Georgia–NATO relations

Georgia and North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) relations officially began in 1994 when Georgia joined the NATO-run Partnership for Peace. Georgia has moved quickly following the Rose Revolution in 2003 to seek closer ties and eventual membership with NATO. Georgia's powerful northern neighbor, Russia, has opposed the closer ties, including those expressed at the 2008 Bucharest summit where NATO members promised that Georgia would eventually join the organization. In the 7 December 2011 statement of the North Atlantic Council Georgia was designated as an "aspirant country".[1]

Complications in the relationship between NATO and Georgia includes presence of Russian forces in Georgian territory as a result of multiple recent conflicts, like the 2008 South Ossetia war, over the territories of Abkhazia and South Ossetia, which are home to large numbers of Russian nationals. A nonbinding referendum in 2008 resulted in 77% of voters supporting NATO accession.[2]

The current Georgia–NATO relations occurs in the framework of the Substantial NATO–Georgia Package (SNGP), a set of measures at the strategic, tactical and operational levels launched in 2014. The package includes a Defence Institution Building School, NATO–Georgia Joint Training and Evaluation Centre and Logistics Facility, the facilitation of multi-national and regional military drills, and other measures.[3]


  NATO member states
  Partnership for Peace countries
  Mediterranean Dialogue countries
  Contact countries

After the collapse of the Soviet Union, Georgia became an independent nation under the nationalistic leadership of Zviad Gamsakhurdia.[4] Georgia immediately had problems with Russian support of Ossetians in Georgia.[4] Like others, Georgia joined the NATO-run North Atlantic Cooperation Council in 1992 and the Partnership for Peace, signing their agreement on March 23, 1994.[5] In 1996, Georgia submitted their first Individual Partnership Plan, and in 1997 ratified the Status of Forces Agreement. Georgia opened official relations with NATO in 1998 by opening a diplomatic mission and presenting an ambassador. Following more discussions, the first joint military exercises occurred in Poti in 2001, with more in 2002.[6]

The 2003 Rose Revolution replaced Georgian President Eduard Shevardnadze with Mikheil Saakashvili, who has promoted closer ties with western institutions including NATO.[citation needed] In 2004, Georgian forces worked with NATO forces in the International Security Assistance Force in Afghanistan, as part of the election security force.

NATO accession

Georgia's effort to join NATO began in 2005. NATO and Georgia both signed an agreement on the appointment of Partnership for Peace (PfP) liaison officer on February 14, 2005. The liaison office between them came into force then and was assigned to Georgia. On March 2, 2005, the agreement was signed on the provision of the host nation supporting and aiding transit of NATO forces and NATO personnel. On March 6–9, 2006, the IPAP implementation interim assessment team arrived in Tbilisi. On April 13, 2006, the discussion of the assessment report on implementation of the Individual Partnership Action Plan was held at NATO Headquarters, within 26+1 format.[7]

An August 2009 sign seen in downtown Tbilisi promoting Georgia's integration with NATO

Located on the northeastern border of NATO member Turkey, Georgia is the furthest of all countries currently considering NATO membership. Article 10 of the North Atlantic Treaty limits membership extension to European states.[8] Georgia's location on the juncture of continents is a subject of debate, yet similarly positioned Turkey has been a member of NATO since 1952 (but Turkey has a part of its territory clearly in the European continent, over 600 miles to the West and in the European Shores of the Black Sea, while Georgia has traditionally been considered as the northernmost area of Western Asia.)

Russia sees NATO's eastward expansion as a threat against their strategic interests in Europe and has accused the West of having double standards.[9][10] In 2014, prior to its 65th anniversary since its creation, NATO announced that it would not be offering any new countries membership into the organization that year. Analysts confirmed this as a sign that NATO members are becoming skeptical about further Eastern expansion due to worries about Russian retaliation to these new security guarantees so close to is borders.[11]

Georgia believes that membership in NATO is a guarantee of stability to the region by acting as a counterweight to Russia, which it considers a dangerous neighbor. This view was once again confirmed by the referendum in 2008 in which the majority of Georgians voted in favour of NATO membership.[12] In 2006, the Georgian parliament voted unanimously for a bill which calls for the integration of Georgia into NATO. On January 5, 2008 Georgia held a non-binding referendum on NATO membership with 77% voting in favor of joining the organization.[13]

In September 2019, Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov was quoted as saying that if NATO accepts Georgian membership with the article on collective defense covering only Tbilisi-administered territory (i.e., excluding the two Georgian territories Abkhazia and Tskhinvali (aka South Ossetia), both of which are currently occupied by Russia), "we will not start a war, but such conduct will undermine our relations with NATO and with countries who are eager to enter the alliance."[14]

