wanweipedia

Jê languages

Jê–Kaingang, Gê, Ye
EthnicityGê peoples
Geographic
distribution
Brazil
Linguistic classificationMacro-Jê
Subdivisions
Glottologjeee1236
Macro-Ge languages.png
Jê languages proper (clear yellow) and other Macro-Jê languages (dark yellow) in modern times. Shadowed area represent approximately extension in the past.

The Jê languages (also spelled , Jean, Ye, Gean), or Jê–Kaingang languages, are spoken by the , a group of indigenous peoples in Brazil.

Genetic relations

The Jê family forms the core of the Macro-Jê family. Kaufman (1990) finds the proposal convincing.

Family division

According to Ethnologue (which omits Jeikó), the language family is as follows:

Ramirez (2015)

Internal classification of the Jê languages according to Ramirez, et al. (2015):[1]

Ramirez excludes Jaikó as a possibly spurious language.

Nikulin (2020)

According to Nikulin (2020), the internal branching of the Jê language family is as follows:[2][3]

Some sound changes and lexical innovations that define various Jê subgroups:[4]

Varieties

Below is a full list of Jê language varieties listed by Loukotka (1968), including names of unattested varieties.[5]

Timbirá group
  • Mehin - language spoken in the village of Araraparituya on the right bank of the Gurupí River, Maranhão state. Now perhaps extinct.
  • Tajé / Timbirá - spoken in the village of Bacurí on the right bank of the Mearim River, state of Maranhão.
  • Kukoekamekran - once spoken on the lower course of the Grajaú River, Maranhão. (Unattested.)
  • Kreapimkatajé / Krepúnkateye - spoken on the middle course of the Grajaú River.
  • Karákatajé - once spoken by the southern neighbors of the preceding tribe. (Unattested.)
  • Krenjé - spoken at the sources of the Gurupí River.
  • Remkokamekran / Remako-Kamékrere / Merrime - spoken on the Corda River and Alpercatas River, especially in the village of Ponto.
  • Aponegicran / Apáñekra - language spoken at the sources of the Corda River.
  • Krenkatajé / Canella - extinct language once spoken in the village of Suridade on the Alpercatas River.
  • Sakamekran / Chacamecran / Mateiros - spoken on the Codo River and Flores River.
  • Purekamekran - extinct language once spoken at the sources of the Grajaú River.
  • Makamekran / Pepuxi - once spoken on the Manuel Alves Pequeno River.
  • Kenpokatajé - once spoken between the Manuel Alves Grande River and Manuel Alves Pequeno River. (Unattested.)
  • Kanakateyé - once spoken on the Farinha River, Maranhão. (Unattested.)
  • Apinagé - language spoken between the Tocantins River and Araguaia River, near their confluence.
  • Karaho / Carauau - once spoken in the Serra do Estrondo, Goiás state.
  • Menren / Gavioes / Augutjé - spoken between the Tocantins River and Surubiu River in the state of Pará. (Only a few words.)
  • Meitajé - spoken by a few individuals northeast of Itupiranga, Maranhão state.
  • Norokwajé / Nurukwayé - spoken south of the Apinagé tribe on the Tocantins River, but perhaps extinct now. (Unattested.)
Krao group
  • Krahó / Krao - language spoken between the Macapá River and Balsas River and the Serra das Alpercatas, Maranhão state.
  • Krikati / Krikatajé - spoken between the Tocantins River and Grajaú River to the sources of the Pindaré River, Maranhão.
