wanweipedia

GB 2312

GB 2312
MIME / IANAGB_2312-80 (GB2312 for usual EUC form)
Alias(es)iso-ir-58, chinese, csISO58GB231280
Language(s)Simplified Chinese, English, Russian
Partial support:
Greek, Japanese
StandardGB/T 2312-1980
ClassificationISO-2022-compatible DBCS, CJK encoding
ExtensionsISO-IR-165
Encoding formatsEUC-CN (GB2312),
HZ-GB-2312
Preceded byChinese telegraph code
Succeeded byGBK, GB 18030
Other related encoding(s)JIS X 0208, KS X 1001

GB/T 2312-1980 is a key official character set of the People's Republic of China, used for Simplified Chinese characters. GB2312 is the registered internet name for EUC-CN, which is its usual encoded form. GB refers to the Guobiao standards (国家标准), whereas the T suffix (推荐; tuījiàn; 'recommendation') denotes a non-mandatory standard.[1]

GB/T 2312-1980 was originally a mandatory national standard designated GB 2312-1980. However, following a National Standard Bulletin of the People's Republic of China in 2017, GB 2312 is no longer mandatory, and its standard code is modified to GB/T 2312-1980.[2] GB/T 2312-1980 has been superseded by GBK and GB18030, which include additional characters, but GB/T 2312 remains in widespread use as a subset of those encodings.

As of June 2020, GB2312 is the most popular declared Chinese-specific encoding on the web, with 13.6% of web pages served from China and territories declaring it,[3] or 0.4% of all web pages globally, a drop from 3.5% in January 2010.[4] However, note that all major web browsers decode documents marked as e.g. "GB2312" or "GB 2312" (while not all for "GB_2312") as if it were marked "gbk",[5] which is a superset encoding and GB 2312 and GBK have a combined 16.7% share (or 0.6% globally).

There is an analogous character set known as GB/T 12345, closely related to GB/T 2312, but with traditional character forms replacing simplified forms, and some extra 62 supplemental characters.[6][7] GB-encoded fonts often come in pairs, one with the GB/T 2312 (simplified) character set and the other with the GB/T 12345 (traditional) character set.

Characters

While GB/T 2312 covers over 99.99% contemporary Chinese text usage,[8] historical texts and many names remain out of scope. Old GB 2312 standard includes 6,763 Chinese characters (on two levels: the first is arranged by reading, the second by radical then number of strokes), along with symbols and punctuation, Japanese kana, the Greek and Cyrillic alphabets, Zhuyin, and a double-byte set of Pinyin letters with tone marks. In later version GB/T 2312-1980, there are 7,445 letters.

Characters in GB/T 2312 are arranged in a 94x94 grid (as in ISO 2022), and the two-byte code point of each character is expressed in the kuten (or quwei) form, which specifies a row (ku or qu) and the position of the character within the row (cell, ten or wei).

The rows (numbered from 1 to 94) contain characters as follows:

  • 01–09, comprising punctuation and other special characters; also Hiragana, Katakana, Greek, Cyrillic, Pinyin, Bopomofo
  • 16–55, the first level of Chinese characters, arranged according to Pinyin. (3755 characters).
  • 56–87, the second level of Chinese characters, arranged according to radical and strokes. (3008 characters).
  • 88–89, further Chinese characters. (103 characters). Defined only for GB/T 12345, not GB/T 2312.

The rows 10–15 and 90–94 are unassigned.

For GB/T 2312-1980, it contains 682 signs and 6763 Chinese Characters.

Encodings of GB/T 2312

EUC-CN

EUC-CN is often used as the character encoding (i.e. for external storage) in programs that deal with GB/T 2312, thus maintaining compatibility with ASCII. Two bytes are used to represent every character not found in ASCII. The value of the first byte is from 0xA1–0xF7 (161–247), while the value of the second byte is from 0xA1–0xFE (161–254). Since all of these ranges are beyond ASCII, like UTF-8, it is possible to check if a byte is part of a multi-byte construct when using EUC-CN, but not if a byte is first or last.

Compared to UTF-8, GB2312 (whether native or encoded in EUC-CN) is more storage efficient: while UTF-8 uses three bytes[a] per CJK ideograph, GB2312 only uses two. However, GB2312 does not cover as many ideographs as Unicode does.

To map the kuten code points to bytes, add 160 (0xA0) to the row number (ku, the 1000s and 100s place) of the code point to form the high byte, and add 160 to the column number (ten, the 10s and 1s place) of the code point to form the low byte.

For example, if you have the GB/T 2312 code point 4566 ("外",[9] which means foreign), the high byte will use the row number 45: 45+160=205=0xCD, and the low byte will come from the column, 66: 66+160=212=0xE2. So, the full encoding is 0xCDE2.[10]

HZ

HZ is another encoding of GB 2312 that is used mostly for Usenet postings.

Code charts

In the tables below, where a pair of hexadecimal numbers is given for a prefix byte or a coding byte, the smaller (with the eighth bit unset or unavailable) is used when encoded over GL (0x21-0x7E), as in ISO-2022-CN or HZ-GB-2312, and the larger (with the eighth bit set) is used in the more typical case of it being encoded over GR (0xA1-0xFE), as in EUC-CN, GBK or GB 18030. Qūwèi numbers are given in decimal.

