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Foreign relations of Moldova

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After achieving independence from the Soviet Union, the Republic of Moldova established relations with other European countries. A course for European Union integration and neutrality define the country's foreign policy guidelines.

In 1995, the country became the first post-Soviet state admitted to the Council of Europe. In addition to its participation in NATO's Partnership for Peace program, Moldova is a member state of the United Nations, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), the North Atlantic Cooperation Council, the World Trade Organization, the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank, the Francophonie and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development.

In 2005, Moldova and EU established an action plan that sought to improve the collaboration between the two neighboring structures. After the War of Transnistria, Moldova sought a peaceful resolution to the conflict in the Transnistria region by working with Romania, Ukraine, and Russia, calling for international mediation, and cooperating with the OSCE and UN fact-finding and observer missions.

Overview

Foreign relations of Moldova

Moldova has established diplomatic relations with 97 states,[1] the Holy See,[1] the Sovereign Military Order of Malta,[1] and the European Union.[1]

Moldova has not yet established diplomatic relations with:

  • Dominica, St.Lucia, Trinidad and Tobago
  • Belize, Honduras
  • Botswana, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Comoros, Côte d'Ivoire, DRCongo, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Liberia, Malawi, Mozambique, Niger, Republic of Congo, São Tomé and Príncipe, Senegal, Seychelles, Somalia, South Sudan, Tanzania, Togo
  • Bhutan, Iraq, Myanmar
  • Cook Islands, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Nauru, Niue, Papua New Guinea, Timor-Leste, Palau, Tonga, Vanuatu
  • The states with limited recognition.

Relations with the European Union

Moldova aspires to join the European Union[2] and is implementing its first three-year Action Plan within the framework of the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) of the EU.[3]

As regards energy policy, Moldova was an observer to the treaty establishing Energy Community from the outset (2006). Following its interest in full membership, the European Commission was mandated to carry out negotiations with Moldova in 2007. In December 2009, the Energy Community Ministerial Council decided on the accession, but made it conditional to amendment of Moldova's gas law.[4] Moldova joined the Energy Community as a full-fledged member in March 2010.[5]

Relations with NATO

Wörner and Snegur signing PfP on 16 March 1994

NATO relations with Moldova date back to 1992, when the country joined the North Atlantic Cooperation Council. Moldova works alongside NATO allies and partner countries in a wide range of areas through the Partnership for Peace and the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council.

Relations with post-Soviet states

The Moldovan Parliament approved the country's membership in the Commonwealth of Independent States and the CIS charter on economic union in April 1994. Moldova however has never participated in any military aspects of CIS, citing its neutrality status.

In 1998, Moldova contributed to the founding of GUAM, a regional cooperation agreement made up of Georgia, Ukraine, Azerbaijan and Moldova. Although the agreement initially included a declaration of mutual defense, Moldova has since declared its disinterest in participating in any GUAM-based mutual defense initiative.

Russia continues to maintain a military presence in the Transnistrian region of Moldova, despite previous agreements with Moldova and within OSCE and CAF to withdraw its troops and ammunition.

Moldova was granted Observer Status in the Russian-led Eurasian Union in April 2017.[6]

Relations with Transnistria

The territory of Moldova includes the separatist Transnistria region. Transnistria had a particularly large non-Moldovan population (about 60%) and broke away from Moldova less than a year after Moldova became independent at the fall of the Soviet Union. The Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic controls main part of this region, and also the city of Bender and its surrounding localities on the west bank. The international diplomatic situation with respect to the question of Transnistria determines and is determined by Moldova's relations with Russia. Russia, Ukraine, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, EU, and United States are involved at different degrees in the conflict resolution.

Bilateral relations

Africa

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Djibouti 9 October 2020
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations on 9 October 2020.
 Egypt
  • Egypt is accredited to Moldova from its embassy in Bucharest, Romania.
  • Moldova is accredited to Egypt from its embassy in Ankara, Turkey.
 South Africa 1997
  • Moldova does not have an accreditation to South Africa.
  • South Africa is accredited to Moldova from its embassy in Kyiv, Ukraine.
 Tunisia See Moldova–Tunisia relations

