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Forest Landscape Integrity Index

Forest Landscape Integrity Index 2019 map of the Earth. 0 = Most modification; 10= Least.

The Forest Landscape Integrity Index (FLII) is an annual global index of forest condition measured by degree of anthropogenic modification.[1][2][3][4][5] Created by a team of 48 scientists, the FLII, in its measurement of 300m pixels of forest across the globe, finds that ~17.4 million km2 of forest has high landscape-level integrity (with a score from 9.6-10), compared to ~14.6 million with medium integrity (6-9.6) and ~12.2 million km2 with low integrity (0-6).

The FLII finds that most remaining high-integrity forest landscapes are found in Canada, Russia, Rocky Mountains, Alaska, the Amazon, the Guianas, southern Chile, Central Africa, and New Guinea. Low integrity forests, on the other hand, are found in Western and Central Europe, the American Southwest, South-East Asia west of New Guinea, the Andes, much of China and India, the Albertine Rift, West Africa, Mesoamerica, and the Atlantic Forests of Brazil.

The results are meant to help decisionmakers at all levels achieve their commitments to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD), and the Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).[1]

Forest Integrity

An ecosystem is considered to have integrity when its structure, composition, and ecological processes are within their natural range.[6]

Country rankings

172 countries have been ranked: [7]

Forest Landscape Integrity 2019
Country Mean FLII Low integrity (km2) Medium integrity (km2) High integrity (km2) Total forest area (km2) Map
 Seychelles 10 0 0 68 68
FLII Seychelles.png
 Sudan 9.8 1 72 495 569
FLII Sudan.png
 Guyana 9.58 4162 40817 147413 192391
FLII Guyana.png
 South Sudan 9.45 5083 59389 146218 210691
FLII SouthSudan.png
 Suriname 9.39 6796 25031 107954 139781
FLII Suriname.png
 Mongolia 9.36 520 11915 27407 39841
FLII Mongolia.png
 Central African Republic 9.28 30161 139350 379097 548608
FLII CAR.png
 Botswana 9.13 13 187 372 572
FLII Botswana.png
 Gabon 9.07 11780 118348 120852 250979
FLII Gabon.png
 Russian Federation 9.02 739484 2245281 5137079 8121843
FLII Russia.png
 Canada 8.99 480206 1027386 2968268 4475860
FLII Canada.png
 Congo 8.89 24512 124215 158184 306911
FLII CongoRep.png
 Kyrgyzstan 8.86 329 2819 2761 5909
FLII Kyrgyzstan.png
 Peru 8.86 85793 190547 509720 786061
FLII Peru.png
 Afghanistan 8.85 90 1475 977 2542
FLII Afghanistan.png
 Bhutan 8.85 1620 16769 10140 28529
FLII Bhutan.png
 Papua New Guinea 8.84 37294 183415 216355 437064
FLII PapuaNewGuinea.png
 Vanuatu 8.82 734 5322 4448 10504
FLII Vanuatu.png
 Venezuela 8.78 64650 170792 351112 586554
FLII Venezuela.png
 Tajikistan 8.65 34 137 130 301
FLII Tajikistan.png
 Bolivia 8.47 78745 280532 272007 631284
FLII Bolivia.png
 Namibia 8.43 5 13 17 36
FLII Namibia.png
 Angola 8.35 105487 284054 315895 705436
FLII Angola.png
 Fiji 8.35 1753 10802 3594 16148
FLII Fiji.png
 Colombia 8.26 150737 272442 428320 851499
FLII Colombia.png
 Kazakhstan 8.23 6068 18926 15294 40288
FLII Kazakhstan.png
 Palau 8.09 45 333 9 387
FLII Palau.png
 North Korea 8.02 8374 40156 8410 56939
FLII NorthKorea.png
 Cameroon 8 66191 181336 119263 366789
FLII Cameroon.png
 Equatorial Guinea 7.99 3982 17595 5007 26585
FLII EquatorialGuinea.png
 Georgia 7.79 6982 17803 9784 34570
FLII Georgia.png
 Brunei Darussalam 7.71 1102 2842 1498 5442
FLII Brunei.png
 Comoros 7.69 284 1149 82 1515
FLII Comoros.png
 Iran 7.67 3361 12930 2162 18453
FLII Iran.png
 Ecuador 7.66 48822 77585 73492 199900
FLII Ecuador.png
 DRC 7.56 533118 935508 727983 2196608
FLII CongoDR.png
 Micronesia 7.55 8 35 0 43