When GB/T 2312 is encoded over GR, both bytes have the eighth bit set (i.e. are greater than 0x7F). GBK and GB 18030 also make use of two-byte codes in which only the first byte has the eighth bit set for extension purposes: such codes are outside of the GB/T 2312 plane, and are not tabulated here.

Lead byte

This chart details the overall layout of the main plane of the GB/T 2312 character set by lead byte. For lead bytes used for characters other than hanzi, links are provided to charts on this page listing the characters encoded under that lead byte. For lead bytes used for hanzi, links are provided to the appropriate section of Wiktionary's hanzi index.

GB 2312 (lead bytes)
_0 _1 _2 _3 _4 _5 _6 _7 _8 _9 _A _B _C _D _E _F
2_/A_ SP[b]
0020
 
Punct.
LEAD
1-_
List
LEAD
2-_
Alnum.
LEAD
3-_
Hiragana
LEAD
4-_
Katakana
LEAD
5-_
Greek
LEAD
6-_
Cyrillic
LEAD
7-_
Phonet.
LEAD
8-_
Box
LEAD
9-_

 
10-_

 
11-_

 
12-_

 
13-_

 
14-_

 
15-_
3_/B_ Hanzi L1
LEAD
16-_
Hanzi L1
LEAD
17-_
Hanzi L1
LEAD
18-_
Hanzi L1
LEAD
19-_
Hanzi L1
LEAD
20-_
Hanzi L1
LEAD
21-_
Hanzi L1
LEAD
22-_
Hanzi L1
LEAD
23-_
Hanzi L1
LEAD
24-_
Hanzi L1
LEAD
25-_
Hanzi L1
LEAD
26-_
Hanzi L1
LEAD
27-_
Hanzi L1
LEAD
28-_
Hanzi L1
LEAD
29-_
Hanzi L1
LEAD
30-_
Hanzi L1
LEAD
31-_
4_/C_ Hanzi L1
LEAD
32-_
Hanzi L1
LEAD
33-_
Hanzi L1
LEAD
34-_
Hanzi L1
LEAD
35-_
Hanzi L1
LEAD
36-_
Hanzi L1
LEAD
37-_
Hanzi L1
LEAD
38-_
Hanzi L1
LEAD
39-_
Hanzi L1
LEAD
40-_
Hanzi L1
LEAD
41-_
Hanzi L1
LEAD
42-_
Hanzi L1
LEAD
43-_
Hanzi L1
LEAD
44-_
Hanzi L1
LEAD
45-_
Hanzi L1
LEAD
46-_
Hanzi L1
LEAD
47-_
5_/D_ Hanzi L1
LEAD
48-_
Hanzi L1
LEAD
49-_
Hanzi L1
LEAD
50-_
Hanzi L1
LEAD
51-_
Hanzi L1
LEAD
52-_
Hanzi L1
LEAD
53-_
Hanzi L1
LEAD
54-_
Hanzi L1
LEAD
55-_
Hanzi L2
LEAD
56-_
Hanzi L2
LEAD
57-_
Hanzi L2
LEAD
58-_
Hanzi L2
LEAD
59-_
Hanzi L2
LEAD
60-_
Hanzi L2
LEAD
61-_
Hanzi L2
LEAD
62-_
Hanzi L2
LEAD
63-_
6_/E_ Hanzi L2
LEAD
64-_
Hanzi L2
LEAD
65-_
Hanzi L2
LEAD
66-_
Hanzi L2
LEAD
67-_
Hanzi L2
LEAD
68-_
Hanzi L2
LEAD
69-_
Hanzi L2
LEAD
70-_
Hanzi L2
LEAD
71-_
Hanzi L2
LEAD
72-_
Hanzi L2
LEAD
73-_
Hanzi L2
LEAD
74-_
Hanzi L2
LEAD
75-_
Hanzi L2
LEAD
76-_
Hanzi L2
LEAD
77-_
Hanzi L2
LEAD
78-_
Hanzi L2
LEAD
79-_
7_/F_ Hanzi L2
LEAD
80-_
Hanzi L2
LEAD
81-_
Hanzi L2
LEAD
82-_
Hanzi L2
LEAD
83-_
Hanzi L2
LEAD
84-_
Hanzi L2
LEAD
85-_
Hanzi L2
LEAD
86-_
Hanzi L2
LEAD
87-_

 
88-_

 
89-_

 
90-_

 
91-_

 
92-_

 
93-_

 
94-_
DEL
007F
 
}}

 Letter Number Punctuation Symbol Other Undefined

Non-Hanzi rows

The following charts list the non-hanzi characters available in GB/T 2312, in GB/T 12345, and in double-byte region 1 of GB 18030 (which roughly corresponds to the non-hanzi region of GB/T 2312). Notes are made where these differ, and where GB 6345.1 and ISO-IR-165 differ from these. Cross-references are made to articles on other CJK national character sets for comparison.

Character set 0x21/0xA1 (row 1: punctuation and symbols)

This row contains punctuation, mathematical operators, and other symbols.

Unicode mappings of the interpunct (Chinese: 间隔点; lit. 'separator dot') and em dash (Chinese: 破折号) in the subset of GBK and GB 18030 corresponding to GB/T 2312 (U+00B7 · MIDDLE DOT and U+2014 EM DASH) differ from the those which are listed in GB2312.TXT (U+30FB KATAKANA MIDDLE DOT and U+2015 HORIZONTAL BAR), which is a data file which was previously provided by the Unicode Consortium,[11] although it has been designated as obsolete since August 2011[12] and is no longer hosted as of September 2016.

