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Hmar people Redirected from Hmar

Hmar
(Mar, Mhar, Khawthlang, Khawsak, Old Kuki, )
Hmar Ṭawng
Total population
99,000[1]
Regions with significant populations
Languages
Religion
Related ethnic groups

Hmar are an ethnic Mizo group in northeast India, western Burma and eastern Bangladesh.

Population

According to 2011 Indian Census, there were 98,988 Hmar speakers.[2]

Manipur

In 2011 census, there were 49,081 Hmars in Manipur.[3]

Mizoram

The exact population of the Hmars in Mizoram is not known. In the first census of 1901, there were 10411. However, after 60 years it came down to 3,118 in 1961 and 4,524 in 1971. In 2001 census, 18,155 Hmars were found in Mizoram.[4]

Year-wise Hmar Population in Mizoram. 
CensusPopulation
190110,411
19613,118
19714,52445.1%
198113,102189.6%
199112,535−4.3%
200118,15544.8%
201129,58763.0%
Source:Census of India

Religion

Religion among Assam Hmar[5]
Religion Percent
Christianity
99%
Hinduism
0.48%
Others
0.52%

An overwhelming majority of the Hmar people practice Christianity.

Place of origin

The Hmars trace their origin to Sinlung, the location of which is hotly debated. The term “Hmar” is believed to have originated from the term “Hmerh” meaning “tying of one’s hair in a knot on the nape of one’s head”. According to Hmar tradition, there were once two brothers, namely, Hrumsawm and Tukbemsawm. Hrumsawm, the elder one, used to tie his hair in a knot on his forehead because of a sore on the nape of his neck. After his death, all his descendants followed the same hair style and the Pawis, who live in South Mizoram, are believed to be the progeny of Hrumsawm. The younger brother, Tukbemsawm, however, tied his hair in a knot on the back of his head. The Hmars, who continued Tukbemsawm's hairstyle, are believed to be the descendants of Tukbemsawm (Songate, 1967).

Several theories have been put forward regarding the origin of the Hmars, but it appears historically evident that the Hmars originally came from Central China. A Hmar historian, H. Songate (1956), proposes that the original home of the Hmars might be the present Tailing or Silung in South East China bordering the Shan state of Myanmar. According to Songate (1956), “The Hmars left Sinlung because of the waves of Chinese immigrants and political pressure drove them away to the south. The exact time of departure from Sinlung and the original route they followed is not known to this day. However, traces have been found in poems and legends that they came to the Himalayas, and the great mountains made it impossible for them to continue their southward journey. So, they turned eastward of India from there.”

The Hmars are part of the Chin-Kuki-Mizo groups of people found in North East India, Burma and Chittagong Hill Tracts of Bangladesh. The Hmars still treasure and garner their traditional arts, including folk dance, folk songs, handicrafts, etc., representing scenes of adventure, battle, love, victory, and other experiences throughout history.

The majority of the Hmars were cultivators. The Hmars in South Manipur were introduced to Christianity in the year 1910 by Watkin Roberts, a Welsh missionary.[6]

Political movements

In July 1986, after the signing of the Mizo Accord, some Hmar leaders in Mizoram formed Mizoram Hmar Association, later renamed the Hmar People's Convention (HPC). The HPC spearheaded a political movement for self-governance of the Hmars in Mizoram demanding Autonomous District Council (ADC) comprising Hmar-dominated areas in north and northwest of Mizoram for the protection of their identity, culture, tradition, language and natural resources. To quell and suppress the political movement, the Mizoram government deployed the Mizoram Armed Police (MAP) against the HPC activists which forced the HPC to take up an armed struggle by forming an armed wing, the Hmar Volunteer Cell (HVC). The armed confrontation continued until 1992, when HPC representatives and the Government of Mizoram mutually agreed to hold ministerial-level talks. After multiple rounds of talks, a Memorandum of Settlement (MoS) was signed in Aizawl on 27 July 1994 between the Government of Mizoram and the HPC. Armed cadres of the HPC surrendered along with their weapons in October 1994 and later the Sinlung Hills Development Council (SHDC) was established. Some of the HPC leaders and cadres however rejected Memorandum of Settlement and broke away from the main HPC, and formed the Hmar People's Convention - Democratic (HPC-D), which continued an armed movement for autonomy in the form of Autonomous District Council under the Sixth Schedule to the Constitution of India within Mizoram.[7] Over one hundred militants of HPC-D surrendered with their weapons in April 2018 following a peace pact signed with the Mizoram state government and led to the formation of the Sinlung Hills Council[8]