FLII Micronesia.png
 Brazil 7.52 1374902 1354961 2338101 5067963
FLII Brazil.png
 Zambia 7.5 96969 164376 110822 372167
FLII Zambia.png
 Macedonia 7.42 2034 7090 459 9583
FLII NorthMacedonia.png
 Pakistan 7.42 2090 7859 1139 11088
FLII Pakistan.png
 Lesotho 7.4 1 4 0 5
FLII Lesotho.png
 Chile 7.37 56849 41971 93537 192357
FLII Chile.png
 Bahamas 7.35 741 1935 399 3075
FLII Bahamas.png
   Nepal 7.23 13785 41992 3760 59538
FLII Nepal.png
 Australia 7.22 117672 239624 103852 461148
FLII Australia.png
 Argentina 7.21 98249 189966 72557 360772
FLII Argentina.png
 Solomon Islands 7.19 6871 15310 3149 25329
FLII Solomons.png
 Myanmar 7.18 129745 220188 96924 446857
FLII Myanmar.png
 Ethiopia 7.16 52652 84430 44397 181479
FLII Ethiopia.png
 Mali 7.16 451 996 140 1586
FLII Mali.png
 Somalia 7.16 347 1384 46 1777
FLII Somalia.png
 China 7.14 533800 974431 301051 1809282
FLII China.png
 Tanzania 7.13 123997 159712 122812 406521
FLII Tanzania.png
 New Zealand 7.12 34503 44155 35334 113992
FLII NewZealand.png
 Senegal 7.11 847 2456 162 3465
FLII Senegal.png
 Timor-Leste 7.11 1783 7008 47 8838
FLII TimorLeste.png
 India 7.09 117992 254792 54428 427211
FLII India.png
 Cyprus 7.06 388 1026 18 1432
FLII Cyprus.png
 Norway 6.98 39343 67383 16627 123352
FLII Norway.png
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 6.95 91 221 0 312
FLII StVincentGrenadines.png
 Mozambique 6.93 150665 189362 115379 455406
FLII Mozambique.png
 Mexico 6.82 193908 280445 121842 596195
FLII Mexico.png
 Albania 6.77 2426 5256 122 7805
FLII Albania.png
 Uzbekistan 6.77 214 227 199 640
FLII Uzbekistan.png
 Morocco 6.74 2260 4076 451 6787
FLII Morocco.png
 United States 6.65 1328079 1144693 658645 3131417
FLII USA.png
 Sao Tome and Principe 6.64 31 140 0 171
FLII SaoTomePrincipe.png
 Trinidad and Tobago 6.62 1478 2176 418 4072
FLII Trinidad.png
 Greece 6.6 14548 27833 1078 43459
FLII Greece.png
 Indonesia 6.6 535370 509018 431973 1476361
FLII Indonesia.png
 Azerbaijan 6.55 4820 7189 1534 13543
FLII Azerbaijan.png
 Montenegro 6.41 2949 4778 82 7809
FLII Montenegro.png
 Paraguay 6.39 78538 102626 29877 211041
FLII Paraguay.png
 Turkey 6.39 43043 68243 3516 114801
FLII Turkey.png
 Taiwan 6.38 8786 14547 1453 24786
FLII Taiwan.png
 Cabo Verde 6.37 27 38 0 65
FLII CapeVerde.png
 Panama 6.37 25420 21310 14605 61336
FLII Panama.png
 Cambodia 6.31 30143 31939 16349 78431
FLII Cambodia.png
 Turkmenistan 6.31 5 33 0 37
FLII Turkmenistan.png
 Zimbabwe 6.31 9450 14417 1644 25511
FLII Zimbabwe.png
 Nigeria 6.2 64621 65355 24307 154283
FLII Nigeria.png
 Chad 6.18 5261 6016 1910 13187
FLII Chad.png
 Saint Lucia 6.17 235 316 0 551
FLII StLucia.png
 Belize 6.15 7004 7957 2744 17705
FLII Belize.png
 Bulgaria 6.09 18884 26325 847 46057
FLII Bulgaria.png
 South Korea 6.02 25060 32009 888 57956
FLII SouthKorea.png
 Thailand 6 86276 89326 33612 209214
FLII Thailand.png
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 5.99 13387 17031 574 30993
FLII Bosnia Herzegovina.png
 Romania 5.95 38395 48394 607 87395
FLII Romania.png
 Philippines 5.91 91820 100831 8393 201044
FLII Philippines.png
 Togo 5.88 5064 4522 1076 10662
FLII Togo.png
 Benin 5.86 4724 3698 1769 10191
FLII Benin.png
 Sri Lanka 5.83 20541 22390 1613 44544
FLII SriLanka.png
 Japan 5.8 135783 133480 16005 285268
FLII Japan.png
 Malawi 5.74 12514 12167 2396 27078
FLII Malawi.png
 Guinea-Bissau 5.7 9274 8702 855 18831
FLII GuineaBissau.png
 Laos 5.59 92986 80564 19252 192801
FLII Laos.png
 Armenia 5.46 1894 1681 3 3577
FLII Armenia.png
 Mauritius 5.46 567 478 0 1045
FLII Mauritius.png
 Bangladesh 5.45 10013 7251 1947 19211
FLII Bangladesh.png
 Cuba 5.4 22605 18460 1632 42697
FLII Cuba.png
