wanweipedia

List of rulers in the British Isles

British Isles

This is a list of rulers in the British Isles.

In 1603, King James VI of Scotland also became James I of England, joining the crowns of England and Scotland in personal union. By royal proclamation, James styled himself "King of Great Britain", but no such kingdom was actually created until 1707, when England and Scotland united to form the new Kingdom of Great Britain, with a single British parliament sitting at Westminster, during the reign of Queen Anne.

England

House of Wessex

Alfred was king of Wessex from 871.

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death Claim Ref.
Alfred the Great
c. 886

26 October 899
Statue d'Alfred le Grand à Winchester.jpg 849
Son of Æthelwulf of Wessex
and Osburh
Ealhswith
Gainsborough
868
5 children
26 October 899
Aged about 50
Son of Æthelwulf of Wessex
Treaty of Wedmore
[1]
[2]
[3]
Edward the Elder
26 October 899

17 July 924
(24 years, 266 days)
Edward the Elder - MS Royal 14 B VI.jpg c. 874
Son of Alfred
and Ealhswith
(1) Ecgwynn
c. 893
2 children
(2) Ælfflæd
c. 900
8 children
(3) Eadgifu
c. 919
4 children
17 July 924
Aged about 50
Son of Alfred [4]

Disputed

There is some evidence that Ælfweard of Wessex may have been king in 924, between his father Edward the Elder and his brother Æthelstan, although he was not crowned. A 12th-century list of kings gives him a reign length of four weeks, though one manuscript of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle says he died only 16 days after his father.[5] However, that he ruled is not accepted by all historians. Also, it is unclear whether—if Ælfweard was declared king—it was over the whole kingdom or of Wessex only. One interpretation of the ambiguous evidence is that when Edward died, Ælfweard was declared king in Wessex and Æthelstan in Mercia.[6]

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death Claim
Ælfweard
c. 17 July 924

2 August 924[7]
(16 days)
Does not appear No image.svg c. 901[8]
Son of Edward the Elder
and Ælfflæd[8]
Does not appear Unmarried?
No children
2 August 924[6]
Aged about 23[i]
Son of Edward the Elder

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death Claim Ref.
Æthelstan
924
King of the Anglo-Saxons (924–927)

King of the English (927–939)
27 October 939
(14–15 years)
King Athelstan from All Souls College Chapel 894
Son of Edward the Elder
and Ecgwynn
Does not appear Unmarried 27 October 939
Aged about 45
Son of Edward the Elder [10]
[11]
Edmund I
27 October 939

26 May 946
(6 years, 212 days)
Edmund I - MS Royal 14 B V.jpg c. 921
Son of Edward the Elder
and Eadgifu of Kent
(1) Ælfgifu of Shaftesbury
2 sons
(2) Æthelflæd of Damerham
944
No children
26 May 946
Pucklechurch
Killed in a brawl aged about 25
Son of Edward the Elder [12]
[13]
[14]
Eadred
26 May 946

23 November 955
(9 years, 182 days)
Eadred - MS Royal 14 B VI.jpg c. 923
Son of Edward the Elder
and Eadgifu of Kent
Does not appear Unmarried 23 November 955
Frome
Aged about 32
Son of Edward the Elder [15]
[16]
[17]
Eadwig
23 November 955

1 October 959
(3 years, 313 days)
Line engraving of Edwy made by an unknown engraver after an unknown artist c. 940
Son of Edmund I
and Ælfgifu of Shaftesbury
Ælfgifu
No verified children
1 October 959
Aged about 19
Son of Edmund I [18]
[19]
[20]
Edgar the Peaceful
1 October 959

8 July 975
(15 years, 281 days)
King Edgar of England c. 943
Wessex
Son of Edmund I
and Ælfgifu of Shaftesbury
(1) Æthelflæd
c. 960
1 son
(2) Ælfthryth
c. 964
2 sons
8 July 975
Winchester
Aged 31
Son of Edmund I [21]
[22]
[23]
Edward the Martyr
8 July 975

18 March 978
(2 years, 254 days)
St. Edward the Martyr c. 962
Son of Edgar the Peaceful
and Æthelflæd
Does not appear Unmarried 18 March 978
Corfe Castle
Murdered aged about 16
Son of Edgar the Peaceful [24]
[25]
(1st reign)[ii]
Æthelred
Æthelred the Unready
18 March 978

