Liberalism in Portugal

Since the beginning of liberalism in Portugal in the mid-19th century, several parties have, by gaining representation in parliament, continued the liberal ideology in contemporary Portuguese politics.


1826 to 1926

From Democratic Group to New Progressive Party

  • 1826: Supporters of the liberal revolution of 1820 establish the Democratic Group (Grupo Democrata)
  • 1840: The party is reorganized into the Progress Party (Partido do Progresso), founded by João de Saldanha
  • 1849: The New Progressive Party merges with the conservative Regenerator Party (Partido Regenerador)
  • 1851: A faction leaves the party and founds the Progressive Historical Party/Party of Historical Progressives (Partido Progressista Histórico/Partido dos Progressistas Históricos)
  • 1862: The Progressive Historical Party is split into the Reformist Party and the Historical Party (Partido Histórico)
  • 1876: Both parties reunite and merge into the New Progressive Party (Novo Partido Progressista), which eventually develops into a Conservative party
  • 1910: The New Progressive Party dissolves.

Portuguese Republican Party

  • 1872: Revolutionary and radical liberals establish the Portuguese Republican Party (Partido Republicano Português)
  • 1891: The Portuguese Republican Party is banned.
  • 1906: It is reestablished.
  • 1910: The newly radicalized party stages a revolution and its leader Joaquim Teófilo Braga becomes Prime Minister of Portugal.
  • 1911: Liberal and moderate factions of the Portuguese Republican Party (Partido Republicano Português) form the Republican National Union (União Nacional Republicano) which secedes.
  • 1912: The Republican National Union is split and liberals establish the Evolutionist Republican Party (Partido Republicano Evolucionista), led by António José de Almeida. The conservative wing in the split continues as the Republican Union.
  • 1919: A faction joins the conservative Republican Liberal Party and the liberals form the Radical Party (Portugal) Popular Portuguese Party (Partido Português Popular)
  • 1920: The National Reconstituted Republican Party secedes, leaving the Portuguese Republican Party as an intransigent radical, such as the Jacobine party which is banned in 1926. Liberal elements from the Portuguese Republican Party form the National Reconstituted Republican Party (Partido Republicano Reconstituente Nacional)
  • 1922: The Portuguese Republic Party is renamed Radical Party (Portugal)Radical Party (Partido Radical)
  • 1923: The Republican Action Party is merged into the conservative Nationalist Republican Party (Partido Republicano Nacionalista), but later that year it is refounded as the Republican Action (Acção Republicana)
  • 1926: The Republic Action Party is banned.

1985 onwards

Social Democratic Party

The Social Democratic Party was a full right member of the Liberal International, from 1985 until 1996. It shifts to the right since Aníbal Cavaco Silva, who served as Prime Minister of Portugal from 1985 to 1995 and President of Portugal from 2006 to 2016.

Liberal Social Movement

  • 2005: The Social Liberal Movement (Movimento Liberal Social, MLS) is founded as a movement (not a political party). The current president is Miguel Duarte.

Iniciativa Liberal

See also


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