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Irantxe language

Irantxe
Irántxe-Münkü
Manoki
Native toBrazil
RegionMato Grosso
Ethnicity400 Irantxe and Mỹky (Manoki) (2019) [1]
Native speakers
8 (2019) [2]
Dialects
  • Münkü
Language codes
ISO 639-3irn
Glottologiran1263[3]

Irantxe (Iranxe, Iranshe), also known as Münkü (Mỹky), is an indigenous American language that is spoken in Mato Grosso, Brazil, by about 200 people. It is generally left unclassified due to lack of data. The most recent descriptions treat it as a language isolate, saying that it "bears no similarity with other language families" (Arruda 2003), though this may not be based on new data (Monserrat 2010).

Monserrat (2010) is a well-reviewed grammar.

Status

As of 2011, the 280 Irantxe (Iránxe, Iranche, Manoki, Munku) have largely assimilated to Brazilian culture. Most are monolingual in Portuguese, and the remaining Irantxe speakers are over 50 years old. A splinter group, the Mỹky (Mynky, Münkü, Munku, Menku, Kenku, Myy), however, moved to escape assimilation, and were isolated until 1971. As of 2011, there were 80 ethnic Mỹky, all of whom spoke the language.

Locations:[4]

  • Mỹky: approximately 70 people in an isolated village at the headwaters of the Escondido Creek, in the municipality of Brasnorte, Mato Grosso
  • Irantxe: approximately 200 people in Cravari village, on the Cravari River (a tributary of the Do Sangue River) in the municipality of Diamantino, Mato Grosso

Language contact

Jolkesky (2016) notes that there are lexical similarities with the Arawak, Tupi, Chapakura-Wañam, Nambikwara, and Yanomami language families due to contact.[5]

An automated computational analysis (ASJP 4) by Müller et al. (2013)[6] also found lexical similarities between Irantxe and Nambikwaran due to contact.

Phonology

Monserrat posits a series of palatalized stops. For several reasons, however, reviewer D’Angelis (2011) suggests these are simply /Cj/ sequences.

Bilabial Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n
Stop p t k ʔ
Fricative s h
Approximant w l~r j

/m/ is optionally [mb] word initially, especially among the Irantxe: muhu [mbuhu], mjehy [mbjɛhɨ]. /s/ is pronounced [ʃ] before /j/. [r] and [l] are in free variation.

There are 28 vowels: Seven qualities, /i ɨ u ɛ ə ɔ a/, all appear long, short, and nasalized. The schwa, however, alternates with /ɛ/ in many words.

Syllables may be CjVC, though words may not end in a consonant. The role of tone is not clear.

Vocabulary

Loukotka (1968) lists the following basic vocabulary items.[7]

gloss Iranshe
one yamachí
two numá
head pemã
tongue akirente
hand mimãchxi
woman ekipu
water manaː
sun ileheː
maize kuratu
white nakatá

For a more extensive vocabulary list of Irantxe by Holanda (1960),[8] see the corresponding Portuguese article.

References

  1. ^ "Irántxe (Manoki Tribe)". Vice.
  2. ^ "Irántxe (Manoki Tribe)". Vice.
  3. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Irántxe-Münkü". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  4. ^ Monserrat, Ruth Maria Fonini and Elizabeth R. Amarante. 1995. Dicionário Mỹky-Português. Rio de Janeiro: Editora Sepeei/SR-5/UFRJ. 48 f.
  5. ^ Jolkesky, Marcelo Pinho de Valhery (2016). Estudo arqueo-ecolinguístico das terras tropicais sul-americanas (Ph.D. dissertation) (2 ed.). Brasília: University of Brasília.
  6. ^ Müller, André, Viveka Velupillai, Søren Wichmann, Cecil H. Brown, Eric W. Holman, Sebastian Sauppe, Pamela Brown, Harald Hammarström, Oleg Belyaev, Johann-Mattis List, Dik Bakker, Dmitri Egorov, Matthias Urban, Robert Mailhammer, Matthew S. Dryer, Evgenia Korovina, David Beck, Helen Geyer, Pattie Epps, Anthony Grant, and Pilar Valenzuela. 2013. ASJP World Language Trees of Lexical Similarity: Version 4 (October 2013).
  7. ^ Loukotka, Čestmír (1968). Classification of South American Indian languages. Los Angeles: UCLA Latin American Center.
  8. ^ Holanda Pereira, Adalberto. 1960. Vocabulário da língua dos índios irántxe. Revista de Antropologia 12:105-115.

Further reading

  • Meader, R. E. (1967). Iranxe: Notas Grammaticais e Lista Vocabular. (Publicacações: Série Diversos Lingüística, 2.) Brasil: Museu Nacional, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro.
  • Monserrat, R. F.; Amarante, E. R. (1995). Dicionário Mỹky-Português. Rio de Janeiro: Editora Sepeei/SR-5/UFRJ.
  • Monserrat, Ruth. 2010. A lingua do povo Myky.
  • D’Angelis, Wilmar. 2011. Review of Monserrat (2010). LIAMES – Línguas Indígenas Ameríndias, vol 10.
  • Anonby, Stan. 2009. A Report on the Irantxe and Myky.
  • Fabre, Alain. 2005. Diccionario etnolingüístico y guía bibliográfica de los pueblos indígenas sudamericanos: Iránxe.[1]
  • Arruda, Rinaldo. 2003. Iranxe Manoki. Instituto Socioambiental.
  • Dixon & Alexandra Y. Aikhenvald (eds.), The Amazonian languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999. ISBN 0-521-57021-2.

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