  • Piokobjé / Bncobu / Pukobje - spoken at the sources of the Grajaú River.
  • Kapiekran - once spoken on the Balsas River, Maranhão.
Kayapó group
  • Kayapó / Ibirayára - originally in the interior of the state of Goiás, now between the Araguaia River and Tapajós River, state of Pará. Dialects:
    • Iraamráire / Meibenokre / Mekubengokrä / Cayapó do Rio Pau d'Arco - spoken on the Arrais River and Pau d'Arco River, state of Pará; now probably extinct.
    • Gorotiré / Cayapó do Xingu - spoken as a dialect of Cayapó between the Xingu River and Pau d'Arco River.
    • Chikrí / Xicri - spoken between the Macaxeira River and Pardo River, south of the Itacaiunas River, Pará.
    • Kuben-Kran-Keñ - spoken on the Ambé River near Altamira, Pará.
    • Dzyoré - spoken at the sources of the Cuxura River, Pará. (Unattested.)
    • Purucaru - spoken between the Fresco River and the sources of the Itacaiunas River. (Unattested.)
    • Metotíre / Chukahamai - spoken by a few individuals on the Culuene River near the falls of Von Martius and on the Jarina River, state of Mato Grosso.
    • Kruatire - spoken on the right bank of the Liberdade River, Pará. (Unattested.)
    • Krinkatíre - spoken by an unknown tribe in the state of Mato Grosso. (Unattested.)
    • Kren-Akárore - spoken by an unknown tribe, Mato Grosso. (Unattested.)
    • Mek-kran-noty - spoken on the Iriri River, Pará state. (Unattested.)
    • Kradahó / Gradaú - once spoken between the Araguaia River and Sororó River, Pará, now perhaps extinct.
    • Ushikrin - extinct dialect once spoken on the Vermelho River south of the Carajá tribe, state of Goiás.
Central group
Western
  • Suyá - language spoken by a tribe that once lived at the mouth of the Suia-Missu River on the Xingu River; now in an unexplored area to the north.
Eastern
  • Goyá - extinct language once spoken at the sources of the Vermelho River, Goiás state. (Unattested.)
  • Xavante / Akwẽ / Akuän / Kayamó - spoken in the state of Mato Grosso in the Serra do Roncador and between the Tocantins River and Araguaia River in the Serra dos Chavantes.
  • Xerente - spoken between the Tocantins River, Sono River and Urucuaí River in the interior of the state of Goiás
  • Xaraó - extinct language once spoken in the village of Pedro Afonso on the Tocantins River. (Unattested.)
  • Xakriabá / Chicriabá - extinct language once spoken in the state of Goiás between the Palma River and Corumbá River.
  • Acroá / Coroá - extinct language once spoken at the sources of the Parnaíba River and Paranaíba River, state of Bahia.
  • Aricobé / Abroa - once spoken on the Preto River and in the Serra das Figuras, state of Bahia. Several families have been reported in this location. (Unattested.)
  • Takacuá - extinct language once spoken on the middle course of the Sono River, state of Goiás. (Unattested.)
  • Guaiba - once spoken on Guaiba Island in the São Francisco River near the city of São Romão, state of Minas Gerais. (Unattested.)
  • Krixá - once spoken in the São Marcos valley between the Urucuia River and Paracatu River in the state of Minas Gerais. (Unattested.)
  • Goguez / Guegué - once spoken between the Tocantins River and Gurguéia River in the state of Piauí. (Unattested.)
Jeicó group

Vocabulary

Loukotka (1968) lists the following basic vocabulary items.[5]