The Bucharest Summit

During the NATO summit in Bucharest, United States and Poland called for Georgia to be allowed to join the Membership Action Plan (MAP). The alliance decided not to offer Georgia a MAP due to opposition from several countries, led by Germany and France, who feared the decision would anger Russia.[15][16] Instead NATO countries assured the Georgian side in a special communiqué that they would eventually join the alliance once the requirement for membership were met.[17] Members further pledged to review the decision in December 2008 at the meeting of NATO foreign ministers.[18]

Responding on April 11, 2008, the head of the Russian military, general Yuri Baluyevsky stated that if Georgia joins NATO, "Russia will take steps aimed at ensuring its interests along its borders and these will not only be military steps, but also steps of a different nature". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Georgia released a statement that said that it was "a demonstration of open aggression against Georgia" and called on the international community to react adequately to this "serious threat".[19]

The NATO communiqué which promised the country eventual membership still angered Moscow. After the summit, Russian president Vladimir Putin vowed support and protection to then-unrecognized republics of Abkhazia and South Ossetia, and even promising to open official Russian representations in the regions — a move which Georgia said violated international law and constituted a direct attack on a sovereign state. A Russian statement said "Any attempts to apply political, economic or, all the more, military pressure on Abkhazia and South Ossetia are hopeless and counterproductive."[20] After the 2008 South Ossetia war, Russia recognized Georgia's two breakaway regions, South Ossetia and Abkhazia, as independent countries.[21]

Russia-Georgia War

During the South Ossetia War, Georgia moved troops back from Iraq

On August 7, 2008, Georgia called for a unilateral ceasefire following days of exchanged gunfire between Georgian forces and South Ossetian separatists. Five and a half hours after Georgia's declared ceasefire, Georgia's Foreign Ministry sent troops into South Ossetia "to restore constitutional order in the entire region"[22] The South Ossetian capital Tskhinvali became the site for a prolonged battle.

Russia responded with a larger assault that quickly moved beyond South Ossetia in Georgia and included the other breakaway region of Abkhazia. This ongoing dispute complicates NATO's relation with Russia, which has peacekeeping troops in both regions, internationally recognized as Georgian territory. The South Ossetia war further diminished the likelihood of Georgian accession to NATO in the near future according to several analysts.[23] Others however see it as a justification for Georgian membership in NATO.[24]

German Chancellor Angela Merkel said during the meeting with Russian president after the signing of a ceasefire agreement that the promise made to Georgia in Bucharest is still standing. However, she did not indicate a time frame, nor did she retract the earlier insistence of Germany and France, that Georgia must resolve its internal problems prior to any NATO membership.[25] As of November 2008, there is not a consensus within NATO on a Georgian Membership Action Plan.[26]


On September 15, 2008 a NATO–Georgia Commission was established.[27]

On April 4, 2009, the NATO heads of state released a joint statement after the Strasbourg–Kehl summit, pledging to maximise their advice, assistance and support for Georgia's and Ukraine's reform efforts. The statement reiterated that the two countries will become NATO members, but did not specify the time. It reaffirmed NATO's "continued support for the territorial integrity and sovereignty of Georgia within its internationally recognised borders". The statement said that Russia has not completely complied with its commitments undertaken under the August 12 and September 8 ceasefire accords and called for Moscow to reverse its recognition of Georgia's breakaway republics of Abkhazia and South Ossetia.[28]

On 21 November 2011, Russian President Dmitry Medvedev while addressing soldiers in Vladikavkaz near the Georgian border stated that the 2008 invasion had prevented any further NATO enlargement into the former Soviet sphere.[29]

In May 2013, Georgian Prime Minister Bidzina Ivanishvili stated that his goal was to get a Membership Action Plan for his country from NATO in 2014.[30] However, in June 2014 NATO officials announced that Georgia would not yet be invited to join the MAP process, but that NATO would implement a "substantive package" of cooperation measures with Georgia.[31]

In December 2017, NATO Secretary General Jens Stoltenberg affirmed the support for Georgia's "eventual NATO membership".[32]

In February 2019, in an interview with Voice of America Ben Hodges, a retired lieutenant-general of United States Army Europe and now working for the defence think tank Center for European Policy Analysis said that Georgia has "nothing left to prove about NATO membership" and "accession of West Germany into NATO is a precedent for Georgia".[33]

In September 2019, Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov was quoted as saying that if NATO accepts Georgian membership with the article on collective defense covering only Tbilisi-administered territory (i.e., excluding the two Georgian territories Abkhazia and Tskhinvali (aka South Ossetia), both of which are currently occupied by Russia), "we will not start a war, but such conduct will undermine our relations with NATO and with countries who are eager to enter the alliance."[14]

