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I (Cyrillic)

Cyrillic letter I
Cyrillic letter I - uppercase and lowercase.svg
Phonetic usage:[i], [ɪ]
Numeric value:8
The Cyrillic script
Slavic letters
АБВГҐДЂ
ЃЕЀЁЄЖЗ
З́ЅИЍЙІЇ
ЈКЛЉМНЊ
ОŌПРСС́Т
ЋЌУӮЎФХ
ЦЧЏШЩЪЫ
ЬЭЮЯ
Non-Slavic letters
А́А̀ӐА̄А̊А̃Ӓ
Ӓ̄ӔӘӘ́Ә̃ӚВ̌
ҒГ̑Г̣Г̌ҔӺҒ̌
ӶД̣Д̆ӖЕ̄Е̃Ё̄
Є̈ӁҖӜҘӞЗ̌
З̱З̣ԐԐ̈ӠӢИ̃
ҊӤИ́ҚӃҠҞ
ҜК̣ԚӅԮԒӍ
ӉҢԨӇҤО́О̀
О̆О̂О̃ӦӦ̄ӨӨ̄
Ө́Ө̆ӪҨԤР̌Ҏ
ҪС̣С̱Т̌Т̣ҬУ̃
ӰӰ́ӲҮҮ́ҰХ̣
Х̱Х̮Х̑ҲӼӾҺ
Һ̈ԦҴҶӴӋҸ
ҼҾЫ̆Ы̄ӸҌЭ̆
Э̄Э̇ӬӬ́Ӭ̄Ю̆Ю̈
Ю̈́Ю̄Я̆Я̄Я̈ԜӀ
Archaic letters
ҀѺ
ОУѠѼѾ
ѢѤѦ
ѪѨѬѮ
ѰѲѴѶԘ
ԀԔԖԠԢ
Ҧ
ԂԄԈԊԌ
ԎԆԞ
ԘԪԬГ̧Г̄

I (И и; italics: И и) is a letter used in almost all Cyrillic alphabets.

It commonly represents the close front unrounded vowel /i/, like the pronunciation of ⟨i⟩ in "machine", or the near-close near-front unrounded vowel /ɪ/, like the pronunciation of ⟨i⟩ in "bin".

History

Because the Cyrillic letter І was derived from the Greek letter Eta (Η η), the Cyrillic ⟨И⟩ had the shape of ⟨H⟩ up to the 13th century.

The name of the Cyrillic letter І in the Early Cyrillic alphabet was ижє (iže), meaning "which".

In the Cyrillic numeral system, the Cyrillic letter І had a value of 8, corresponding to the Greek letter Eta.

In the Early Cyrillic alphabet, there was little or no distinction between the letter ⟨И⟩ and the letter ⟨І⟩, the latter of which was derived from the Greek letter Iota (Ι ι). Both remained in the alphabetical repertoire because they represented different numbers in the Cyrillic numeral system: eight and ten.

They now co-exist in Church Slavonic, with no pronunciation difference, and in Ukrainian, with different pronunciations. Other modern orthographies for Slavic languages eliminated one of the two letters in alphabet reforms of the 19th or the 20th centuries. Russian, Macedonian, Serbian and Bulgarian languages use only ⟨И⟩, and Belarusian uses only ⟨І⟩.

Form

Originally, Cyrillic ⟨И⟩ had the shape identical to the capital Greek letter Eta ⟨Η⟩. The middle stroke was later turned counterclockwise, which resulted in the modern form resembling a mirrored capital Latin letter N ⟨N⟩ and so ⟨И⟩ is used in faux Cyrillic typography. Howecer, the style of the two letters is not fully identical: in roman fonts, ⟨И⟩ has heavier vertical strokes and serifs on all four corners, and ⟨N⟩ has a heavier diagonal stroke and lacks a serif on the bottom-right corner.

In roman and oblique fonts, the lowercase letter ⟨и⟩ has the same shape as the uppercase letter ⟨И⟩. In italic fonts, the lowercase letter ⟨И⟩ looks like the italic form of the lowercase Latin U u. Both uppercase and lowecase handwritten forms of the Cyrillic letter I look like handwritten forms of the Latin letter U.

Usage

Since the 1930s, ⟨и⟩ has been the tenth letter of the Russian alphabet, and in Russian, it represents /i/, like the i in machine, except after some consonants (see below). In Russian, the letter typically denotes a preceding soft consonant and so is considered the soft counterpart to ⟨ы⟩, which represents [ɨ]. However, unlike other "soft" vowels (⟨е⟩, ⟨ё⟩, ⟨ю⟩ and ⟨я⟩), ⟨и⟩ in isolation is not preceded by the /j/ semivowel. In Russian, the letter could be combined in the digraph ⟨ио⟩ (like ⟨ьо⟩, ⟨їô⟩ and ⟨iо⟩) to represent ⟨ё⟩ before it started around 1783. Apparent confusion has remained in the transcription of some foreign words.