As of 2015, Microsoft .Net Framework follows GB 18030 mappings when mapping those two characters in data labelled gb2312, whereas ICU,[13] iconv-1.14,[14] php-5.6, ActivePerl-5.20, Java 1.7 and Python 3.4[15] follow GB2312.TXT in response to the gb2312 label. Ruby 2.2 is compatible with both implementations; it internally converts the conflictive characters to the GB 18030 subset. The W3C/WHATWG technical recommendation for use with HTML5 specifies a GBK encoding to be inferred for streams labelled gb2312, which in turn uses a GB18030 decoder.[16]

Other differing mappings have been defined and used by individual vendors,[11] including one from Apple.[17] The following table shows the GB 18030 mappings[18] for these GB/T 2312 characters first, followed by any other documented mappings.

GB 2312 (prefixed with 0x21/0xA1)
_0 _1 _2 _3 _4 _5 _6 _7 _8 _9 _A _B _C _D _E _F
2_/A_ IDSP
3000
1-1

3001
1-2

3002
1-3
·/
00B7/30FB
1-4
ˉ
02C9
1-5
ˇ
02C7
1-6
¨
00A8
1-7

3003
1-8

3005
1-9
/
2014/2015
1-10
/
FF5E/301C
1-11
/
2016/2225
1-12
/
2026/22EF
1-13

2018
1-14

2019
1-15
3_/B_
201C
1-16

201D
1-17

3014
1-18

3015
1-19

3008
1-20

3009
1-21

300A
1-22

300B
1-23

300C
1-24

300D
1-25

300E
1-26

300F
1-27

3016
1-28

3017
1-29

3010
1-30

3011
1-31
4_/C_ ±
00B1
1-32
×
00D7
1-33
÷
00F7
1-34

2236
1-35

2227
1-36

2228
1-37

2211
1-38

220F
1-39

222A
1-40

2229
1-41

2208
1-42

2237
1-43

221A
1-44

22A5
1-45

2225
1-46

2220
1-47
5_/D_
2312
1-48

2299
1-49

222B
1-50

222E
1-51

2261
1-52

224C
1-53

2248
1-54

223D
1-55

221D
1-56

2260
1-57

226E
1-58

226F
1-59

2264
1-60

2265
1-61

221E
1-62

2235
1-63
6_/E_
2234
1-64

2642
1-65

2640
1-66
°
00B0
1-67

2032
1-68

2033
1-69

2103
1-70

FF04
1-71
¤
00A4
1-72
/¢
FFE0/00A2
1-73
/£
FFE1/00A3
1-74

2030
1-75
§
00A7
1-76

2116
1-77

2606
1-78

2605
1-79
7_/F_
25CB
1-80

25CF
1-81

25CE
1-82

25C7
1-83

25C6
1-84

25A1
1-85

25A0
1-86

25B3
1-87

25B2
1-88

203B
1-89

2192
1-90

2190
1-91

2191
1-92

2193
1-93

3013
1-94

 Letter Number Punctuation Symbol Other Undefined

Character set 0x22/0xA2 (row 2: list markers)

This row contains various types of list marker. A euro sign is also included by GB 18030.

GB 2312 (prefixed with 0x22/0xA2)
_0 _1 _2 _3 _4 _5 _6 _7 _8 _9 _A _B _C _D _E _F
2_/A_
2170
2-1

2171
2-2

2172
2-3

2173
2-4

2174
2-5

2175
2-6

2176
2-7

2177
2-8

2178
2-9

2179
2-10

 
2-11

 
2-12

 
2-13

 
2-14

 
2-15
3_/B_
 
2-16

2488
2-17

2489
2-18

248A
2-19

248B
2-20

248C
2-21

248D
2-22

248E
2-23

248F
2-24

2490
2-25

2491
2-26

2492
2-27

2493
2-28

2494
2-29

2495
2-30

2496
2-31
4_/C_
2497
2-32

2498
2-33

2499
2-34

249A
2-35

249B
2-36

2474
2-37

2475
2-38

2476
2-39

2477
2-40

2478
2-41

2479
2-42

247A
2-43

247B
2-44

247C
2-45

247D
2-46

247E
2-47
5_/D_
247F
2-48

2480
2-49

2481
2-50

2482
2-51

2483
2-52

2484
2-53

2485
2-54

2486
2-55

2487
2-56

2460
2-57

2461
2-58

2462
2-59

2463
2-60

2464
2-61

2465
2-62

2466
2-63
6_/E_
2467
2-64

2468
2-65

2469
2-66

20AC
2-67

 
2-68

3220
2-69

3221
2-70

3222
2-71

3223
2-72

3224
2-73

3225
2-74

3226
2-75

3227
2-76

3228
2-77

3229
2-78

 
2-79
7_/F_
 
2-80

2160
2-81

2161
2-82

2162
2-83

2163
2-84

2164
2-85

2165
2-86

2166
2-87

2167
2-88

2168
2-89

2169
2-90

216A
2-91

216B
2-92

 
2-93

 
2-94

 Letter Number Punctuation Symbol Other Undefined

Character set 0x23/0xA3 (row 3: ISO 646-CN)

This row contains ISO 646-CN (GB/T 1988-80), a national counterpart to ASCII. Compare row 3 of KS X 1001, which does the same with South Korea's ISO 646 version, and row 3 of JIS X 0208 and of KPS 9566, which include only the alphanumeric subset, but in the same layout. The following chart lists ISO 646-CN.

