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Immigration to Russia

Immigration to Russia involves foreign citizens seeking permanent residence in the territory of the Russian Federation. The standard immigration procedure consists of the following steps: obtaining a temporary residence permit; obtaining a permanent residence permit and obtaining Russian citizenship.[1] Under current law, one can receive citizenship of Russia after five years of residence and after passing an exam in Russian language. Immigration to Russia is regulated by the Main Directorate for Migration Affairs.[2] Immigration plays an important role in modern Russian demographic processes, accounting for the increase in the population from 2011.[3]

Russia maintains one of the world's most liberal immigration policies; anyone who works in Russia for five years and develops fluency in the Russian language can become a citizen, provided he or she has not committed a crime. Almost anyone who is hired by a Russian firm can stay in the country and work indefinitely [4] This reflects a policy change, in response to declining birth rates, on the part of the government of Vladimir Putin from the more restrictive policy enacted after the 1991 dissolution of the Soviet Union.[5] The large non-Slavic immigrant populations arriving in response to Putin's liberal policy have sometimes encountered xenophobia. To counter this, pursuant to Russian hate-speech laws, the Russian state has shut down various anti-immigrant groups, such as the Movement Against Illegal Immigration.

Russian-language native-speakers, those married to Russian citizens, highly-qualified specialists, businessmen and refugees are eligible for a simplified immigration procedure. It allows gaining citizenship in 3 years (instead of 5 under the standard procedure) or sometimes skipping temporary or permanent residency.[6]

Statistics

Recent trends

Countries with at least 1,000 persons, immigrating each year.[7][8]
Country Gross immigration Net immigration
2000 2005 2010 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2000 2005 2010 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
Ukraine Ukraine 74,748 30,760 27,508 194,810 178,274 150,182 137,776 161,351 39,147 18,120 21,230 146,131 118,819 47,691 14,822 64,245
Tajikistan Tajikistan 11,043 4,717 18,188 47,638 52,676 63,467 67,929 89,553 9,885 4,283 17,494 11,362 27,288 34,639 31,028 48,374
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan 124,903 51,945 27,862 65,750 69,356 71,680 72,141 86,311 106,990 39,508 20,533 34,767 37,130 32,736 26,516 39,166
Armenia Armenia 15,951 7,581 19,890 45,670 43,929 46,898 46,442 71,984 14,432 6,961 19,192 20,533 11,993 13,999 14,358 35,109
Uzbekistan Uzbekistan 40,810 30,436 24,100 74,242 60,977 64,073 55,378 60,796 37,724 29,841 23,266 −20,668 19,672 22,167 6,807 19,129
Kyrgyzstan Kyrgyzstan 15,536 15,592 20,901 26,045 28,202 41,165 44,408 53,810 13,679 15,119 20,260 9,935 11,043 19,355 8,978 15,106
Azerbaijan Azerbaijan 14,906 4,600 14,500 24,326 24,109 25,602 26,690 34,619 11,719 3,326 13,389 10,660 10,439 8,599 8,737 17,005
Moldova Moldova 11,652 6,569 11,814 34,026 32,418 31,369 30,676 26,513 9,415 5,783 11,197 17,380 14,364 9,605 7,688 5,385
Belarus Belarus 10,274 6,797 4,894 17,741 14,590 21,282 19,045 18,428 −3,002 763 1,995 4,909 2,127 11,770 7,191 6,283
China China 1,121 432 1,380 9,043 8,027 8,237 7,067 15,306 463 −24 1,132 −778 −810 637 −477 6,679
Turkmenistan Turkmenistan 6,738 4,104 2,283 6,539 7,242 8,734 10,509 14,632 6,062 3,979 2,178 2,320 2,418 2,873 2,951 6,198
Georgia (country) Georgia
*Abkhazia (disp. status)
*South Ossetia (disp. status)
20,213

5,497

5,245
814
33
7,038
2,267
342
6,511
2,261
216
6,809
2,357
270
6,345
1,975
260
6,925
1,429
110
18,411
-
-
4,806
-
-
4,786
732
23
3,309
1,272
-282
2,294
1,240
83
2,586
1,975
180
2,031
1,975
96
2,840
147
-4
India India 203 54 110 2,894 4,768 5,622 5,032 9,588 41 93 1,282 1,421 1,437 −185 4,326
Vietnam Vietnam 182 114 921 4,012 3,735 3,912 3,981 6,742 149 69 889 1,004 394 1,194 684 3,461
Egypt Egypt 23 19 92 394 582 962 1,165 2,977
Germany Germany 1,753 3,025 2,621 3,976 4,153 3,704 3,247 2,631 −38,690 −18,433 −1,104 −555 −541 −668 −1,962 −1,677
Syria Syria 358 68 150 1,221 1,107 1,370 1,270 2,388 304 14 128 190 352 704 328 1,372
Turkey Turkey 164 86 562 2,091 1,626 1,600 1,765 2,283 60 1 415 −109 312 381 672 804
Morocco Morocco 131 38 72 1,059 1,303 1,808 1,707 1,833
Afghanistan Afghanistan 288 60 236 831 846 1,183 1,206 1,820 263 49 222 219 270 637 570 910
Iraq Iraq 42 36 94 652 955 965 773 1,769
North Korea North Korea 32 5 59 6,079 7,377 6,031 1,786 1,593 −15 0 44 −401 1,300 −793 −4,252 −313
Latvia Latvia 1,785 726 811 1,533 1,428 1,432 1,259 1,420 1,462 515 672 587 502 433 235 428
Mongolia Mongolia 95 31 43 282 264 227 198 1,223
Total 359,330 177,230 191,656 598,617 575,158 589,033 565,685 701,234 213,610 107,432 158,078 245,384 261,948 211,878 124,854 285,103

