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Kamakã languages

Kamakã
Kamakanan
Geographic
distribution
Bahía, Brazil
Linguistic classificationMacro-Jê
  • Kamakã
Glottologkama1371[1]
Kamakan languages.png

The Kamakã languages are a small family of extinct Macro-Jê languages of Bahía near Brazil's Atlantic coast. The attested Kamakã languages are:

Varieties

Loukotka (1968)

Below is a full list of Kamakã languages and dialects listed by Loukotka (1968), including names of unattested varieties.[2]

Southern
  • Kamakán / Ezeshio - once spoken on the Ilhéus River, De Contas River and Pardo River, Bahia state.
  • Mangaló / Mongoyo / Monshoko - extinct language once spoken on the lower Pardo River near the frontier of Bahia and Minas Gerais states.
  • Kutasho / Cotoxo / Catathoy - once spoken between the Pardo River and De Contas River.
  • Menien / Manyã - once spoken at the sources of the Jequitinhonha River.
  • Dendi - once spoken in the Serra Geral de Condeúba, frontier area between the states of Bahia and Minas Gerais. (Unattested)
  • Catolé - once spoken in the state of Minas Gerais in the valleys of the Pardo River and Verde River. (Unattested)
  • Imboré / Amboré - once spoken at the sources of the Gongogi River, Bahia state. (Unattested)
  • Piripiri - once spoken in the state of Minas Gerais in the valleys of the Verde River and Gorutuba River. (Unattested)
  • Payaya - once spoken on the Camamu River, Bahia state. (Unattested)
Northern

Mason (1950)

Camacán (Kamakán) varieties listed by Mason (1950):[3]

Classification

Martins (2007)

Internal classification of the Kamakã languages by Martins (2007):[4]

Kamakã
  • Masakará
  • (core branch)
    • Kamakã
    • Menien
    • Kotoxó, Mongoyó

Masakará is the most divergent language.

Ramirez (2015)

Internal classification of the Kamakã languages according to Ramirez, et al. (2015):[5]

  • Masakará
  • Kamakã proper
    • Menien
    • Kamakã (including Kotoxó, Mongoyó, Monxokó, Katatoi, etc.)

Vocabulary

Loukotka (1968) lists the following basic vocabulary items.[2]

gloss Kamakan Mangaló Menien Kutasho Masacará
head heró hero inro heró axaró
eye an-kedó kedó im-gutó kithó gätxt
tooth txó dió yo dió thüó
foot wadé uadä hoata huaxtö
water d san sa sa sin tsyin
fire yakó diaxka yarú tiakíl guxá
star pʔiong péo pinia pião pinatsö
maize hikamhi kesho kshó kethió käxü
jaguar yakoe-dere yaké-deré kukiamú tiuké-hiá yakveo
black kohada koaxéda kuatá koeixtá

Proto-language

Proto-Kamakã
Reconstruction ofKamakã languages
Reconstructed
ancestors

Proto-Kamakã reconstructions by Martins (2007):[4]

Portuguese gloss
(original)
English gloss
(translated)
Proto-Kamakã
água water *tsã
andar floor *mã
anta tapir *here
arara macaw *tʃoke
arco bow *kwã
árvore tree *hi
banana banana *tako
beber drink *ka
beber (água) drink (water) *tsã-ka
belo beautiful *tʃoho
boca mouth *eriko
branco white *kVhVro
cabeça head *hero
cabelo hair *ke
carne meat *kohoaja
casa house *toa
chuva rain *tsã
comer eat *jukwa
dente tooth *tʃo
dormir sleep *hondõ
esp. de banana banana sp. *tako
estrela star *pio
faca knife *ketʃa, *ketja
feijão bean *kinja
filha daughter *kiaxrará
filha, filho daughter, son *krani
filho son *ketje
flecha arrow *hwaj, *waj
fogo fire *tʃakɨ, *tjakɨ
irmã sister *tʃakarata, *jak(a)ratã
lua moon *hetʃe, *hedje
macaco monkey *kaũ
machado axe *kedo
madeira wood *hi)-ta
mandioca manioc *kajɨ
mão hand *ker
menino boy *kwanĩ
milho maize *ketʃo
milho maize *ketjo
muito very *hie-hie
nariz nose *niniko
olho eye *keto
onça (Felis onça) jaguar (Felis) *jake
orelha ear *nikoka
pai father *kehentã
papagaio parrot *karaj
pássaro bird *tʃano
pequeno small *(V)ta
preto, negro black *kwahda, *kwaxda
quati coati *pitako

References

  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Kamakanan". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. ^ a b Loukotka, Čestmír (1968). Classification of South American Indian languages. Los Angeles: UCLA Latin American Center.
  3. ^ Mason, John Alden (1950). "The languages of South America". In Steward, Julian (ed.). Handbook of South American Indians. 6. Washington, D.C., Government Printing Office: Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 143. pp. 157–317.
  4. ^ a b Martins, Andérbio Márcio Silva. 2007. Revisão da Família Lingüística Kamakã Proposta por Chestmir Loukotka. MA thesis, University of Brasília.
  5. ^ Ramirez, H., Vegini, V., & França, M. C. V. de. (2015). Koropó, puri, kamakã e outras línguas do Leste Brasileiro. LIAMES: Línguas Indígenas Americanas, 15(2), 223 - 277. doi:10.20396/liames.v15i2.8642302
  • Alain Fabre, 2005, Diccionario etnolingüístico y guía bibliográfica de los pueblos indígenas sudamericanos: KAMAKÃ.[1]

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