Kirov, Kirov Oblast


View of Kirov
View of Kirov
Flag of Kirov
Coat of arms of Kirov
Coat of arms
Anthem: none[2]
Location of Kirov
Kirov is located in Kirov Oblast
Location of Kirov
Kirov is located in European Russia
Kirov (European Russia)
Kirov is located in Europe
Kirov (Europe)
Coordinates: 58°36′N 49°41′E / 58.600°N 49.683°E / 58.600; 49.683Coordinates: 58°36′N 49°41′E / 58.600°N 49.683°E / 58.600; 49.683
Federal subjectKirov Oblast[1]
 • BodyCity Duma[5]
 • Head[7]Valery Vladykin[6]
 • Total757.0 km2 (292.3 sq mi)
Elevation150 m (490 ft)
 • Total473,695
 • Estimate 
507,155 (+7.1%)
 • Rank38th in 2010
 • Density630/km2 (1,600/sq mi)
 • Subordinated toCity of Kirov[1]
 • Capital ofKirov Oblast[1], City of Kirov[1]
 • Urban okrugKirov Urban Okrug[11]
 • Capital ofKirov Urban Okrug[11]
Time zoneUTC+3 (MSK Edit this on Wikidata[12])
Postal code(s)[13]
610000–610002, 610004–610011, 610013–610021, 610025–610027, 610029–610031, 610033, 610035, 610037, 610040, 610042, 610044–610048, 610050, 610051, 610890, 610899, 610960–610967, 610990, 610995, 610999
Dialing code(s)+7 8332
OKTMO ID33701000001
City Dayobserved in June[14]
Kirov population
2010 Census473,695[9]
2002 Census480,411[15]
1989 Census440,240[16]
1979 Census389,533[17]

Kirov (Russian: Ки́ров, IPA: [ˈkʲirəf]) is the largest city and administrative center of Kirov Oblast, Russia. It is located on the Vyatka River in European Russia, 896 km northeast of Moscow. Its population is 518,348 (in 2020).[18] Kirov is a historical, cultural, industrial, and scientific center of Priural'e (territory on the west side of the Ural Mountains); place of origin for Dymkovo toys; the most eastern city founded during the times of Kievan Rus'.

The city also had the names of Khlynov (Хлы́нов, from 1457 to 1780),[3] and Vyatka (Вя́тка, until 1934).[4][3]


Principality and republic

The native Slavic tribe of Central Russia and Volga regions, the Vyatichis (also called Viatichi), mixed here with the Novgorodian Slovenes and Finno-Ugric people.[19] According to the medieval chronicles the first Russian settlements in the area appeared in 12th century. Kirov itself was first mentioned (as Vyatka) for the first time in 1374[4] when Novgorod ushkuyniks plundered it on their way to Bolghar.[20] Vyatka was governed by a public assembly (veche) as other Northern Russian republics of Pskov and Novgorod.

At different times in the late 14th and 15th centuries Vyatka militias raided Ustyug, Novgorod and Tatar lands on Kama and Volga. Vyatka supported Yury of Zvenigorod during the Muscovite Civil War and after his party lost the victorious Vasily II sent Muscovite armies twice against Vyatka to subjugate it and eventually it was forced to accept the suzerainty of Moscow while retaining a significant measure of autonomy.[21] In 1469 Vyatka allied with Khan Ibrahim of the Khanate of Kazan and did not take part in the campaign of Ivan III against the khanate.[22][21]

After several unsuccessful campaigns by Moscow against Vyatka in 1480s, the latter was finally annexed in 1489.[21]

Part of Grand Duchy of Moscow and Russian Empire

Khlynov became known throughout Russia for its clay statuettes and whistles. The town's oldest surviving monument is the Assumption Cathedral (1689), an imposing structure surmounted by five globular domes.

In 1780, Catherine the Great renamed the town Vyatka and made it the seat of Vyatka Governorate.[citation needed] The town also served as a place of exile, notably for Alexander Herzen, Alexander Vitberg, and Mikhail Saltykov-Shchedrin. By the end of the 19th century, it was an important station on the Trans-Siberian railway.

Soviet and post-Soviet period

In December 1934,[citation needed] it was renamed for the Soviet leader Sergey Kirov, who had been assassinated on December 1. However, whilst the name Kirov has remained since the dissolution of the Soviet Union, numerous institutions such as the university bear the former name of Vyatka.