Foreign population

As of June 2019, there are 10.13 million foreigners residing in the Russian Federation (up from 9.63 million in 2018 and 9.96 million in 2017), with the vast majority (85%) being citizens of CIS countries. Central Asians make up the most numerous group, followed by Ukrainian citizens. Temporary migration from Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan increased after a marked decline in 2015-2016. Two countries—Moldova and Ukraine—have steadily demonstrated a decrease in the number of migrants.[9]

Foreign residents from the CIS in Russia:[9]

Country of origin Population (2019) 2018–2019
change
 Uzbekistan 2,188,835 Increase +171,005
 Ukraine 1,763,930 Decrease -177,519
 Tajikistan 1,303,302 Increase +179,348
 Kyrgyzstan 716,118 Increase +77,383
 Belarus 655,846 Increase +38,213
 Azerbaijan 650,495 Increase +42,759
 Kazakhstan 496,096 Increase +36,839
 Armenia 491,767 Decrease -13,068
 Moldova 326,178 Decrease -49,390

Foreign residents from selected EU countries and the US:

Country of origin Population (2019) 2018–2019
change
 Germany 92,997 Decrease -3,036
 Finland 53,880 Decrease -5,232
 United States 37,160 Decrease -1,574
 France 30,736 Increase +3,255
 Italy 22,155 Decrease -315
 United Kingdom 16,752 Decrease -3,394
 Spain 12,938 Decrease -148

Citizenship of immigrants as of 4 March 2015:[10]

1  Ukraine 2,552,884
2  Uzbekistan 2,131,300
3  Tajikistan 963,489
4  Kazakhstan 626,594
5  Azerbaijan 562,787
6  Moldova 557,592
7  Belarus 529,953
8  Kyrgyzstan 523,221
9  Armenia 484,892
10  Germany 238,293
11  China 236,932
12  United States 141,115
13  United Kingdom 109,930
14  Turkey 103,395
15  Finland 68,963
16  Italy 52,541
17  France 50,622
18  Vietnam 49,465
19  Spain 45,445
20  Philippines 40,168
21  Lithuania 37,443
22  North Korea 33,336
23  Canada 31,916
24  Georgia 31,076
25  India 30,617
26  Israel 29,589
27  Serbia 29,499
28  Poland 27,591
29  South Korea 26,838
30  Latvia 26,677
31  Australia 25,809
32  Estonia 25,599
33  Japan 25,360
34  Turkmenistan 24,340
35  Brazil 23,958
36  Netherlands 21,093
37  Mongolia 15,749
38  Austria 14,588
39   Switzerland 14,233
40  Thailand 14,087
41  Mexico 12,478
42  Argentina 10,674
43  Sweden 10,587
44  Belgium 10,485
45  Greece 9,841
46  Denmark 9,554
47  Singapore 9,433
48  Iran 8,672
49  Bulgaria 8,543
50  Afghanistan 8,520

See also

References

  1. ^ Immigrate to Russia https://www.immigratetorussia.com/russian-residence-permit-2/
  2. ^ "На просторах России". Retrieved 15 February 2016.
  3. ^ "Demographics". Retrieved 15 February 2016.
  4. ^ Malakhov, Vladimir S. (9 August 2014). "Russia as a New Immigration Country: Policy Response and Public Debate" (PDF). Europe-Asia Studies. 66 (7): 1062–1079. doi:10.1080/09668136.2014.934140. ISSN 0966-8136. S2CID 153983927. Retrieved 3 October 2018.
  5. ^ Ragozin, Leonid (13 March 2017). "Russia Wants Immigrants the World Doesn't". www.bloomberg.com. Retrieved 15 July 2018.
  6. ^ How to Immigrate to Russia // SDV Consulting, Inc. Retrieved on 22.04.2020.
  7. ^ "Migration of the people" at gks.ru (Russian Statistical Bureau) website.
  8. ^ Demography. "International migration" at gks.ru (Russian Statistical Bureau) website.
  9. ^ a b "Мониторинг экономической ситуации в России" (PDF). Retrieved 8 July 2020.
  10. ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20150316142557/http://www.fms.gov.ru/about/statistics/data/details/54891/



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