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HCNG

HCNG -CNG emission

HCNG or H2CNG (hydrogen compressed natural gas) is a mixture of compressed natural gas and 4–9 percent hydrogen by energy.[1] It may be used as a fuel gas for internal combustion engines[2][3][4] and home appliances.

(regarding the acronyms in the above emissions chart:

AVL = Average Levels?
CNG = Compressed Natural Gas
HCNG = Hydrogen and CNG blend
NOX = Nitrogen Oxides
NMHC = Non-Methane Hydrocarbons?
CH4 = Methane
THC = Total Hydrocarbons?
CO = Carbon Monoxide)

HCNG dispensers can be found at Hynor (Norway) Thousand palms and Barstow,[5] California, Fort Collins, Colorado (all US), Chongqing[6] and Shanxi (China),[7][8][9] Pico Truncado (Argentina),[10] Islamabad (Pakistan),[11][12] Dunkerque (France),[13][14] Gothenburg Sweden, Rio de Janeiro[15] (Brazil), Emilia-Romagna,[16][17] Lombardia[18][19] (Italy), Dwarka and Faridabad (Delhi), India[20][21][22] and the BC hydrogen highway in Canada.

HCNG for mobile use is premixed at the hydrogen station.

Research

In the town of Nes on the island of Ameland in the Netherlands, a four-year (2008-2011) field test was carried out where 20% hydrogen was added to the local distribution net supplying a complex of 14 apartments.[23] The appliances involved were kitchen stoves, condensing boilers, and micro-CHP boilers.[24]

The use of existing natural gas pipelines for HCNG was studied by NaturalHy.[25]

To get the most out of an internal combustion engine in transportation if higher levels of hydrogen are added, modifications have to be made to the engine and the control strategy.[26][27][28] The hydrogen in the blend leads to lower CO2 emissions.[29]

Codes and standards

The National Fire Protection Association 52 presently covers CNG and hydrogen fueling stations. Blends with < 20% hydrogen by volume are treated identically to CNG.[30] For the use of blends with more than 30[31]-40 % of hydrogen in volume[32] decision support tools[33] for the design are used to ensure safe use.

See also

References

  1. ^ International hydrogen fuel and pressure vessel forum 2010 Archived 2012-09-05 at the Wayback Machine
  2. ^ Test of blends of hydrogen and natural gas in a light-duty vehicle
  3. ^ Development of HCNG blended fuel engine with control of NOx emissions
  4. ^ Hydrogen enriched compressed natural gas
  5. ^ Hydrogen-enhanced natural gas vehicle program
  6. ^ Chongqing Wuzhoulong Works with Tsinghua University for HCNG Buses
  7. ^ Hydrogen-enriched compressed natural gas as a fuel for engines
  8. ^ HCNG in China
  9. ^ Sxgxny (Shanxi)
  10. ^ Argentina’s first HCNG patrol car Archived 2013-01-29 at Archive.today
  11. ^ Prime Minister Syed Yousaf Raza Gillani supports non-stop CNG loading in Pakistan Archived 2013-01-29 at Archive.today
  12. ^ PM dedicate three gas fields for CNG Industry, HCNG to import immediately with zero import duty Archived 2013-01-31 at Archive.today
  13. ^ ALT-HY-TUDE Project Archived 2010-04-01 at the Wayback Machine
  14. ^ Position Paper: Natural gas – hydrogen blends technology
  15. ^ Petrobras and the infrastructure for hydrogen supply in Brazil Archived 2014-07-14 at the Wayback Machine
  16. ^ Hydrogen-methanemixtures: vehicle tests performed by ENEA Archived 2014-07-14 at the Wayback Machine
  17. ^ mhybus
  18. ^ Regione Lombardia: 10 hydromethane Pandas
  19. ^ Italian highway presents first prototype of hydrogen-methane Iveco Ecodaily Archived 2013-01-29 at Archive.today
  20. ^ Successful adoption of CNG and emerging CNG-H2 program in India
  21. ^ Automotive research body develops greener fuel engine for light vehicles
  22. ^ Hydrogen–CNG Fuel To Debut During Games
  23. ^ Pilot project on hydrogen injection in natural gas on island of Ameland
  24. ^ Ameland Field testing
  25. ^ Using the existing natural gas system for hydrogen Archived 2012-01-18 at the Wayback Machine
  26. ^ A study on quasi-dimensional combustion model of a spark ignition HCNG engine suitable for various hydrogen fractions (SAE 2008)
  27. ^ Natural gas vehicle research roadmap -Pag.22
  28. ^ High-percentage hydrogen/cng blend Ford F-150 operating summary
  29. ^ Navarro, Emilio; Leo, Teresa J.; Corral, Roberto (2013). "CO2 emissions from a spark ignition engine operating on natural gas–hydrogen blends (HCNG)". Applied Energy. 101: 112–120. doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2012.02.046. ISSN 0306-2619.
  30. ^ Hydrogen enriched natural gas technology-pag.36
  31. ^ Hydrogen and natural gas blends; Converting light and heavy duty vehicles
  32. ^ Use of blends of hydrogen and natural gas in urban vehicles in the transition towards an hydrogen economy
  33. ^ Decision Support Tool Archived 2013-12-18 at the Wayback Machine

External links


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