Vyatka. Early 20th century
Vyatka Lobovikov 10.jpg
Vyatka Lobovikov 11.jpg
Vyatka Lobovikov 13.jpg
Vyatka Lobovikov 15.jpg
The northeastern part of the Vyatka City wharf and the ensemble of the Central square Spasskaya Street Khlebnaya Square

S. Lobovikov

Administrative and municipal status

Kirov is the administrative center of the oblast.[1] Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is, together with 134 rural localities, incorporated as the City of Kirov—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.[1] As a municipal division, the City of Kirov is incorporated as Kirov Urban Okrug.[11]


Kirov is a major transport hub (railway; Trans-Siberian main) and river port. It is served by Kirov Pobedilovo airport. During the 1990s this airport was closed and for several years provided only irregular service. During the 2003-2006 summer seasons there were signs of a revival in air transportation as several companies attempted to establish flight routes from Kirov to Moscow and Krasnodar. Since 2006 Kirov airport has been used by a local company operating flights to Moscow.

The Kirov River port went bankrupt in the late 1990s and all its river boats were sold to other regions. Kirov is a center of machine building; metallurgy, light, the printing trade, biochemical and the timber industry.



  • Kirov Regional Museum
  • Kirov Regional Art Museum in honor V.M. and A.M. Vasnetsov

Vyatka Museum of Art, one of the oldest museums in Russia, was founded in 1910 by local artists.

The idea of creation belongs to natives of Vyatka land, brothers artists Viktor Vasnetsov and Apollinary Vasnetsov. At the core of the collection — works that received the most part in the 1910-1920s from the State Museum Fund, private collections and as gifts — from patrons and artists. Today the museum has more than fifteen thousand exhibits and is located in four buildings in Kirov downtown.[23]

  • Museum of K.E. Tsiolkovsky, Aviation & Space
  • Vyatka cabinet of curiosities
  • Kirov diorama
  • House-Museum of M.E. Saltykov-Shchedrin
  • Museum of A. Green
  • House-Museum of N. Khokhryakova
  • Kirov exhibition hall
  • Kirov Planetarium
  • Vyatka paleontological museum[24]


  • Kirov Oblast Drama Theater
  • Kirov State Puppet Theater
  • Kirov State Theater of Young Spectators "Theater of the Spasskaya"


  • Kirov State Circus

According to a report in Pravda dated January 4, 2005, Kirov is known as the "city of twins" for the unusually high number of multiple births there.[25]

According to a report, the city is home to a high concentration of red-haired individuals.[26]


Kirov Forestry and Industrial College

Rodina[27] plays in the highest division of Russian Bandy League. Their home arena has a capacity of 7500.[28] It was the venue of the national final in 2013.[29] Rodina-2 will participate in the Russian Rink Bandy Cup 2017.[30]


Kirov is the home of Vyatka State University, former Vyatka University for the Humanities, Vyatka Agricultural Academy and Kirov State Medical University.


Kirov has a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfb). Summers are warm and rainy, coupled with cool nights, while winters are cold and extremely snowy, with snow falling on most days during winter.

Climate data for Kirov
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 3.8
Average high °C (°F) −8.7
Daily mean °C (°F) −11.9
Average low °C (°F) −15.0
Record low °C (°F) −41.9
Average precipitation mm (inches) 49
Average rainy days 6 4 6 14 18 19 18 20 22 20 11 7 165
Average snowy days 28 24 20 9 3 0.3 0 0 1 12 24 28 149
Average relative humidity (%) 85 81 74 65 60 67 70 76 80 84 86 85 76
Mean monthly sunshine hours 35 74 141 201 265 284 269 233 130 61 33 21 1,747
Source 1: Pogoda.ru.net[31]
Source 2: NOAA (sun 1961–1990)[32]


Twin towns – sister cities

Kirov is twinned with:[33]

