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French-based creole languages

A French creole, or French-based creole language, is a creole language (contact language with native speakers) for which French is the lexifier. Most often this lexifier is not modern French but rather a 17th-century koiné of French from Paris, the French Atlantic harbors, and the nascent French colonies. French-based creole languages are spoken natively by millions of people worldwide, primarily in the Americas and on archipelagos throughout the Indian Ocean. This article also contains information on French pidgin languages, contact languages that lack native speakers.

These contact languages are not to be confused with contemporary (non-creole) French-language varieties spoken overseas in, for example, Canada (mostly in Quebec, Ontario and the Maritime Provinces), the Canadian Prairie provinces, Louisiana, northern New England (Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont). Haitian Creole is the most widely spoken creole influenced by French.

Classification

Americas

  • Varieties with progressive aspect marker ape[1]
    • Haitian Creole (Kreyòl ayisyen, locally called Creole) is a language spoken primarily in Haiti: the largest French-derived language in the world, with an estimated total of 12 million fluent speakers. It is also the most-spoken creole language in the world and is based largely on 17th-century French with influences from Portuguese, Spanish, English, Taíno, and West African languages.[2] It is an official language in Haiti.
    • Louisiana Creole (Kréyol la Lwizyàn, locally called Kourí-Viní and Creole), the Louisiana creole language.
  • Varieties with progressive aspect marker ka[3]

Indian Ocean

Pacific

Africa

Asia

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b with variants ap and pe, from the koiné French progressive aspect marker àprè <après> Henri Wittmann. 1995, "Grammaire comparée des variétés coloniales du français populaire de Paris du 17e siècle et origines du français québécois", in Fournier, Robert, & Wittmann, Henri, Le français des Amériques, Trois-Rivières: Presses universitaires de Trois-Rivières, pp. 281–334.[1]
  2. ^ Bonenfant, Jacques L. (2011). "History of Haitian-Creole: From Pidgin to Lingua Franca and English Influence on the Language" (PDF). Review of Higher Education and Self-Learning. 3 (11). Archived (PDF) from the original on 23 March 2015.
  3. ^ from the Karipúna substratum (Henri Wittmann. 1995, "Grammaire comparée des variétés coloniales du français populaire de Paris du 17e siècle et origines du français québécois", in Fournier, Robert & Wittmann, Henri, Le français des Amériques, Trois-Rivières: Presses universitaires de Trois-Rivières, pp. 281–334.[2]
  4. ^ Holm, J. A. (1989). Pidgins and Creoles: Volume 2, Reference Survey. Cambridge University Press. p. 357. ISBN 9780521359405. Retrieved 2 March 2015.

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