ISO 646-CN; non-fullwidth mappings
_0 _1 _2 _3 _4 _5 _6 _7 _8 _9 _A _B _C _D _E _F
2_/A_
 
 
!
0021
3-1
"
0022
3-2
#
0023
3-3
¥
00A5
3-4
%
0025
3-5
&
0026
3-6
'
0027
3-7
(
0028
3-8
)
0029
3-9
*
002A
3-10
+
002B
3-11
,
002C
3-12
-
002D
3-13
.
002E
3-14
/
002F
3-15
3_/B_ 0
0030
3-16
1
0031
3-17
2
0032
3-18
3
0033
3-19
4
0034
3-20
5
0035
3-21
6
0036
3-22
7
0037
3-23
8
0038
3-24
9
0039
3-25
:
003A
3-26
;
003B
3-27
<
003C
3-28
=
003D
3-29
>
003E
3-30
?
003F
3-31
4_/C_ @
0040
3-32
A
0041
3-33
B
0042
3-34
C
0043
3-35
D
0044
3-36
E
0045
3-37
F
0046
3-38
G
0047
3-39
H
0048
3-40
I
0049
3-41
J
004A
3-42
K
004B
3-43
L
004C
3-44
M
004D
3-45
N
004E
3-46
O
004F
3-47
5_/D_ P
0050
3-48
Q
0051
3-49
R
0052
3-50
S
0053
3-51
T
0054
3-52
U
0055
3-53
V
0056
3-54
W
0057
3-55
X
0058
3-56
Y
0059
3-57
Z
005A
3-58
[
005B
3-59
\
005C
3-60
]
005D
3-61
^
005E
3-62
_
005F
3-63
6_/E_ `
0060
3-64
a
0061
3-65
b
0062
3-66
c
0063
3-67
d
0064
3-68
e
0065
3-69
f
0066
3-70
g
0067
3-71
h
0068
3-72
i
0069
3-73
j
006A
3-74
k
006B
3-75
l
006C
3-76
m
006D
3-77
n
006E
3-78
o
006F
3-79
7_/F_ p
0070
3-80
q
0071
3-81
r
0072
3-82
s
0073
3-83
t
0074
3-84
u
0075
3-85
v
0076
3-86
w
0077
3-87
x
0078
3-88
y
0079
3-89
z
007A
3-90
{
007B
3-91
|
007C
3-92
}
007D
3-93

203E
3-94

 
 

 Letter Number Punctuation Symbol Other Undefined

When used in an encoding allowing combination with ASCII such as EUC-CN (and its superset GB 18030), these characters are usually implemented as fullwidth characters, hence mappings to the Halfwidth and Fullwidth Forms block are used as shown below. GB 6345.1 also handles this row as fullwidth, and adds the halfwidth forms (as above) as row 10.[1] Apple mostly maps this row to fullwidth code points as below, but uses non-fullwidth mappings for the overline and yuan sign as above.[17]

GB 2312 (prefixed with 0x23/0xA3); fullwidth mappings
_0 _1 _2 _3 _4 _5 _6 _7 _8 _9 _A _B _C _D _E _F
2_/A_
FF01
3-1

FF02
3-2

FF03
3-3

FFE5
3-4

FF05
3-5

FF06
3-6

FF07
3-7

FF08
3-8

FF09
3-9

FF0A
3-10

FF0B
3-11

FF0C
3-12

FF0D
3-13

FF0E
3-14

FF0F
3-15
3_/B_
FF10
3-16

FF11
3-17

FF12
3-18

FF13
3-19

FF14
3-20

FF15
3-21

FF16
3-22

FF17
3-23

FF18
3-24

FF19
3-25

FF1A
3-26

FF1B
3-27

FF1C
3-28

FF1D
3-29

FF1E
3-30

FF1F
3-31
4_/C_
FF20
3-32

FF21
3-33

FF22
3-34

FF23
3-35

FF24
3-36

FF25
3-37

FF26
3-38

FF27
3-39

FF28
3-40

FF29
3-41

FF2A
3-42

FF2B
3-43

FF2C
3-44

FF2D
3-45

FF2E
3-46

FF2F
3-47
5_/D_
FF30
3-48

FF31
3-49

FF32
3-50

FF33
3-51

FF34
3-52

FF35
3-53

FF36
3-54

FF37
3-55

FF38
3-56

FF39
3-57

FF3A
3-58

FF3B
3-59

FF3C
3-60

FF3D
3-61

FF3E
3-62
_
FF3F
3-63
6_/E_
FF40
3-64

FF41
3-65

FF42
3-66

FF43
3-67

FF44
3-68

FF45
3-69

FF46
3-70
/ɡ[c]
FF47/0261
3-71

FF48
3-72

FF49
3-73

FF4A
3-74

FF4B
3-75

FF4C
3-76

FF4D
3-77

FF4E
3-78

FF4F
3-79
7_/F_
FF50
3-80

FF51
3-81

FF52
3-82

FF53
3-83

FF54
3-84

FF55
3-85

FF56
3-86

FF57
3-87

FF58
3-88

FF59
3-89

FF5A
3-90

FF5B
3-91

FF5C
3-92

FF5D
3-93

FFE3
3-94

 Letter Number Punctuation Symbol Other Undefined

Character set 0x24/0xA4 (row 4: Hiragana)

This set contains Hiragana for writing the Japanese language.