Notable people



  1. ^ a b c d e f g Law #387-ZO
  2. ^ Article 4 of the Charter of Kirov states that the city will have an anthem once one is officially adopted. As of 2016, an anthem is not listed among the symbols of the city shown on the official website of Kirov.
  3. ^ a b c Official website of Kirov. Brief Historical Reference (in Russian)
  4. ^ a b c Энциклопедия Города России. Moscow: Большая Российская Энциклопедия. 2003. pp. 193–195. ISBN 5-7107-7399-9.
  5. ^ Charter of Kirov, Article 22
  6. ^ "Head of the City of Kirov" (in Russian). Official website of the city of Kirov. Retrieved November 29, 2016.
  7. ^ Charter of Kirov, Article 28
  8. ^ Official website of Kirov. Administrative-Territorial Structure (in Russian)
  9. ^ a b Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1 [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  10. ^ "26. Численность постоянного населения Российской Федерации по муниципальным образованиям на 1 января 2018 года". Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved January 23, 2019.
  11. ^ a b c Law #284-ZO
  12. ^ "Об исчислении времени". Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in Russian). June 3, 2011. Retrieved January 19, 2019.
  13. ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (in Russian)
  14. ^ Charter of Kirov, Article 4
  15. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian).
  16. ^ Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. 1989 – via Demoscope Weekly.
  17. ^ Всесоюзная перепись населения 1979 г. Национальный состав населения по регионам России [All Union Population Census of 1979. Ethnic composition of the population by regions of Russia] (XLS). Всесоюзная перепись населения 1979 года [All-Union Population Census of 1979] (in Russian). 1979 – via Demoscope Weekly (website of the Institute of Demographics of the State University—Higher School of Economics.
  18. ^ "Количество жителей Киров численность населения. Фото и карты". xn----7sbiew6aadnema7p.xn--p1ai. Retrieved September 11, 2020.
  19. ^ Feldbrugge, F. J. M. (Ferdinand Joseph Maria), 1933- (2018). A history of Russian law : from ancient times to the Council Code (Ulozhenie) of Tsar Aleksei Mikhailovich of 1649. Leiden. p. 525. ISBN 9789004346420. OCLC 988859062.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  20. ^ Комиссия Института российской истории РАН (May 28, 2009). "Историческая экспертиза по вопросу о возвращении городу Кирову его исторического названия, проведённая Институтом Российской Истории РАН" (in Russian). Пресс-центр Правительства Кировской области. Archived from the original on July 22, 2012. Retrieved August 12, 2009.
  21. ^ a b c Николай Иванович Костомаров (1868). Исторія Новгорода, Пскова и Вятки во время удѣльно-вѣчеваго уклада. С.-Петербургъ: Типографія В. С. Эттингера. pp. 241–251.
  23. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on July 19, 2006. Retrieved November 20, 2010.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  24. ^ Вятский палеонтологический музей
  25. ^ "Multiple births in Oblast Kirov". Archived from the original on January 12, 2005. Retrieved August 28, 2010.
  26. ^ "Map of Redheads in Europe". Archived from the original on July 5, 2013. Retrieved July 2, 2013.
  27. ^ ""Родина" Киров Официальный сайт хоккейного клуба - Новости". Khcrodina.ru. March 14, 2013. Archived from the original on November 12, 2012. Retrieved March 26, 2013.
  28. ^ "Google Translate". Retrieved March 26, 2013.
  29. ^ "Google Translate". Retrieved March 26, 2013.
  30. ^ http://www.rusbandy.ru/season/322/
  31. ^ "Weather and Climate-The Climate of Kirov" (in Russian). Погода и климат. Retrieved April 5, 2016.
  32. ^ "Kirov Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved April 5, 2016.
  33. ^ "Strona główna: Miasta partnerskie". siedlce.pl (in Polish). Siedlce. Retrieved February 6, 2020.


  • Кировская городская Дума. Решение №42/19 от 29 июня 2005 г. «Об Уставе муниципального образования "Город Киров"», в ред. Решения №40/5 от 25 сентября 2015 г. «О внесении изменений в Устав муниципального образования "Город Киров", принятый Решением Кировской городской Думы от 29.06.2005 №42/19». Вступил в силу в соответствии со статьёй 56. Опубликован: "Вятский край", №130 (3538), 13 июля 2005 г. (Kirov City Duma. Decision #42/19 of June 29, 2005 On the Charter of the Municipal Formation of the "City of Kirov", as amended by the Decision #40/5 of September 25, 2015 On Amending the Charter of the Municipal Formation of the "City of Kirov" Adopted by the Decision #42/19 of Kirov City Duma of June 29, 2005. Effective as of the date set forth in accordance with the provisions of Article 56.).
  • Законодательное Собрание Кировской области. Закон №387-ЗО от 2 декабря 2005 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Кировской области», в ред. Закона №249-ЗО от 29 декабря 2012 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Кировской области "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Кировской области"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Вятский край", №228–228 (3635–3636), 13 декабря 2005 г. (Legislative Assembly of Kirov Oblast. Law #387-ZO of December 2, 2005 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Kirov Oblast, as amended by the Law #249-ZO of December 29, 2012 On Amending the Law of Kirov Oblast "On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Kirov Oblast". Effective as of the day of the official publication.).
  • Законодательное Собрание Кировской области. Закон №284-ЗО от 7 декабря 2004 г. «Об установлении границ муниципальных образований Кировской области и наделении их статусом муниципального района, городского округа, городского поселения, сельского поселения», в ред. Закона №350-ЗО от 11 ноября 2013 г. «О внесении изменений в отдельные Законы Кировской области». Вступил в силу по истечении 10 дней со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Вятский край", №233–234 (3401–3402), 21 декабря 2004 г. (Legislative Assembly of Kirov Oblast. Law #284-ZO of December 7, 2004 On Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formations of Kirov Oblast and on Granting Them the Municipal District, Urban Okrug, Urban Settlement, Rural Settlement Status, as amended by the Law #350-ZO of November 11, 2013 On Amending Various Laws of Kirov Oblast. Effective as of after 10 days from the day of the official publication.).

Further reading

External links

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