Americas

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Argentina 8 March 1993
  • Argentina is accredited to Moldova from its embassy in Bucharest, Romania.
  • Moldova does not have an accreditation to Argentina.
 Brazil 1993
  • Brazil is accredited to Moldova from it embassy in Kyiv, Ukraine.
  • Moldova does not have an accreditation to Brazil.
 Canada 1992
  • Canada is accredited to Moldova from its embassy in Bucharest, Romania.
  • Moldova has an embassy in Ottawa.
 Mexico 14 January 1992
  • Mexico is accredited to Moldova from its embassy in Athens, Greece and maintains an honorary consulate in Chișinău.[7]
  • Moldova is accredited to Mexico from its embassy in Washington D.C., United States.[8]
 United States 25 December 1991 See Moldova–United States relations

The United States recognized the independence of Moldova on 25 December 1991, and opened an embassy in its capital, Chișinău, in March 1992. A trade agreement providing reciprocal most-favored-nation tariff treatment became effective in July 1992. An Overseas Private Investment Corporation agreement, which encourages U.S. private investment by providing direct loans and loan guarantees, was signed in June 1992. A bilateral investment treaty was signed in April 1993. A generalized system of preferences status was granted in August 1995, and some Eximbank coverage became available in November 1995.

U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry made a visit to Moldova in December 2013 to support the former Soviet republic's pro-Western moves in the face of Russian pressure.

The United States remains committed to the 5+2 negotiations process as a means to resolving the Transnistria conflict. The United States supports a comprehensive settlement that affirms Moldova's sovereignty and territorial integrity, while providing a special status for Transnistria.

  • Moldova has an embassy in Washington, D.C..
  • United States has an embassy in Chișinău.

See also: Embassy of the United States to Moldova and Moldovan Embassy, Washington, D.C.

 Venezuela See Moldova–Venezuela relations

Asia

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Armenia
  • Armenia has an embassy in Chișinău.
  • Moldova is accredited to Armenia from its embassy in Kyiv, Ukraine.
  • There are around 7,500 people of Armenian descent living in Moldova.
 Azerbaijan
  • Azerbaijan has an embassy in Chișinău.
  • Moldova has an embassy in Baku.
  • Both countries are full members of the Council of Europe.
 China See China–Moldova relations
  • China has an embassy in Chișinău.
  • Moldova has an embassy in Beijing.
 India March 1993 See India–Moldova relations
  • India is accredited to Moldova from its embassy in Bucharest, Romania
  • Moldova does not have an accreditation to India.
 Israel 1992 See Israel–Moldova relations
  • Israel is accredited to Moldova from its embassy in Kyiv, Ukraine.
  • Moldova has an embassy in Tel Aviv.
 Japan 16 March 1992
  • Japan has an embassy in Chișinău.
  • Moldova has an embassy in Tokyo.
 Kazakhstan 16 september 1992
  • Moldova is accredited to Kazakhstan from its embassy in Moscow, Russia.
  • Kazakhstan has a consulate-general in Chișinău.
 Kyrgyzstan 4 June 1992
  • Kyrgyzstan is accredited to Moldova from its embassy in Kyiv, Ukraine.
  • Moldova is accredited to Kyrgyzstan from its embassy in Moscow, Russia.
 North Korea 30 January 1992
  • Moldova does not have an accreditation to North Korea.
  • North Korea is accredited to Moldova from its embassy in Moscow, Russia.
 Qatar
  • Moldova has an embassy in Doha.
  • Qatar has an embassy in Chișinău
 South Korea 31 January 1992 See Moldova-South Korea relations

The establishment of Diplomatic Relations of the Republic of Moldova and the Republic of Korea was on January 31, 1992.

 Turkey See Moldova–Turkey relations and Gagauzia–Turkey relations
  • Moldova has an embassy in Ankara and a consulate-general in Istanbul.
  • Turkey has an embassy in Chișinău.
  • Both countries are full members of BSEC.
  • Speaking in Comrat in August 2018 when referencing the country's allies, President Igor Dodon said "we have friends who are close to Gagauzia, and I believe to Moldova, as well, they are Russia and Turkey."[9]
 United Arab Emirates
  • Moldova is accredited to the UAE from its embassy in Ankara, Turkey.
  • UAE is accredited to Moldova from its embassy in Kyiv, Ukraine.
 Vietnam 11 June 1992
  • Moldova is accredited to Vietnam from its embassy in Beijing, China.
  • Vietnam is accredited to Moldova from its embassy in Kyiv, Ukraine.
 Yemen See Moldova–Yemen relations