NATO-led missions involving Georgia

See also


  1. ^ Press Release (2011) 145. NATO. 7 December 2011. Accessed 3 January 2011.
  2. ^ Georgia, Civil. "Civil.Ge - Presidential 2008". www.civil.ge. Retrieved 13 April 2018.
  3. ^ "Substantial NATO-Georgia Package (SNGP)" (PDF). NATO. Retrieved 10 February 2019.
  4. ^ a b Khutsishvili, George (1994) "Intervention in Transcaucasus" Perspective (Boston University) 4(3): pp. 2-3, 6
  5. ^ "Information on NATO-Georgia Relations". Ministry Of Foreign Affairs Of Georgia. 2007. Archived from the original on 2008-08-27. Retrieved 2008-08-28.
  6. ^ "How did relations with Georgia evolve?". NATO. August 27, 2008. Retrieved 2008-08-28.
  7. ^ Georgia's way to NATO Archived 2008-08-27 at the Wayback Machine
  8. ^ "The North Atlantic Treaty". NATO. 1949-04-04. Retrieved 2008-08-20.
  9. ^ On Russia's perception of NATO threat Archived 2006-11-06 at the Wayback Machine
  10. ^ "Transcript: CNN interview with Vladimir Putin - CNN.com". edition.cnn.com. Retrieved 13 April 2018.
  11. ^ "NATO rules out admitting new members anytime soon". Fox news. Retrieved 7 July 2014.
  12. ^ "Georgians back NATO membership in referendum". Ria Novosti. Retrieved 7 July 2014.
  13. ^ "Georgians back NATO membership in referendum". Sputnik International. RIA Novosti. 11 January 2008. Retrieved 7 April 2015.
  14. ^ a b "Russian FM Lavrov supports resumption of flights to Georgia as Georgians 'realised consequences' of June 20". Agenda.ge. 2019-09-26. Retrieved 2019-09-29.
  15. ^ Ellemann-Jensen, Uffe (April 7, 2008). "Beacon falters in fight for freedom". The Australian.
  16. ^ Prime Minister Francois Fillon -" We think it is not the right response to the balance of power in Europe and between Europe and Russia"[1]
  17. ^ Georgia, Civil. "Civil.Ge - What NATO Summit Declaration Says on Georgia". www.civil.ge. Retrieved 13 April 2018.
  18. ^ BBC, Nato denies Georgia and Ukraine, 03.04.08
  19. ^ Editorial, Reuters. "Russia army vows steps if Georgia and Ukraine join NATO". reuters.com. Retrieved 13 April 2018.
  20. ^ "Russia continues to support the separatist regimes". International Herald Tribune. April 3, 2008. Retrieved 2008-08-28.
  21. ^ http://ap.google.com/article/ALeqM5iUA357W77ndvCMh32VlQqdGj53mAD92PUTOO0[dead link]
  22. ^ "Ossetian crisis: Who started it?". 19 August 2008. Retrieved 13 April 2018 – via news.bbc.co.uk.
  23. ^ Clark, Torrey; Greg Walters (August 8, 2008). "Putin Says `War Has Started,' Georgia Claims Invasion". Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved 2008-08-08.
  24. ^ "The Times & The Sunday Times". thetimes.co.uk. Retrieved 13 April 2018.
  25. ^ "Merkel, Medvedev Clash Over Russia's War in Sochi Talks". Retrieved 2008-08-15.
  26. ^ Dombey, Daniel (November 11, 2008). "US gives way on Nato for Georgia and Ukraine". Financial Times. Retrieved 2008-11-28.
  27. ^ "Framework document on the establishment of the NATO–Georgia Commission". nato.int. Retrieved 13 April 2018.
  28. ^ NATO Press Release: (2009) 044. 04 Apr. 2009
  29. ^ "Russia says Georgia war stopped NATO expansion". Reuters. 21 November 2011.
  30. ^ Kucera, Joshua (2013-05-02). "Ivanishvili: We Will Get NATO MAP in 2014". Retrieved 2013-08-17.
  31. ^ Croft, Adrian (25 June 2014). "NATO will not offer Georgia membership step, avoiding Russia clash". Reuters. Retrieved 26 March 2015.
  32. ^ "NATO Ministers affirm support for Georgia". 6 December 2017. Retrieved 11 December 2017.
  33. ^ "Hodges: accession of West Germany into NATO is a precedent for Georgia". Civil.ge. 2019-02-13. Retrieved 2019-02-14.

External links

This page was last updated at 2019-11-12 06:07, update this pageView original page

All information on this site, including but not limited to text, pictures, etc., are reproduced on Wikipedia (wikipedia.org), following the . Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License


If the math, chemistry, physics and other formulas on this page are not displayed correctly, please useFirefox or Safari