Jebero language

Native toPeru
Ethnicity2,500 (2000)
Native speakers
30 (2011)[1]
  • Jebero
Language codes
ISO 639-3jeb

Jebero (Chebero, Xebero, Xihuila) is a moribund Amazonian language spoken by the Jebero people of Jeberos, Peru. It is spoken by only a small number of older adults and belongs to the Cahuapanan family together with Chayahuita.



Monophthong phonemes[2]
Front Central Back
Close i u
Mid ɘ
Open a
  • /i/ varies between close front unrounded [i], near-close front unrounded [] and close-mid front unrounded [e].[2]
  • /u/ varies between near-close near-front rounded [ʊ] and close-mid back weakly rounded [], with the latter realization being the most usual.[2]
  • /ɘ/ varies between mid near-front unrounded [ɛ̽] and close-mid central unrounded [ɘ].[2]
    • /ɘ/ is shorter than the other vowels, particularly between voiceless consonants.[2]
    • The sequence /ɘn/ is sometimes realized as a syllabic [n̩].[2]
  • /a/ varies between open central unrounded [ä] and near-open retracted front [æ̠].[2] The vowel chart in Valenzuela & Gussenhoven (2013) puts /a/ in the near-open central position [ɐ].
    • In closed syllables, /a/ is realized as open-mid central unrounded [ɜ].[2]


Consonant phonemes[3]
Labial Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ɲ
Stop p t k ʔ
Fricative s ʃ (h)
Trill plain r
glottalized ˀr
Approximant central w ð j
lateral l ʎ
  • /m, p/ are bilabial, whereas /w/ is labialized velar.
  • /tʃ/ is an affricate, rather than a plosive.[3] It has nevertheless been placed in the table in that manner to save space.
  • /n, t, ð, l/ are laminal denti-alveolar [, , ð̪, ].[4]
    • In the syllable coda, /n/ is realized with a wider contact, maximally dentoalveolo-velar [n̪͡ŋ].[4]
    • After /u, a/, the denti-alveolar contact is often not made, which makes /n/ sound more like a velar nasal [ŋ].[4]
    • /ð/ may sometimes sound as if it were a lateral consonant, but it is never realized as lateral.[2]
  • /ɲ, ʎ/ are dentoalveolo-palatal [ɲ̪, ʎ̪].[4]
    • /ʎ/ is sometimes realized as a weak fricative [ʎ̪˔].[2]
  • /h/ occurs only in the affirmative interjection [ahã].[3]
  • /r/ is realized as a flap [ɾ] in the syllable onset and as a trill [r] in the syllable coda.[4]
  • /ˀr/ is a glottalized flap [ˀɾ]. Intervocalically, it is realized as a sequence [ɾʔ].[4]


  1. ^ "Jebero". Ethnologue. Retrieved 2018-07-23.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Valenzuela & Gussenhoven (2013), p. 101.
  3. ^ a b c Valenzuela & Gussenhoven (2013), p. 98.
  4. ^ a b c d e f Valenzuela & Gussenhoven (2013), p. 100.


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