Language Branch head eye tongue hand one two three
Mehín Timbirá I i-xreː ntó i-yotó i-nuxrá püti ibiaklüte inklüt
Tajé Timbirá I pá-krẽ ntó pá-yõtó pá-ushrá
Krenjé Timbirá I í-xu ntó pá-yõtó pá-ükra mbuchíd ibyashüd nkri
Remkoka-Mekran Timbirá I pa-krãn pa-ntó pa-ñató pa-nukra puchite hibiakruke inkri
Aponegikran Timbirá I i-kra i-nthó i-ñoto i-ninkráy hapuchiti ipiakautu inkré
Krenkatajé Timbirá I hõ-ató hõ-krá buchití daikrut donkré
Sakamekran Timbirá II i-krã i-tó yontou u-krá
Purekamekran Timbirá II i-klan i-notho
Makamekran Timbirá II i-kran ñóto i-nontó ñukrá püchit äklúte glé
Apinagé Timbirá II is-kran i-nto ñoto ñukra pushi adkrúte adrun-ati
Karaho Timbirá II i-kran i-nto yoto ñukra ita ökrüd inkrä
Menren Timbirá II pa-kran i-tó i-yukrá pitit emkröt enkrí
Kayapó Kayapó I i-kran i-ntó i-ñoto i-nikra pudi amaikrut
Iraamráire Kayapó I krã no i-ñoto nikra púdi amaikrut
Gorotiré Kayapó II krã ñótó nikra püdyi amaigru
Duludi Kayapó II hueh-noh hue-nohdoh hue-nigrah
Metotíre Kayapó II i-kran i-nó i-ñotó i-nikra
Gradaú Kayapó II i-kran i-naká i-ñoto i-nikra podzyi ameikrut
Xikrí Kayapó II krãn ontó nikrá pudí amaikrut amaikrutkieket
Usikrin Kayapó II no
Southern Kayapó Kayapó II i-ikran i-ntó tsuto shikria
Kapiekran Krao ñukrá
Krahó Krao krãn hitó hioptó nikrá puchite hibiakruke nkri
Piokobjé Krao nkrãn ntó to nkrá pechäte hibiakrót nkri
Krikati Krao i-krã i-tó i-yukrá itá pochet netá ipekrot itá ikri
Suyá Eastern wa-kurá woa-ndó wã-notó wa-ñikó
Xavante Eastern da-kän da-to da-nonto dé-iperé simisi maipoänä skudaton
Xerente Eastern da-krãn da-tó da-noitó da-nipikra shimishi poñkámen mepráne
Xakriabá Eastern da-kran da-toman da-shipigrá hemerotong prané eskumantong
Akroá Eastern ai-krán aí-nthó aso-inthó as-subkrá
Jeicó Jeicó grang-blá a-lepú ä-netá ä-nänong


Language Branch water fire sun jaguar tapir bow
Mehín Timbirá I kühü pud erb kuxrüd xúhi
Tajé Timbirá I kúhü püt oróp kuxüd kúhi
Krenjé Timbirá I kúxü püd orób kukrüdn kúhi
Remkoka-Mekran Timbirá I kuxú pud oróbo kukrúte kuːhí
Aponegikran Timbirá I koxʔhó pútu orópa
Krenkatajé Timbirá I goxé put oropi kuhé
Sakamekran Timbirá II ko put kuhẽ
Purekamekran Timbirá II kuhü put rop guklüthe
Makamekran Timbirá II köyhé büt róp kokreyuti kuché
Apinagé Timbirá II inkó kukuvu buré robo koklüte gutye
Karaho Timbirá II kukuvu put robo kokräti kuhä
Menren Timbirá II ko koró putiri orótuk kokrét kuhẽ
Kayapó Kayapó I ngo kuwú mut róp kukrot dzyuzyé
Iraamráire Kayapó I no kuö mút rob kukrüt dzyudzye
Gorotiré Kayapó II ngó kuwü mud rob kukrüd dyúdye
Duludi Kayapó II
Metotíre Kayapó II ingo kua mut rokronre kukrut dudzye
Gradaú Kayapó II ngo kui mut rab kukrit dzyudzyä
Xikrí Kayapó II ngou kuã maːt róp diudieː
Usikrin Kayapó II ngo kóã mud rokrari kokrít derätukä
Southern Kayapó Kayapó II piñkó ichiú itputi napiá idzhúta ishé
Kapiekran Krao ku kusshi amikru
Krahó Krao kuvrú amkró rob kutkrút
Piokobjé Krao kahó amkró ropkro kokrät kohé
Krikati Krao ko kuhẽ ankró
Suyá Eastern ngo kustó múrru rauití kukrit tuté
Xavante Eastern kushe budu kuhodu kumikã
Xerente Eastern kuzé bedö rhúkú kudu komikan
Xakriabá Eastern kuché stakró ukú kutó komekané
Akroá Eastern kuchio put hukutu kuäté
Jeicó Jeicó ping xügkrá kolunong xkünoniang