Literature

  • Dena, Lal; In search of identity: Hmars of North-East India; New Delhi 2008; ISBN 978-81-8370-134-1
  • Allen BC, Gait EA, Allen CGH and Howard HF. Gazetteer of Bengal and North East India. Mittal Publications.New Delhi 1979.
  • Pudaite, Rochunga. 1963. The Education of the Hmar People. Sielmat, Churachandpur. Indo-Burma Pioneer Mission, 1963.
  • Songate, H. 1956. Hmar History-Hmar Chanchin. Imphal: Mao Press.
  • Songate, H. 1967. Hmar Chanchin (Hmar History).Churachandpur: L & R Press.
  • Pakhuongte, Ruolneikhum. 1983. The Power of the Gospel Among the Hmar Tribe. Shillong, Meghalaya: EFCI. Ri Khasi Press, Shillong.
  • Bapui, VLT & Buruah, PN Dutta. 1996. Hmar Grammar. Mysore: Central Institute of Indian Languages. CIIL Press, Mysore.
  • Bapui, Vanlal Tluonga. 2012. Hmar Ṭawng Inchukna (A Lexical Study of the Hmar Language & Usages). Guwahati, Assam: The Assam Institute of Research for Tribals and Scheduled Castes. Hi-Tech Printing & Binding Industries, Guwahati
  • Cassar, T. 2013. Only 36,000.
  • Cassar, T. 2017. Oh God - Now it's 75K (and it's only getting worse)!.
  • Dena, Lal. 1995. Hmar Folk Tales. New Delhi: Scholar Publishing House. Bengal Printing Press, New Delhi ISBN 81-7172-281-4
  • Fimate, L. Thina Râpthlak.
  • Hmar, RH Hminglien. 1997. Hmangaitu Hmel.
  • Hminga, FT. 1991. Hmar Pipu Thilhming Lo Phuokhai. Churachandpur, Manipur: Dr. FT Hminga.
  • Hminga, FT. 1993. Hmar Ṭawng Indiklem. Churachandpur, Manipur: Dr. FT Hminga.
  • Hminga, FT. 1994. Hming Umzie Neihai. Churachandpur, Manipur: Dr. FT Hminga.
  • Hrangate, HC. 1996. Pathien Kut.
  • Lalhmuoklien, 2009. Gospel Through Darkness. Churachandpur, Manipur: Rev. Dr. Lalmuoklien. SMART tech Offset Printers, Churachandpur
  • Ngurte, SN. 1991. Damlai Thlaler.
  • Ngurte, SN. 1994. Rengchawnghawi.
  • Ngurte, SN. 1995. Kanaan Phaizawl. HL Lawma & Sons Publication.
  • Pudaite, Jonathan. 2011. The Legacy of Watkin R. Roberts.
  • Pudaite, Mawii. 1982. Beyond The Next Mountain: The Story of Rochunga Pudaite. Tyndale House Publishers.
  • Pudaite, Rochunga. 1985, The Dime That Lasted Forever. Carol Stream, Illinois: Tyndale House Publishers.
  • Pudaite, Rochunga. 2008. English-Hmar Dictionary. Partnership Publishing House.
  • Pudaite, Rochunga. 2011. Ka Hring Nun Vol-1. Thomson Press, Harayana.
  • Pudaite, Rosiem. 2002. Indian National Struggle for Freedom and its Impact on the Mizo Movement (1935-1953 AD).
  • Pulamte, John H. 2011. Hmar Bûngpui. Imphal, Manipur: Dr. John H. Pulamte. BCPW, Imphal.
  • Ruolngul, Darsanglien. 2009. The Advance of the Gospel (Part One). Churachandpur, Manipur: Rev. Darsanglien Ruolngul. SMART * tech Offset Printers, Churachandpur.
  • Ruolngul. Darsanglien. 2013. Kohran. Churachandpur, Manipur: ICI. Diamond Offset, Churachandpur.
  • Sanate, Ngurthangkhum. 1984. Ngurte Pahnam Chanchin. Churachandpur, Manipur/
  • Sawngate, Thangsawihmang. 2012. Hmangaina Parbâwr. Churachandpur, Manipur.
  • Sinate, Lalthankhum. 2001. Kohran Hring.
  • Thangsiem, JC. Zilsi Varzan. Rengkai, Churachandpur.
  • Ṭhiek, Hrilrokhum. 2013. History of the Hmars in North East India, Guwahati, Assam: Rev. Hrilrokhum Ṭhiek, Bhabani Offset Private Ltd., Guwahati.
  • Ṭhiek, Hrilrokhum. 1996. Maichâma Mei Chu Sukchawk Zing Ding A Nih.
  • Thuomte, H. 2001. Joute Pahnam Inthladan (Joute Genealogy). Churachandpur, Manipur
  • Various. 2008. Lal Remruot - Saidan Chanchin. Delhi. Hmanglien & Sons. Rai's Ad-venture, Delhi.
  • Zaneisang, H. 2003. Sinlung. Churachandpur, Manipur: H. Zaneisang. Diamond Offset, Churachandpur.