 Sweden 5.35 174415 109779 23494 307687
FLII Sweden.png
 Vietnam 5.35 82551 75353 9588 167492
FLII Vietnam.png
 Serbia 5.29 17513 14112 516 32141
FLII Serbia.png
 Algeria 5.22 7418 6044 81 13543
Flii algeria.png
 Kosovo 5.19 2628 1775 47 4450
FLII Kosovo.png
 Tunisia 5.14 1354 987 0 2340
FLII Tunisia.png
 Finland 5.08 144310 83572 9294 237176
FLII Finland.png
 Jamaica 5.01 5362 3249 158 8770
FLII Jamaica.png
 Malaysia 5.01 130825 91957 21499 244281
FLII Malaysia.png
 South Africa 4.94 45489 34968 3196 83653
FLII SouthAfrica.png
 Croatia 4.92 15732 10522 379 26633
FLII Croatia.png
 Guinea 4.9 81702 54877 2895 139475
FLII Guinea.png
 Libya 4.85 15 2 0 17
FLII Libya.png
 Liberia 4.79 51975 31162 11025 94163
FLII Liberia.png
 Antigua and Barbuda 4.72 114 92 0 206
FLII Antigua.png
 Costa Rica 4.65 27164 12838 4164 44167
FLII CostaRica.png
 Madagascar 4.63 120340 66584 11922 198846
FLII Madagascar.png
 Gambia 4.56 181 85 0 266
FLII TheGambia.png
 Saint Kitts and Nevis 4.55 95 50 0 145
FLII StKittsNevis.png
 Ghana 4.53 57519 28901 2160 88580
FLII Ghana.png
 France 4.52 161987 49496 74121 285604
FLII France.png
 Burundi 4.5 6882 3841 46 10769
FLII Burundi.png
 Liechtenstein 4.5 59 42 0 101
FLII Liechtenstein.png
 Honduras 4.48 57899 23802 3692 85392
FLII Honduras.png
 Andorra 4.45 170 49 0 219
FLII Andorra.png
 Uganda 4.36 77303 36381 7507 121190
FLII Uganda.png
 Slovakia 4.34 17615 8165 0 25781
FLII Slovakia.png
 Spain 4.23 82770 46013 133 128916
FLII Spain.png
 Grenada 4.22 221 86 0 308
FLII Grenada.png
 Eswatini 4.21 5054 2501 14 7569
FLII Eswatini.png
 Kenya 4.2 28427 13558 4702 46686
FLII Kenya.png
 Dominican Republic 4.19 19890 9364 518 29772
FLII Dominican Republic.png
 Israel 4.14 170 85 0 255
FLII Israel.png
 El Salvador 4.05 8837 2947 0 11784
FLII ElSalvador.png
 Haiti 4.01 7116 2831 12 9959
FLII Haiti.png
 Guatemala 3.85 58572 18764 5592 82928
FLII Guatemala.png
 Rwanda 3.85 5665 2170 619 8454
FLII Rwanda.png
 Slovenia 3.78 11065 3791 0 14856
FLII Slovenia.png
 Lebanon 3.76 541 115 0 656
FLII Lebanon.png
 Italy 3.65 79403 26858 25 106286
FLII Italy.png
 Cote d'Ivoire 3.64 158010 41005 7288 206303
FLII IvoryCoast.png
 Syria 3.64 841 282 0 1123
FLII Syria.png
 Belarus 3.63 77870 20847 91 98808
FLII Belarus.png
 Nicaragua 3.63 65356 17646 4858 87860
FLII Nicaragua.png
 Uruguay 3.61 11793 3998 0 15791
FLII Uruguay.png
 Iraq 3.59 104 9 0 113
FLII Iraq.png
 Austria 3.55 36666 12422 21 49109
FLII Austria.png
  Switzerland 3.53 13636 4412 10 18058
FLII Switzerland.png
 Ukraine 3.3 89540 20183 176 109900
FLII Ukraine.png
 Estonia 3.05 24473 4832 52 29358
FLII Estonia.png
 Jordan 2.79 12 0 0 12
FLII Jordan.png
 Sierra Leone 2.76 52512 11858 640 65010
FLII SierraLeone.png
 Germany 2.28 122168 11307 0 133475
FLII Germany.png
 Hungary 2.25 18729 2047 0 20776
FLII Hungary.png
 Poland 2.24 101886 7103 0 108989
FLII Poland.png
 Moldova 2.2 3113 202 0 3315
FLII Moldova.png
 Latvia 2.09 38164 2137 0 40301
FLII Latvia.png
 Czechia 1.71 32161 1611 0 33772
FLII Czechia.png
 United Kingdom 1.65 29149 2917 35 32101
FLII UK.png
 Lithuania 1.62 24554 930 0 25484
FLII Lithuania.png
 Belgium 1.36 8803 297 0 9099
FLII Belgium.png
 Luxembourg 1.12 1170 0 0 1170
FLII Luxembourg.png
 Singapore 1.11 170 2 0 172
FLII Singapore.png
 Dominica 1.06 531 2 0 533
FLII Dominica.png
 Ireland 0.92 5283 96 0 5378
FLII Ireland.png
 Portugal 0.82 25966 553 0 26519
FLII Portugal.png
 Netherlands 0.6 5250 72 0 5322
FLII Netherlands.png
 Egypt 0.56 4772 218 69 5059
FLII Egypt.png
 Denmark 0.5 5756 31 0 5787
FLII Denmark.png
 San Marino 0.01 7 0 0 7
FLII SanMarino.png
 Countries with high mean FLII (8-10)
 Countries with medium mean FLII (5-7.99)
 Countries with low mean FLII (0-4.99)