Proto-language

Proto-Jê
Reconstruction ofJê languages
Reconstructed
ancestor

Nikulin (2020)

Proto-Jê reconstructions by Nikulin (2020):[2]

gloss Proto-Jê
‘foot’ *par
‘arm, branch’ *pañ
‘tree, wood, firewood’ *pĩm
‘to rub, to clean’ *põ
‘to leave.PL’ *pôc
‘to fart’ *pê/*pê-k
‘hungry, to want’ *prə̃m’
‘coal, ember’ *prʏ
‘road’ *pry (~ *pryn)
‘wife’ *prũ
‘to hear, to understand’ *mba
‘liver’ *mba
‘to be afraid’ *-mbaŋ’
‘DAT’ *mə̃
‘to grab, to carry’ *mbə̂
‘tail’ *mbyn
‘celestial body’ *mbyt
‘good’ *mbec
‘PL; with’ *mẽ
‘liquid’ *mbên
‘husband’ *mbɪn’
‘to go.PL’ *mũ
‘ashes’ *mbrə
‘ant’ *mbrʊm’
‘relative by marriage’ (kinship term) *mbre
‘to walk’ *wa
‘to take, to carry’ *wy
‘to untie’ *wô
‘to fly.SG’ *tə
‘tongue’ *ñũctə
‘INSTR’ *tə̃
‘strong, hard’ *tə̂t
‘to die’ *ty
‘capybara’ *k(r)Vmtym’
‘black, dark’ *tyk
‘fat’ *tom’
‘old’ *tʊm’
‘to carry’ *tu
‘horsefly’ *potu
‘NEG’ *tũ
‘to go.SG’ *tẽ
‘to dream’ *peti
‘to send’ *jandə
‘eye’ *ndəm
‘mother’ *nə̃
‘to lie.SG’ *nõ
‘bad or crooked’ *pondʊ (~ *pondʊn)
‘to hit’ *ra
‘wing; armpit’ *jara
‘celestial body’ *roñ
‘to transport liquid or to pour’ *ru
‘to leave, to abandon’ *re
‘to throw.PL’ *rẽ
‘root’ *jarê (~ *jarên)
‘to weed’ *-rê(C)
‘to look’ *rĩt
‘to weave’ *cy
‘seed’ *cym
‘to eat soft food, to suck’ *cô
‘leaf’ *côj
‘nest’ *jacê ~ *jVmcê
‘bandage, sling’ *-cĩ(C)
‘to chew’ *kapnĵa
‘bee, bumblebee’ *nĵy
‘to hang.SG’ *nĵô
‘to tickle’ *nĵê
‘to stand.SG’ *ja
‘to put vertically.SG’ *ja
‘nose’ *ñĩja
‘to eat.INTR, food’ *jañ
‘bitter’ *jə̂
‘smoke’ *ñĩjə̂
‘urine’ *jʏ
‘to sit.SG’ *ñỹ
‘tooth’ *jo
‘salt’ *kVjo
‘to tear, to rip’ *jô
‘pus’ *jʊ
‘postposition’ *jʊ
‘father’ *jʊm’
‘to hide’ *peju
‘to heat, to dry’ *nĵu
‘to sleep’ *ũt/*ñũt
‘thread, knot, cloth’ *jê (~ *jên)
‘female breast’ *ñũmjê(C)
‘vein’ *kujêk
‘to lay.SG’ *ji
‘name’ *jiji ~ *ñĩji
‘meat’ *ñĩ
‘hand (in compounds)’ *ñĩ(m)-
‘basket’ *kaj’
‘skin, bark’ *kyñ
‘lip’ *jar-kyñ
‘to dig’ *ko
‘mouth’ *jar-ko
‘sky’ *kVñko
‘fly, mosquito’ *kôp
‘tree, horn’ *kôm
‘horn’ *ñĩ-kôm
‘wind’ *kôk ~ *ka-kôk
‘to eat’ *kʊ
‘stone’ *kẽt
‘NEG’ *kêt
‘pit’ *kɪj
‘to split’ *kɪ ~ *kɪj ~ *kɪj’
‘offspring’ *kra
‘macaw’ *krat
‘head’ *krỹñ
‘knee’ *jVkrỹñ
‘chin, beak’ *krot
‘hole’ *kre
‘to plant’ *kre
‘thigh’ *krɪñ
‘to push against, to grind’ *ŋə̃(C)
‘feather, hair’ *ŋgoñ’
‘louse’ *ŋgô
‘to push against, to crumble’ *ŋũ
‘to enter.PL’ *ŋgɪ
‘toucan’ *ŋrũ (~ *ŋrũn)
‘egg’ *ŋgre
‘to dance’ *ŋgre
‘wrap’ *ŋrĩ(C)