Compare with row 4 of JIS X 0208, which this row matches, and with row 10 of KS X 1001 and of KPS 9566, which use the same layout, but in a different row.

GB 2312 (prefixed with 0x24/0xA4)
_0 _1 _2 _3 _4 _5 _6 _7 _8 _9 _A _B _C _D _E _F
2_/A_
3041
4-1

3042
4-2

3043
4-3

3044
4-4

3045
4-5

3046
4-6

3047
4-7

3048
4-8

3049
4-9

304A
4-10

304B
4-11

304C
4-12

304D
4-13

304E
4-14

304F
4-15
3_/B_
3050
4-16

3051
4-17

3052
4-18

3053
4-19

3054
4-20

3055
4-21

3056
4-22

3057
4-23

3058
4-24

3059
4-25

305A
4-26

305B
4-27

305C
4-28

305D
4-29

305E
4-30

305F
4-31
4_/C_
3060
4-32

3061
4-33

3062
4-34

3063
4-35

3064
4-36

3065
4-37

3066
4-38

3067
4-39

3068
4-40

3069
4-41

306A
4-42

306B
4-43

306C
4-44

306D
4-45

306E
4-46

306F
4-47
5_/D_
3070
4-48

3071
4-49

3072
4-50

3073
4-51

3074
4-52

3075
4-53

3076
4-54

3077
4-55

3078
4-56

3079
4-57

307A
4-58

307B
4-59

307C
4-60

307D
4-61

307E
4-62

307F
4-63
6_/E_
3080
4-64

3081
4-65

3082
4-66

3083
4-67

3084
4-68

3085
4-69

3086
4-70

3087
4-71

3088
4-72

3089
4-73

308A
4-74

308B
4-75

308C
4-76

308D
4-77

308E
4-78

308F
4-79
7_/F_
3090
4-80

3091
4-81

3092
4-82

3093
4-83

 
4-84

 
4-85

 
4-86

 
4-87

 
4-88

 
4-89

 
4-90

 
4-91

 
4-92

 
4-93

 
4-94

 Letter Number Punctuation Symbol Other Undefined

Character set 0x25/0xA5 (row 5: Katakana)

This set contains Katakana for writing the Japanese language. However, the Japanese long vowel mark, which is used in katakana text and included in row 1 of JIS X 0208, is not included in GB/T 2312, although it is added in GBK and GB 18030 outside of the main GB/T 2312 plane,[20] at 0xA960.[18]

Compare with row 5 of JIS X 0208, which this row matches, and with row 11 of KS X 1001 and of KPS 9566, which use the same layout, but in a different row.

GB 2312 (prefixed with 0x25/0xA5)
_0 _1 _2 _3 _4 _5 _6 _7 _8 _9 _A _B _C _D _E _F
2_/A_
30A1
5-1

30A2
5-2

30A3
5-3

30A4
5-4

30A5
5-5

30A6
5-6

30A7
5-7

30A8
5-8

30A9
5-9

30AA
5-10

30AB
5-11

30AC
5-12

30AD
5-13

30AE
5-14

30AF
5-15
3_/B_
30B0
5-16

30B1
5-17

30B2
5-18

30B3
5-19

30B4
5-20

30B5
5-21

30B6
5-22

30B7
5-23

30B8
5-24

30B9
5-25

30BA
5-26

30BB
5-27

30BC
5-28

30BD
5-29

30BE
5-30

30BF
5-31
4_/C_
30C0
5-32

30C1
5-33

30C2
5-34

30C3
5-35

30C4
5-36

30C5
5-37

30C6
5-38

30C7
5-39

30C8
5-40

30C9
5-41

30CA
5-42

30CB
5-43

30CC
5-44

30CD
5-45

30CE
5-46

30CF
5-47
5_/D_
30D0
5-48

30D1
5-49

30D2
5-50

30D3
5-51

30D4
5-52

30D5
5-53

30D6
5-54

30D7
5-55

30D8
5-56

30D9
5-57

30DA
5-58

30DB
5-59

30DC
5-60

30DD
5-61

30DE
5-62

30DF
5-63
6_/E_
30E0
5-64

30E1
5-65

30E2
5-66

30E3
5-67

30E4
5-68

30E5
5-69

30E6
5-70

30E7
5-71

30E8
5-72

30E9
5-73

30EA
5-74

30EB
5-75

30EC
5-76

30ED
5-77

30EE
5-78

30EF
5-79
7_/F_
30F0
5-80

30F1
5-81

30F2
5-82

30F3
5-83

30F4
5-84

30F5
5-85

30F6
5-86

 
5-87

 
5-88

 
5-89

 
5-90

 
5-91

 
5-92

 
5-93

 
5-94

 Letter Number Punctuation Symbol Other Undefined

Character set 0x26/0xA6 (row 6: Greek and vertical extensions)

This row contains basic support for the modern Greek alphabet, without diacritics or the final sigma.