Europe

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Albania See Albania–Moldova relations
 Austria 25 March 1992 See Austria–Moldova relations
 Belarus See Belarus–Moldova relations
  • Diplomatic relations between Belarus and Moldova were established on 19 November 1992. That same year, an agreement on friendly relations and cooperation between the two countries was signed.
  • Belarus has an embassy in Chișinău (opened in May 1995).
  • Moldova has an embassy in Minsk (opened in October 1993).
  • The first official Moldovan visit to Minsk was by Petru Lucinschi in June 2000.[10] Nicolae Timofti later visited in October 2013,[11] July 2015[12] and October 2016,[13] and was followed in July 2017 by Igor Dodon.[14]
  • List of Ambassadors of Moldova in Belarus: Nicolae Dudău (1998-2001),[15] Gheorghe Hioară (2010-2017),[16][17] Victor Sorocean (2017-Present)[18]
 Belgium
  • Belgium is accredited to Moldova from its embassy in Bucharest, Romania.
  • Moldova has an embassy in Brussels.
 Bulgaria 5 February 1992
 Croatia
  • Croatia is accredited to Moldova from its embassy in Bucharest, Romania.
  • Moldova is accredited to Croatia from its embassy in Budapest, Hungary.
 Cyprus See Cyprus–Moldova relations
 Czech Republic
  • Czech Republic has an embassy in Chișinău
  • Moldova has an embassy in Prague.
 Denmark See Denmark–Moldova relations
  • Denmark is accredited to Moldova from its embassy in Bucharest, Romania.
  • Moldova is accredited to Denmark from its embassy in Berlin, Germany.
 Finland See Finland–Moldova relations
 France
  • France has an embassy in Chișinău
  • Moldova has an embassy in Paris.
 Georgia 25 June 1992
 Germany See Germany–Moldova relations
 Greece 27 March 1992 See Greece–Moldova relations
  • Diplomatic relations between Greece and Moldova were established 27 March 1992 after the collapse of the Soviet Union
  • Greece is accredited to Moldova from its embassy in Kyiv, Ukraine.
  • Moldova has an embassy in Athens.
  • See also Moldovan Embassy, Athens
 Hungary
 Iceland 1995

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 17 May 1995.[21]

 Ireland 1992
 Italy See Italy–Moldova relations
 Latvia 1 September 1992
 Lithuania 8 July 1992
 Malta
  • Malta is accredited to Moldova from its Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Valletta.
  • Moldova is accredited to Malta from its embassy in Rome, Italy.
 Netherlands 6 September 2013 See Moldova–Netherlands relations
  • Moldova has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Netherlands has an embassy office in Chișinău.
 North Macedonia See Moldova–North Macedonia relations
 Poland See Moldova–Poland relations
 Portugal See Moldova–Portugal relations
 Romania See Moldova–Romania relations

Moldova's relations with its western neighbour, Romania, have been stressed since 1994. today's Moldova (without Transnistria) and parts of the old Bassarabia Governorate currently in Ukraine, were part of Romania during the interwar period (1918–40). Linguists generally agree that the Moldovan language is in fact identical with Romanian.[citation needed] However, Moldovans have been ambivalent about whether they consider themselves Romanians or Moldovans. Early signs that Romania and Moldova might unite after both countries achieved emancipation from communist rule quickly faded. Romania remains interested in Moldovan affairs, especially that country's civil conflict with the breakaway republic of Transnistria. However, the two countries have been unable to reach agreement on a basic bilateral treaty; Romania is insistent (against determined Moldovan resistance) that such a treaty would have to refer to Romania and Moldova's 'special relationship'. Beginning in 1994, the two countries enjoyed a visa-free arrangement that ended on 1 January 2007, with Romania's entry into the European Union. This prompted many Moldovan citizens to apply for Romanian citizenship.[22]

  • Moldova has an embassy in Bucharest and a consulate-general in Iași. .
  • Romania has an embassy in Chișinău and consulates-general in Bălți and Cahul.
 Russia See Moldova–Russia relations

Relations between Moldova and Russia deteriorated in November 2003 over a Russian proposal for the solution of the Transnistrian conflict, which Moldovan authorities refused to accept. In the following election, held in 2005, the Communist party made a formal 180-degree turn and was re-elected on a pro-Western platform,[citation needed] with Voronin being re-elected to a second term as president.

