Ishin-denshin (以心伝心) is a Japanese idiom[1] which denotes a form of interpersonal communication through unspoken mutual understanding. This four-character compound (or yojijukugo) literally translates as "what the mind thinks, the heart transmits". Sometimes translated into English as "telepathy" or "sympathy", ishin-denshin is also commonly rendered as "heart-to-heart communication" or "tacit understanding".[2]

Although silent understanding is generally recognized as a universal human phenomenon, the term ishin-denshin is often used to convey a style of nonverbal communication between two people that is felt by some Japanese to be characteristic of Japanese culture.[3] Whereas the Japanese concept of haragei denotes a deliberate form of nonverbal communication, ishin-denshin refers to a passive form of shared understanding. Ishin-denshin is traditionally perceived by the Japanese as sincere, silent communication via the heart or belly (i.e. symbolically from the inside, uchi), as distinct from overt communication via the face and mouth (the outside, soto), which is seen as being more susceptible to insincerities.[3] The introduction of this concept to Japan (via China) is related to the traditions of Zen Buddhism, where the term ishin-denshin refers to direct mind transmission.[3][4] Zen Buddhism tradition, in turn, draws the concept of ishin-denshin from the first Dharma transmission between Gautama Buddha and Mahākāśyapa in the Flower Sermon.[5][6]

Ishin-denshin, or non-verbal communication, continues to influence aspects of contemporary Japanese culture and ethics,[7] ranging from business practices[8] to end-of-life care.[9]

See also


  1. ^ Maynard, Michael L; Maynard, Senko K; Taki (1993). 101 Japanese Idioms: Understanding Japanese Language and Culture Through Popular Phrases. McGraw Hill Professional. p. 113. ISBN 978-0-8442-8496-5.
  2. ^ Cheung, King-Kok (1993). Articulate Silences: Hisaye Yamamoto, Maxine Hong Kingston, Joy Kogawa. Cornell University Press. p. 146. ISBN 978-0-8014-8147-5. Retrieved 29 July 2012.
  3. ^ a b c Davies, Roger J.; Ikeno, Osamu (March 15, 2002). The Japanese Mind: Understanding Contemporary Japanese Culture. Tuttle Publishing. pp. 52–54, 105. ISBN 978-0-8048-3295-3. Retrieved July 28, 2012.
  4. ^ Baroni, Helen Josephine (2002). The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Zen Buddhism. The Rosen Publishing Group. p. 156. ISBN 978-0-8239-2240-6. Retrieved July 28, 2012.
  5. ^ Shore, Jeff (1998). "THE SOURCE OF ZEN: WHO TRANSMITS WHAT?" (PDF).
  6. ^ Durix, Claude (1991). Cent Clés pour Comprendre le Zen. Le Courrier du Livre. p. 43. ISBN 978-2-7029-0261-5.
  7. ^ Murata, K (2010). "Knowledge Creation and Sharing in Japanese Organisations: A Socio-Cultural Perspective on ba". In Morais da Costa; Jorge Goncalo (eds.). Ethical Issues and Social Dilemmas in Knowledge Management: Organizational Innovation: Organizational Innovation. IGI Global. p. 10. ISBN 978-1-61520-874-6.
  8. ^ Dougherty, Andrew J (1991). Japan: 2000. Rochester Institute of Technology. p. 17.
  9. ^ Slingsby, Brian Taylor (2005). "The nature of relative subjectivity: a reflexive mode of thought". The Journal of Medicine and Philosophy. 30 (1): 9–25. doi:10.1080/03605310590907039. PMID 15814365.

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