  • Zote, Timothy Z. 2007. Manmasi Year Book (Vol-II), Churachandpur, Manipur: Manmasi Year Book Editorial Board. BCPW, Imphal.
  • Sungte, Robert L. 2007. Impact of Religious Journals on the Hmar tribe in Manipur, Karnataka. Mangalore University, Mangalore.
  • Varte, Immanuel Zarzosang. 2016. Revisiting Sikpui Ruoi of the Hmar Tribe. Anthropology Today. Vol. 1, No. 2. ISSN 2454-2709. Pp. 60–72.
  • Varte, Immanuel Zarzosang. 2017. In Search of the “Holy” Confluence: A Journey to the Barak River. In: Queenbala Marak (Ed) “Doing Autoethnography”. Serials Publications: New Delhi. ISBN 978-81-8387-672-8. Pp. 268–285.
  • Varte, Immanuel Zarzosang & Lalthakim Hmar (ed). 2016. Highland Musing. 2016. IndigeNE: Imphal. ISBN 978-93-85790-02-7.
  • Varte, Immanuel Zarzosang & Lalthakim Hmar (ed). 2016. Sinlung Sermei. IndigeNE: Imphal. ISBN 978-93-85790-03-4.
  • Varte, Immanuel Zarzosang. 2014. Hmar at the Crossroads. IndigeNE: Imphal. ISBN 978-81-905939-8-4.
  • Varte, Immanuel Zarzosang. 2014. Culture and Development: Hmar of Tipaimukh in Transition. IndigeNE: Imphal. ISBN 978-81-905939-9-1.
  • Varte, Immanuel Zarzosang. 2019. Ruolevaisuo a Hohlimna Thusim Thlirletna. 2019. In: Nunhlui-II (Hmar MIL Textbook for TDC Third Semester), Assam University, Silchar, Hmar Literature Society, Assam.
  • Varte, Immanuel Zarzosang. 2014. Traditional concepts on honour, wealth, happiness and self-reliance vis-á-vis planned development: Case of the Hmars. In: Aheibam Koireng Singh, Amol Sanasam and Sushma Phurailatpam (Ed) “Knowing Manipur from Endogenous Perspective”. Centre for Manipur Studies, Manipur University and Indian Council of Social Science Research: Imphal. Vol. 2. ISBN 978-93-83201-11-2. Pp. 451−460.
  • Varte, Immanuel Zarzosang. 2011. Indigenous Knowledge System, Identity, Freedom and Tipaimukh Dam: An Anthropological Perspective. In: Lal Dena (Ed) “Dialogue on Tipaimukh Dam”. Akansha Publishing House: New Delhi. ISBN 978-81-8370-288-1. Pp. 142−151.
  • Varte, Immanuel Zarzosang & R. Th. Varte. 2017. Hmar Traditional Practices in Conflict Resolution: An Anthropological Perspective. In: Melvil Pereira, Bitopi Dutta and Binita Kakati (Ed) “Legal Pluralism and Indian Democracy: Tribal Conflict Resolution Systems in Northeast India”. Routledge: New York. Print ISBN 978-11-3823-0781; eText ISBN 978-13-5140-366-5.
  • Varte, Immanuel Zarzosang. 2005. Pre-historical Heritage of Ruong Le Vaisuo. “Hmar Arasi”. Souvenir on the occasion of Cultural Festival-cum-Sikpui Ruoi, 2 – 5 December & 50th General Assembly-cum-Literary Meet, 15 – 16 December. Hmar Students Association General Headquarters: Churachandpur. Pp. 96–99.

Notable people

See also

References

  1. ^ "Hmar". Ethnologue. Retrieved 6 April 2020.
  2. ^ "Languages Not Specified In The Eighth Schedule (Non-scheduled Languages)" (PDF). censusindia.gov.in. Retrieved 6 April 2020.
  3. ^ "C-16 Population By Mother Tongue". censusindia.gov.in. Retrieved 21 March 2021.
  4. ^ "MIZORAM DATA HIGHLIGHTS : THE SCHEDULED TRIBES Census of India 2001" (PDF). censusindia.gov.in. Retrieved 6 April 2020.
  5. ^ mad, mad. "Census of India - Socio-cultural aspects, Table ST-14". Census of India, 2001 - Socio-cultural Aspects. Government of India, Ministry of Home Affairs. Not available online. Available only on CD.
  6. ^ Impact of Religious Journal on the Hmar Tribe in Manipur
  7. ^ "Hmar Struggles for Autonomy in Mizoram, India". Ritimo (in French). Retrieved 17 May 2018.
  8. ^ "103 HPC-D militants to surrender today : Nagaland Post". www.nagalandpost.com. Retrieved 13 April 2018.

External links


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