  • Moldova has an embassy in Moscow.
  • Russia has an embassy in Chișinău.
 Serbia 1995
 Slovenia 27 October 1993 See Moldova–Slovenia relations
  • Moldova is accredited to Slovenia from its embassy in Budapest, Hungary.
  • Slovenia is accredited to Moldova from its embassy in Kyiv, Ukraine
  • Both countries are full members of the Council of Europe and the Francophonie.
 Spain See Moldova–Spain relations
  • Moldova has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain is accredited to Moldova from its embassy in Bucharest, Romania.
 Sweden See Moldova–Sweden relations
  • Moldova has an embassy in Stockholm.
  • Sweden has an embassy in Chișinău
  Switzerland 1992 See Moldova–Switzerland relations
  • Moldova has an embassy in Geneva.
  • Switzerland is accredited to Moldova from its embassy in Kyiv, Ukraine.
 Ukraine See Moldova–Ukraine relations
  • Moldova has an embassy in Kyiv and a consulate-general in Odessa.
  • Ukraine has an embassy in Chișinău and a consulate in Bălți.
 United Kingdom

Oceania

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Australia
  • Australia is accredited to Moldova from its embassy in Moscow, Russia
  • Moldova does not have an accreditation to Australia.
 New Zealand
  • Moldova does not have an accreditation to New Zealand.
  • New Zealand is accredited to Moldova from its embassy in Brussels, Belgium.

See also

Gallery

External links

References

  1. ^ a b c d "Cooperare bilaterală". www.mfa.gov.md (in Romanian). Retrieved 14 July 2019.
  2. ^ Moldova will prove that it can and has chances to become EU member, Moldpress News Agency, 19 June 2007
  3. ^ Moldova-EU Action Plan Approved by European Commission Archived 4 December 2007 at the Wayback Machine, 14 December 2004. Retrieved 2 July 2007
  4. ^ Energy Community Ministerial Council Conclusions, Dec 2009[permanent dead link].
  5. ^ "Accession Protocol of Republic of Moldova to the Energy Community" (PDF). Retrieved 20 February 2015.[permanent dead link]
  6. ^ https://www.euractiv.com/section/europe-s-east/news/moldova-granted-observer-status-in-eurasian-union/
  7. ^ Bilateral relations between Mexico and Moldova (in Spanish)
  8. ^ "Embassy of Moldova in the United States". Archived from the original on 13 April 2015. Retrieved 6 April 2015.
  9. ^ Dodon Denounces Romania Reunification Idea In Rare Visit To Gagauzia rferl.org 20 August 2017
  10. ^ "Alexander Lukashenka visited Chisinau in August 1995 and received his Moldovan counterpart Petru Lucinschi in Minsk in June 2000". 17 July 2017. Retrieved 28 April 2018.
  11. ^ http://www.president.md/eng/comunicate-de-presa/presedintele-nicolae-timofti-a-participat-la-summit-ul-sefilor-de-stat-ai-comunitatii-statelor-independente-care-s-a-desfasurat-in-capitala-republicii-belarus-minsk
  12. ^ http://en.ctv.by/en/1437123871-nicolae-timofti-belarusian-mps-discuss-prospects-of-belarus-moldova-cooperation
  13. ^ https://en.publika.md/president-timofti-decorates-belarus-leader-lukashenko-with-moldovas-supreme-state-award_2628900.html
  14. ^ a-tv.md http://www.presedinte.md/rus/comunicate-de-presa/index/page:4. Retrieved 24 June 2017. Missing or empty |title=
  15. ^ "CV_Dudau". www.coe.int. Retrieved 30 August 2017.
  16. ^ Cine ne sunt ambasadorii? (FOTO)
  17. ^ https://en.crimemoldova.com/news/politics/moldovan-ambassador-to-belarus-gheorghe-hioar-recalled-from-office/
  18. ^ http://m.eng.belta.by/politics/view/moldova-to-appoint-new-ambassador-to-belarus-100222-2017/
  19. ^ Bulgarian embassy in Chişinău
  20. ^ "Error 404". Retrieved 20 February 2015.
  21. ^ [1]
  22. ^ Cetatenia romana, portita spre Europa Archived 15 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine 27 December 2006

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