For a more complete list of Proto-Jê reconstructions, as well as Proto-Southern Jê reconstructions, see the corresponding Portuguese article.

Ribeiro & van der Voort (2010)

Proto-Jê reconstructions by Ribeiro and van der Voort (2010):[6]

gloss Proto-Jê
‘relational prefix’ *j-
‘dative’ *mã
‘to open’ *kje
‘wing’ *j-ar
‘mouth’ *j-arkua
‘mouth’ *j-ar-
‘head’ *krã
‘feather’ *j-ar
‘path’ *prɨ
‘causativizer’ *-n
‘chief’ *paʔi
‘to suck’ *so
‘to catch’ *wɨ
‘to eat, to bite’ *ku
‘body’ *hǝ
‘to sing, to dance’ *ŋrɛ
‘to lay’ *j-i, *s-i
‘hard’ *tǝt
‘to stand’ *j-am
‘thorn’ *j-ĩ
‘to speak’ *wẽ
‘fart’ *pek
‘tree, wood, horn’ *ko
‘wood, firewood’ *pĩ
‘ashes, dust’ *mrɔ
‘to wash’ *pe
‘tongue’ *j-õtɔ
‘hand’ *j-ĩ-
‘hand’ *ɲ-ĩkra
‘to kill’ *wĩ
‘nest’ *j-ase
‘bone’ *si
‘to hear, to know’ *ma
‘egg’ *ŋrɛ
‘stone’ *kɛn
‘skin, bark’ *kɨ
‘to plant’ *krɛ
‘1st person’ *ĩj-
‘2nd person’ *a-
‘3rd person’ *ĩ-
‘3rd person’ *s-
‘pus’ *j-u, *j-ur
‘tail’ *mɨ
‘root’ *j-are
‘seed’ *sɨ
‘to sit’ *j-ã
‘hunger’ *prãm
‘earth’ *pɨka
‘to come’ *tẽm

References

  1. ^ Ramirez, Henri; Vegini, Valdir; França, Maria Cristina Victorino de (2015). "Koropó, puri, kamakã e outras línguas do Leste Brasileiro". LIAMES: Línguas Indígenas Americanas. 15 (2): 223–277. doi:10.20396/liames.v15i2.8642302.
  2. ^ a b Nikulin, Andrey (2020). "A reconstruction of Proto-Jê phonology and lexicon". Journal of Language Relationship. 17 (1–2). doi:10.31826/jlr-2019-171-211.
  3. ^ Nikulin, Andrey. 2020. Proto-Macro-Jê: um estudo reconstrutivo. Doctoral dissertation, University of Brasília.
  4. ^ Nikulin, Andrey; De Carvalho, Fernando O. (2019). "Estudos diacrônicos de línguas indígenas brasileiras: Um panorama" (PDF). Macabéa - Revista Eletrônica do Netlli. 8 (2): 255–305. doi:10.47295/mren.v8i2.1910.
  5. ^ a b Loukotka, Čestmír (1968). Classification of South American Indian languages. Los Angeles: UCLA Latin American Center.
  6. ^ Ribeiro, Eduardo Rivail (2010). "Nimuendajú was right: The inclusion of the jabutí language family in the Macro-Jê stock". International Journal of American Linguistics. 76 (4): 517–570. doi:10.1086/658056. hdl:2066/86080.

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