⟨И⟩ is pronounced [ɨ] in ⟨жи⟩ (sounds like ⟨жы⟩ [ʐɨ]), ⟨ши⟩ (sounds like ⟨шы⟩ [ʂɨ]) and ⟨ци⟩ (sounds like ⟨цы⟩ [t͡sɨ]) because in Russian, the sound [i] cannot be pronounced after "zh" ⟨ж⟩, "sh" ⟨ш⟩, and "ts" ⟨ц⟩.

In the Bulgarian Cyrillic alphabet ⟨и⟩ is the ninth letter. It represents the sound /i/ and also occurs with a grave accent, ѝ, to distinguish orthographically the conjunction ⟨и⟩ ("and") and the short form of the indirect object ⟨ѝ⟩ ("her").

In Kazakh, ⟨И⟩ is used for /əj/ and /ɪj/ in native words and for /i/ in loanwords, and ⟨І⟩ is used for /ɪ/ in native words.

In Belarussian, the letter (и) is not used at all, and the sound /i/ is represented by the letter ⟨і⟩, which is also known as Belorusian-Ukrainian I.

The letter ⟨И⟩ is the eleventh letter of the Ukrainian alphabet and represents the sound [ɪ], a separate phoneme in Ukrainian. The Ukrainian ⟨и⟩ can be transliterated to other languages that use the Cyrillic script by either ⟨и⟩ and ⟨ы⟩ because of the lack of a uniform transliteration rule. Speakers of other Slavic languages can perceive Ukrainian [ɪ] as [i], [ɨ], or sometimes even [e] (see Ukrainian phonology for more on the pronunciation of [ɪ]). The sound [i] in Ukrainian is represented by the letter ⟨і⟩, just as in Belarussian.

In the Serbian Cyrillic alphabet, ⟨и⟩ is the tenth letter of the alphabet. In Serbian, the letter represents /i/, like the i in machine. In the Serbian Latin alphabet, the sound is represented by "I/i".

In Macedonian, ⟨и⟩ is the eleventh letter of the alphabet and represents the sound /i/.

It is transliterated from Russian as ⟨i⟩ or from Ukrainian as ⟨y⟩ or ⟨i⟩, depending on the romanization system. (See romanization of Russian and romanization of Ukrainian for more details.)

In Tuvan, the letter can be written as a double vowel.[1][2]

It is often seen in Faux Cyrillic as a substitute for the letter N in the Latin alphabet.

Accented forms and derived letters

The vowel that is represented by ⟨и⟩ can, as is the case for almost any other Slavonic vowel, be stressed or unstressed. The stressed variant is sometimes (in special texts like dictionaries or to prevent ambiguity) graphically marked by the acute, grave, the double grave, or the circumflex accent.

Special Serbian texts also use ⟨и⟩ with a macron to represent long unstressed variant of the sound. Serbian ⟨и⟩ with a circumflex can be unstressed as well, which then represents the plural form of the genitive case to distinguish from other similar forms.

Modern Church Slavonic orthography uses the smooth breathing sign (Greek and Church Slavonic: psili, Latin: spiritus lenis) above the initial vowels (for tradition alone since there is no difference in pronunciation). It can be combined with acute or grave accents if necessary.

None of those combinations is considered to be a separate letter of respective alphabet, but one of them (⟨Ѝ⟩) has an individual code position in Unicode.

⟨И⟩ with a breve forms the letter ⟨й⟩ for the consonant /j/ or a similar semivowel, like the y in English "yes." The form has been used regularly in Church Slavonic since the 16th century, but it officially became a separate letter of alphabet only much later (1918 in Russian in 1918). The original name of ⟨й⟩ was I s kratkoy ('I with the short [line]'), later I kratkoye ('short I') in Russian. It is known similarly as I kratko in Bulgarian but as Yot in Ukrainian.

Cyrillic alphabets of non-Slavic languages have additional ⟨и⟩-based letters like ⟨Ӥ⟩ or ⟨Ӣ⟩.

Related letters and similar characters

Computing codes

Character information
Preview И и
Unicode name CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER I CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER I
Encodings decimal hex decimal hex
Unicode 1048 U+0418 1080 U+0438
UTF-8 208 152 D0 98 208 184 D0 B8
Numeric character reference И И и и
Named character reference И и
KOI8-R and KOI8-U 233 E9 201 C9
Code page 855 184 B8 183 B7
Code page 866 136 88 168 A8
Windows-1251 200 C8 232 E8
ISO-8859-5 184 B8 216 D8
Macintosh Cyrillic 136 88 232 E8

References

  1. ^ "Tuvan language, alphabet and pronunciation". omniglot.com. Retrieved 14 June 2016.
  2. ^ Campbell, George L.; King, Gareth (24 July 2013). Compendium of the World's Languages. Routledge. ISBN 9781136258459. Retrieved 14 June 2016 – via Google Books.

External links

  • The dictionary definition of И at Wiktionary
  • The dictionary definition of и at Wiktionary

This page was last updated at 2021-05-31 00:01, update this pageView original page

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