The boxed characters are presentation forms of punctuation marks for vertical writing, and are not included in GB/T 2312 proper, but are included in this row by GB/T 12345,[1][6] Mac OS Simplified Chinese,[17] and GB 18030.[18] They are seen as "standard extensions to GB 2312".[17] Conversely, ISO-IR-165 includes patterned semigraphic characters in this row (mostly without exact counterparts in Unicode), colliding with the code positions used for the vertical extensions.[21]

Compare with row 6 of JIS X 0208, which this row matches when the vertical forms are not included, and with row 6 of KPS 9566, which includes the same Greek letters in the same layout, but adds Roman numerals rather than vertical forms. Contrast row 5 of KS X 1001, which offsets the Greek letters to include the Roman numerals first.

GB 2312 (prefixed with 0x26/0xA6)
_0 _1 _2 _3 _4 _5 _6 _7 _8 _9 _A _B _C _D _E _F
2_/A_ Α
0391
6-1
Β
0392
6-2
Γ
0393
6-3
Δ
0394
6-4
Ε
0395
6-5
Ζ
0396
6-6
Η
0397
6-7
Θ
0398
6-8
Ι
0399
6-9
Κ
039A
6-10
Λ
039B
6-11
Μ
039C
6-12
Ν
039D
6-13
Ξ
039E
6-14
Ο
039F
6-15
3_/B_ Π
03A0
6-16
Ρ
03A1
6-17
Σ
03A3
6-18
Τ
03A4
6-19
Υ
03A5
6-20
Φ
03A6
6-21
Χ
03A7
6-22
Ψ
03A8
6-23
Ω
03A9
6-24

 
6-25

 
6-26

 
6-27

 
6-28

 
6-29

 
6-30

 
6-31
4_/C_
 
6-32
α
03B1
6-33
β
03B2
6-34
γ
03B3
6-35
δ
03B4
6-36
ε
03B5
6-37
ζ
03B6
6-38
η
03B7
6-39
θ
03B8
6-40
ι
03B9
6-41
κ
03BA
6-42
λ
03BB
6-43
μ
03BC
6-44
ν
03BD
6-45
ξ
03BE
6-46
ο
03BF
6-47
5_/D_ π
03C0
6-48
ρ
03C1
6-49
σ
03C3
6-50
τ
03C4
6-51
υ
03C5
6-52
φ
03C6
6-53
χ
03C7
6-54
ψ
03C8
6-55
ω
03C9
6-56
[d]
FE10
6-57
[d]
FE12
6-58
[d]
FE11
6-59
[d]
FE13
6-60
[d]
FE14
6-61
[d]
FE15
6-62
[d]
FE16
6-63
6_/E_
FE35
6-64

FE36
6-65

FE39
6-66

FE3A
6-67
︿
FE3F
6-68

FE40
6-69

FE3D
6-70

FE3E
6-71

FE41
6-72

FE42
6-73

FE43
6-74

FE44
6-75
[d]
FE17
6-76
[d]
FE18
6-77

FE3B
6-78

FE3C
6-79
7_/F_
FE37
6-80

FE38
6-81

FE31
6-82
[d]
FE19
6-83

FE33
6-84

FE34
6-85

 
6-86

 
6-87

 
6-88

 
6-89

 
6-90

 
6-91

 
6-92

 
6-93

 
6-94

 Letter Number Punctuation Symbol Other Undefined

Character set 0x27/0xA7 (row 7: Cyrillic)

This set includes both cases of 33 letters from the Cyrillic script, sufficient to write the modern Russian alphabet and Bulgarian alphabet, although other forms of Cyrillic require additional letters.[22]

Compare with row 7 of JIS X 0208, which this row matches, and with row 12 of KS X 1001 and row 5 of KPS 9566, which use the same layout but in a different rows.

GB 2312 (prefixed with 0x27/0xA7)
_0 _1 _2 _3 _4 _5 _6 _7 _8 _9 _A _B _C _D _E _F
2_/A_ А
0410
7-1
Б
0411
7-2
В
0412
7-3
Г
0413
7-4
Д
0414
7-5
Е
0415
7-6
Ё
0401
7-7
Ж
0416
7-8
З
0417
7-9
И
0418
7-10
Й
0419
7-11
К
041A
7-12
Л
041B
7-13
М
041C
7-14
Н
041D
7-15
3_/B_ О
041E
7-16
П
041F
7-17
Р
0420
7-18
С
0421
7-19
Т
0422
7-20
У
0423
7-21
Ф
0424
7-22
Х
0425
7-23
Ц
0426
7-24
Ч
0427
7-25
Ш
0428
7-26
Щ
0429
7-27
Ъ
042A
7-28
Ы
042B
7-29
Ь
042C
7-30
Э
042D
7-31
4_/C_ Ю
042E
7-32
Я
042F
7-33