Background

The index was authored by a global team of forest conservation experts, including:[1]

Institution Author(s)
Wildlife Conservation Society, The Bronx H.S. Grantham; A. Duncan; T. D. Evans; K. R. Jones; J. Walston; J. G. Robinson; M. Callow; T. Clements; H. M. Costa; A. DeGemmis; P. R. Elsen; P. Franco; S. Jupiter; A. Kang; S. Lieberman; M. Linkie; M. Mendez; C. Samper; J. Silverman; T. Stevens; E. Stokes; T. Tear; R. Tizard; S. Wang; J. E. M. Watson
University of Queensland, Brisbane H. L. Beyer; S. Maxwell; H. Possingham; J. E. M. Watson
Carleton University, Ottawa R. Schuster
Wildlife Conservation Society Canada, Toronto J. C. Ray
United Nations Development Program, Manhattan J. Ervin
World Resources Institute, Washington, DC E. Goldman; R. Taylor
Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff S. Goetz; P. Jantz
Montana State University, Bozeman A. Hansen
Rainforest Foundation Norway, Oslo E. Hofsvang
Global Wildlife Conservation, Austin, TX P. Langhammer; R. Mittermeier
Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ P. Langhammer
James Cook University, Cairns W. F. Laurance; N. J. Murray
University of Oxford, Oxford Y. Malhi
The Nature Conservancy, Arlington, VA H. Possingham
Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA S. Saatchi
World Wide Fund for Nature Germany, Berlin A. Shapiro
International Institute of Sustainability, Rio de Janeiro B. Strassburg
University of Northern British Columbia, Prince George, BC O. Venter
International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg, Austria P. Visconti

