western Plains languages Taokas, Babuza, Papora, Hoanya, and Thao.[4]

  1. Merger of PAn *n and *ŋ as /n/
  2. Merger of *t, *s, *Z as /t/
  3. Merger of *N and *S1 as /s/
  4. Complete loss of *k, *q, *H
  5. Partial loss of *R, *j, including the loss of final *-y and *-w
  6. *s (in initial and medial positions) > /t/


Favorlang data sources are:[5]

  • Happart, Gilbertus (1650). Woorden boek der Favorlangsche Taal [Favorlang Vocabulary] (in Dutch). Later translated into English:
  • 5 sermons and various prayers, questions, and answers on Christianity by Jacobus Vertrecht [Wikidata] (1647–1651), a Dutch pastor
  • Word lists collected by Naoyoshi Ogawa in the early 1900s (unpublished manuscripts dated 1900, 1901, and 1930; others are undated)
    • Notebooks 1, 2, 3, and 5, now kept by ILCAA (Research Institute for Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa) and TUFS (Tokyo University of Foreign Studies) – call number "OA052"
    • Notebook 4, now kept at the Anthropological Institute, Nanzan University – call number "v. 1-2-1"


Case markers include:[6]

  • ja 'nominative marker'
  • ta 'personal name marker'
  • o, no 'oblique (genitive and accusative, common noun)'
  • i 'oblique (personal noun)'
  • de 'locative'
  • i 'directional'

Agent-focus verbal affixes include:[7]

  • -um- ~ -umm- (after consonant-initial verb stems) or um- ~ umm- (before vowel-initial verb stem except i-)
  • -im-, -em- (lexically conditioned)
  • m-
  • p-
Past tense (AF)
  • -in-umm-, in-umm
  • m-in-
  • -in-
Future tense (AF)
  • Reduplication of the first stem syllable
Imperative (AF)
  • -a

Non-agent-focus verbal affixes are:[7]

  • -an 'locative focus'
  • -en, -in, -n 'patient focus'
  • ipa- ... -a 'imperative (non-agent-focus)'
  • -in-, in- 'past tense (non-agent-focus)'
  • ino- 'future tense (non-agent-focus)'

When -in- and -umm- appear together in a word, -in- usually precedes -um- ~ -umm-, as in Ilokano, Bontok, and some Dusunic languages in Sabah (Rungus Dusun and Kimaragang Dusun). Occasionally, -umm- precedes -in- in several Favorlang lexical forms, but this is not very common.


All of the following personal pronouns are free forms. All genitive pronouns end with -a.

Favorlang Personal Pronouns[8]
Type of
Neutral Genitive Nominative/Accusative
1s. ka-ina na-a ina
2s. ijonoë joa, oa ijo
3s. icho choa icho
1p. (incl.) torro torroa -
1p. (excl.) namono namoa namo
2p. imonoë imoa imo
3p. aicho-es dechonoë choa decho


  • Namoa tamau tamasea paga de boesum, ipa-dass-a joa naan.
    • Our father, which art in Heaven, let Thy Name be praised![8]
  • Ka-ina paga ta Jehova oa Deosoe, tamasea pina-ijor ijo....
    • I am the Lord, thy God, who led thee....[8]
The Lord's Prayer[9]

Namoa tamau tamasea paḡa de boesum,
Ipádassa joa naan.
Ipáṣaija joa chachimit o ai.
Ipa-i-jorr'o oa airab maibas de boesum, masini de ta channumma.
Epé-e namo-no pia-dai torro uppo ma-atsikap.
Ṣo-o abó-e namo tataap o kakossi namoa,
maibas channumma namo mabo tamasea parapies i namo.
Hai pásabas i namo, ṣo-o barra'i namo innai rapies ai.
Inau joa micho chachimit o ai, ṣo-o barr'o ai, ṣo-o adas ai, taulaulan,


  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Favorlang". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. ^ Li (2003), p. 3.
  3. ^ Li (2003), p. 5.
  4. ^ Li (2003), p. 6.
  5. ^ Li (2003), p. 1.
  6. ^ Li (2003).
  7. ^ a b Li (2003), p. 11.
  8. ^ a b c Li (2003), p. 8.
  9. ^ Campbell, William, ed. (1896). The articles of Christian instruction in Favorlang-Formosan, Dutch and English, from Vertrecht's manuscript of 1650. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co. Ltd. OCLC 63842595. OL 24180153M.
  • Li, Paul Jen-kuei (2003). "Introduction: Notes on Favorlang, an Extinct Formosan language". In Ogawa, Naoyoshi (ed.). English-Favorlang vocabulary. Tokyo: Research Institute for Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa. pp. 1–13. ISBN 4872978536.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Ogawa, Naoyoshi (2003). English-Favorlang vocabulary. Tokyo: Research Institute for Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa. ISBN 4872978536.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Marsh, Mikell Alan (1977). Favorlang-Pazeh-Saisiat: a putative Formosan subgroup (Ph.D. dissertation). Washington State University. OCLC 224303389.

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