 
7-34

 
7-35

 
7-36

 
7-37

 
7-38

 
7-39

 
7-40

 
7-41

 
7-42

 
7-43

 
7-44

 
7-45

 
7-46

 
7-47
5_/D_
 
7-48
а
0430
7-49
б
0431
7-50
в
0432
7-51
г
0433
7-52
д
0434
7-53
е
0435
7-54
ё
0451
7-55
ж
0436
7-56
з
0437
7-57
и
0438
7-58
й
0439
7-59
к
043A
7-60
л
043B
7-61
м
043C
7-62
н
043D
7-63
6_/E_ о
043E
7-64
п
043F
7-65
р
0440
7-66
с
0441
7-67
т
0442
7-68
у
0443
7-69
ф
0444
7-70
х
0445
7-71
ц
0446
7-72
ч
0447
7-73
ш
0448
7-74
щ
0449
7-75
ъ
044A
7-76
ы
044B
7-77
ь
044C
7-78
э
044D
7-79
7_/F_ ю
044E
7-80
я
044F
7-81

 
7-82

 
7-83

 
7-84

 
7-85

 
7-86

 
7-87

 
7-88

 
7-89

 
7-90

 
7-91

 
7-92

 
7-93

 
7-94

 Letter Number Punctuation Symbol Other Undefined

Character set 0x28/0xA8 (row 8: zhuyin and non-ASCII pinyin)

This row contains bopomofo and pinyin characters, excluding ASCII letters (which are in row 3). Boxed characters are not in the base GB 2312 set but are added by GB 6345.1,[17] and also included in GB/T 12345,[1][6] Mac OS Simplified Chinese[17] and GB 18030.[18] They are seen as "standard extensions to GB 2312".[17]

GB 6345.1 treats the pinyin in this row as fullwidth, and includes halfwidth counterparts as row 11;[1] GB 18030 does not do this.

GB 2312 (prefixed with 0x28/0xA8)
_0 _1 _2 _3 _4 _5 _6 _7 _8 _9 _A _B _C _D _E _F
2_/A_ ā
0101
8-1
á
00E1
8-2
ǎ
01CE
8-3
à
00E0
8-4
ē
0113
8-5
é
00E9
8-6
ě
011B
8-7
è
00E8
8-8
ī
012B
8-9
í
00ED
8-10
ǐ
01D0
8-11
ì
00EC
8-12
ō
014D
8-13
ó
00F3
8-14
ǒ
01D2
8-15
3_/B_ ò
00F2
8-16
ū
016B
8-17
ú
00FA
8-18
ǔ
01D4
8-19
ù
00F9
8-20
ǖ
01D6
8-21
ǘ
01D8
8-22
ǚ
01DA
8-23
ǜ
01DC
8-24
ü
00FC
8-25
ê
00EA
8-26
ɑ
0251
8-27
ḿ[e]
1E3F
8-28
ń
0144
8-29
ň
0148
8-30
ǹ[f]
01F9
8-31
4_/C_ ɡ/[g]
0261/FF47
8-32

 
8-33

 
8-34

 
8-35

 
8-36

3105
8-37

3106
8-38

3107
8-39

3108
8-40

3109
8-41

310A
8-42

310B
8-43

310C
8-44

310D
8-45

310E
8-46

310F
8-47
5_/D_
3110
8-48

3111
8-49

3112
8-50

3113
8-51

3114
8-52

3115
8-53

3116
8-54

3117
8-55

3118
8-56

3119
8-57

311A
8-58

311B
8-59

311C
8-60

311D
8-61

311E
8-62

311F
8-63
6_/E_
3120
8-64

3121
8-65

3122
8-66

3123
8-67

3124
8-68

3125
8-69

3126
8-70

3127
8-71

3128
8-72

3129
8-73

 
8-74

 
8-75

 
8-76

 
8-77

 
8-78

 
8-79
7_/F_
 
8-80

 
8-81

 
8-82

 
8-83

 
8-84

 
8-85

 
8-86

 
8-87

 
8-88

 
8-89

 
8-90

 
8-91

 
8-92

 
8-93

 
8-94

 Letter Number Punctuation Symbol Other Undefined

Character set 0x29/0xA9 (row 9: box drawing)

GB 2312 (prefixed with 0x29/0xA9)
_0 _1 _2 _3 _4 _5 _6 _7 _8 _9 _A _B _C _D _E _F
2_/A_
 