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c Grantham, H. S.; Duncan, A.; Evans, T. D.; Jones, K. R.; Beyer, H. L.; Schuster, R.; Walston, J.; Ray, J. C.; Robinson, J. G.; Callow, M.; Clements, T.; Costa, H. M.; DeGemmis, A.; Elsen, P. R.; Ervin, J.; Franco, P.; Goldman, E.; Goetz, S.; Hansen, A.; Hofsvang, E.; Jantz, P.; Jupiter, S.; Kang, A.; Langhammer, P.; Laurance, W. F.; Lieberman, S.; Linkie, M.; Malhi, Y.; Maxwell, S.; Mendez, M.; Mittermeier, R.; Murray, N. J.; Possingham, H.; Radachowsky, J.; Saatchi, S.; Samper, C.; Silverman, J.; Shapiro, A.; Strassburg, B.; Stevens, T.; Stokes, E.; Taylor, R.; Tear, T.; Tizard, R.; Venter, O.; Visconti, P.; Wang, S.; Watson, J. E. M. (2020). "Anthropogenic modification of forests means only 40% of remaining forests have high ecosystem integrity". Nature Communications. 11 (1). doi:10.1038/s41467-020-19493-3. ISSN 2041-1723.
  2. ^ Elcacho, Joaquim (2020-12-14). "Descubre con este mapa dónde están los mejores bosques de tu país y del mundo" [Discover with this map where are the best forests in your country and in the world]. La Vanguardia (in Spanish). Barcelona. Retrieved 2020-12-16.
  3. ^ "Anthropogenic modification of forests means only 40% of remaining forests have high ecosystem integrity". Nature-based Solutions Initiative. University of Oxford. 2020-12-10. Retrieved 2020-12-16.
  4. ^ Попова, Марина (2020-12-09). "Прямое влияние человека обошло стороной 40 процентов современных лесов" [Direct human influence bypassed 40 percent of modern forests] (in Russian). Retrieved 2020-12-16.
  5. ^ "New Forest Landscape Integrity Index Reveals that Only 40 Percent of World's Forests Have High Integrity". WCS Newsroom. Wildlife Conservation Society. 2020-12-08. Retrieved 2020-12-16.
  6. ^ Parrish, Jeffrey D.; Braun, David P.; Unnasch, Robert S. (2003). "Are We Conserving What We Say We Are? Measuring Ecological Integrity within Protected Areas". BioScience. 53 (9): 851. doi:10.1641/0006-3568(2003)053[0851:AWCWWS]2.0.CO;2. ISSN 0006-3568.
  7. ^ Grantham, H. S.; Duncan, A.; Evans, T. D.; Jones, K. R.; Beyer, H. L.; Schuster, R.; Walston, J.; Ray, J. C.; Robinson, J. G.; Callow, M.; Clements, T.; Costa, H. M.; DeGemmis, A.; Elsen, P. R.; Ervin, J.; Franco, P.; Goldman, E.; Goetz, S.; Hansen, A.; Hofsvang, E.; Jantz, P.; Jupiter, S.; Kang, A.; Langhammer, P.; Laurance, W. F.; Lieberman, S.; Linkie, M.; Malhi, Y.; Maxwell, S.; Mendez, M.; Mittermeier, R.; Murray, N. J.; Possingham, H.; Radachowsky, J.; Saatchi, S.; Samper, C.; Silverman, J.; Shapiro, A.; Strassburg, B.; Stevens, T.; Stokes, E.; Taylor, R.; Tear, T.; Tizard, R.; Venter, O.; Visconti, P.; Wang, S.; Watson, J. E. M. (2020). "Anthropogenic modification of forests means only 40% of remaining forests have high ecosystem integrity - Supplementary Material". Nature Communications. 11 (1). doi:10.1038/s41467-020-19493-3. ISSN 2041-1723.

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