9-1

 
9-2

 
9-3

2500
9-4

2501
9-5

2502
9-6

2503
9-7

2504
9-8

2505
9-9

2506
9-10

2507
9-11

2508
9-12

2509
9-13

250A
9-14

250B
9-15
3_/B_
250C
9-16

250D
9-17

250E
9-18

250F
9-19

2510
9-20

2511
9-21

2512
9-22

2513
9-23

2514
9-24

2515
9-25

2516
9-26

2517
9-27

2518
9-28

2519
9-29

251A
9-30

251B
9-31
4_/C_
251C
9-32

251D
9-33

251E
9-34

251F
9-35

2520
9-36

2521
9-37

2522
9-38

2523
9-39

2524
9-40

2525
9-41

2526
9-42

2527
9-43

2528
9-44

2529
9-45

252A
9-46

252B
9-47
5_/D_
252C
9-48

252D
9-49

252E
9-50

252F
9-51

2530
9-52

2531
9-53

2532
9-54

2533
9-55

2534
9-56

2535
9-57

2536
9-58

2537
9-59

2538
9-60

2539
9-61

253A
9-62

253B
9-63
6_/E_
253C
9-64

253D
9-65

253E
9-66

253F
9-67

2540
9-68

2541
9-69

2542
9-70

2543
9-71

2544
9-72

2545
9-73

2546
9-74

2547
9-75

2548
9-76

2549
9-77

254A
9-78

254B
9-79
7_/F_
 
9-80

 
9-81

 
9-82

 
9-83

 
9-84

 
9-85

 
9-86

 
9-87

 
9-88

 
9-89

 
9-90

 
9-91

 
9-92

 
9-93

 
9-94

 Letter Number Punctuation Symbol Other Undefined

Hanzi rows

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f Lunde, Ken (2009). CJKV Information Processing: Chinese, Japanese, Korean & Vietnamese Computing (2nd ed.). Sebastopol, CA: O'Reilly. pp. 94–111. ISBN 978-0-596-51447-1.
  2. ^ "2017年第7号中国国家标准公告 (China National Standard Bulletin 2017 No.7)". Standardization Administration of the People's Republic of China. Retrieved 3 July 2018.
  3. ^ "Distribution of Character Encodings among websites that use China and territories". w3techs.com. Retrieved 2020-06-01.
  4. ^ "Historical trends in the usage of character encodings, June 2020". w3techs.com. Retrieved 2020-06-01.
  5. ^ "Encoding: Summarized test results". www.w3.org. Retrieved 2019-11-15.
  6. ^ a b c Lunde, Ken (1998). Appendix F: GB/T 12345 (PDF). CJKV Information Processing. O'Reilly Media. ISBN 9781565922242.
  7. ^ GB12345-80 to Unicode table. Unicode Consortium. 1993-12-06. Archived from the original on 2004-06-17.
  8. ^ Hannas, William C. (1997). Asia's Orthographic Dilemma. University of Hawai‘i Press. p. 264. the set provides for better than 99.99 percent of all usage. Nevertheless, the designers found it necessary to add 14,276 "special usage" characters to cover contingencies!
  9. ^ https://archive.org/details/GB2312-1980/page/n17
  10. ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20160303230643/http://cs.nyu.edu/~yusuke/tools/unicode_to_gb2312_or_gbk_table.html
  11. ^ a b Haible, Bruno. "GB2312 (Conversion Tables)". Retrieved 29 September 2016.
  12. ^ "Readme – MAPPINGS/OBSOLETE/EASTASIA". 9 August 2001. Retrieved 29 September 2016.
  13. ^ "java-EUC_CN-1.3_P.ucm". Retrieved 29 September 2016.[permanent dead link]
  14. ^ "libiconv:lib/gb2312.h". GNU Savannah. Retrieved 29 September 2016.
  15. ^ "Issue 24036". Python Bug Tracker.
  16. ^ "Encoding § Names and labels". W3C. Retrieved 29 September 2016.
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Map (external version) from Mac OS Chinese Simplified encoding to Unicode 3.0 and later". Apple, Inc.
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h Standardization Administration of China (SAC) (2005-11-18). GB 18030-2005: Information Technology—Chinese coded character set.
  19. ^ a b Viswanadha, Raghuram (2000-08-30). "Unicode to ISO-IR-165 table". International Components for Unicode. IBM.
  20. ^ Lunde, Ken (2009). "Seemingly Missing Characters". CJKV Information Processing: Chinese, Japanese, Korean & Vietnamese Computing (2nd ed.). Sebastopol, CA: O'Reilly. p. 180. ISBN 978-0-596-51447-1.
  21. ^ a b CCITT (1992-07-13). Codes of the Chinese graphic character set for communication (PDF). ITSCJ/IPSJ. ISO-IR-165.
  22. ^ Czyborra, Roman (1998-11-30) [1998-05-25]. "The Cyrillic Charset Soup". Archived from the original on 2016-12-03. Retrieved 2016-12-03.
  23. ^ "Unicode Character Encoding Stability Policies". Unicode Consortium. 2017-06-23.

Notes

  1. ^ Only for ideographs covered by GB/T 2312, all of which fall into Unicode BMP
  2. ^ As a ISO 2022 compatible 94n-character set, the plain space and delete character are available as single-byte codes at 0x20 and 0x7F (not 0xA0 and 0xFF) respectively.
  3. ^ Used for U+FF47 by GB 6345.1 and GB 18030 (which use 8-32 for U+0261),[18] but for U+0261 by ISO-IR-165.[19] The original GB 2312-80 reference glyph resembled U+0261, but this was amended by GB 6345.1.[1]
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j These characters are from the Vertical Forms block. Some mappings in use were designed when the only vertical presentation forms which existed in Unicode were those in the CJK Compatibility Forms block. Specifically, they are mapped by GB 18030 to the Private Use Area, but with a defined glyph,[18] and by Apple to the regular fullwidth character with an appended private use character U+F87E as a variation marker.[17]
  5. ^ Mapped to the Private Use Area U+E7C7 by the first (2000) edition of GB 18030; this was amended by the 2005 edition.[18]
  6. ^ This composed character was added in Unicode 3.0. Prior to this, this character was mapped to its composition sequence (i.e. U+006E+0300) by Apple.[17] This change predates the stabilisation of Unicode normalisation forms, which was introduced in Unicode 3.1.[23]
  7. ^ Used for U+0261 in GB 6345.1[17] and GB 18030[18] (which use 3-71 for U+FF47), but for U+FF47 in ISO-IR-165.[19][21]

Further reading

External links


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