1013
(34–35 years)
Image of Æthelred II with an oversize sword from the illuminated manuscript "The Chronicle of Abingdon" c. 968
Son of Edgar the Peaceful
and Ælfthryth
(1) Ælfgifu of York
991
9 children
(2) Emma of Normandy
1002
3 children
23 April 1016
London
Aged about 48
Son of Edgar the Peaceful [27]
[26]
[28]

House of Denmark

England came under the control of Sweyn Forkbeard, a Danish king, after an invasion in 1013, during which Æthelred abandoned the throne and went into exile in Normandy.

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death Claim Ref.
Sweyn
Sweyn Forkbeard
25 December 1013

3 February 1014
(41 days)
Sweyn Forkbeard, from an architectural element in the Swansea Guildhall, Swansea, Wales c. 960
Denmark
Son of Harald Bluetooth
and Gyrid Olafsdottir of Sweden
(1) Gunhild of Wenden
c. 990
7 children
(2) Sigrid the Haughty
c. 1000
1 daughter
3 February 1014
Gainsborough
Aged about 54
Right of conquest [29]
[30]
[31]

House of Wessex (restored, first time)

Following the death of Sweyn Forkbeard, Æthelred the Unready returned from exile and was again proclaimed king on 3 February 1014. His son succeeded him after being chosen king by the citizens of London and a part of the Witan,[32] despite ongoing Danish efforts to wrest the crown from the West Saxons.

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death Claim Ref.
(2nd reign)
Æthelred
Æthelred the Unready
3 February 1014

23 April 1016
(2 years, 81 days)
Image of Æthelred II with an oversize sword from the illuminated manuscript "The Chronicle of Abingdon" c. 968
Son of Edgar the Peaceful
and Ælfthryth
(1) Ælfgifu of York
991
9 children
(2) Emma of Normandy
1002
3 children
23 April 1016
London
Aged about 48
Son of Edgar the Peaceful [27]
[26]
[28]
Edmund Ironside
23 April 1016

30 November 1016
(222 days)
Edmund Ironside c. 990
Son of Æthelred
and Ælfgifu of York
Edith of East Anglia
2 children
30 November 1016
Glastonbury
Aged 26
Son of Æthelred [32]
[33]
[34]

House of Denmark (restored)

Following the decisive Battle of Assandun on 18 October 1016, King Edmund signed a treaty with Cnut (Canute) under which all of England except for Wessex would be controlled by Cnut.[35] Upon Edmund's death just over a month later on 30 November, Cnut ruled the whole kingdom as its sole king for nineteen years.

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death Claim Ref.
Canute
Cnut the Great
18 October 1016

12 November 1035
(19 years, 26 days)
Knut der Große cropped.jpg c. 995
Son of Sweyn Forkbeard
and Gunhilda of Poland
(1) Ælfgifu of Northampton
2 sons
(2) Emma of Normandy
1017
2 children
12 November 1035
Shaftesbury
Aged about 40
Son of Sweyn
Treaty of Deerhurst
[36]
[37]
Harold Harefoot
12 November 1035

17 March 1040[iii]
(4 years, 127 days)
Harold H.jpg c. 1016
Son of Canute
and Ælfgifu of Northampton
Ælfgifu?
1 son?
17 March 1040
Oxford
Aged about 24
Son of Canute [39]
[38]
[40]
Harthacnut
17 March 1040

8 June 1042
(2 years, 84 days)
Hardeknut.jpg 1018
Son of Canute
and Emma of Normandy
Does not appear Unmarried 8 June 1042
Lambeth
Aged about 24
Son of Canute [41]
[42]
[43]

House of Wessex (restored, second time)

After Harthacnut, there was a brief Saxon Restoration between 1042 and 1066.

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death Claim Ref.
Edward the Confessor
8 June 1042

5 January 1066
(23 years, 212 days)
Edward Confessor.jpg c. 1003
Islip
Son of Æthelred
and Emma of Normandy
Edith of Wessex
23 January 1045
No children
5 January 1066
Westminster Palace
Aged about 63
Son of Æthelred [44]

House of Godwin

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death Claim Ref.
Harold Godwinson
6 January 1066

14 October 1066
(282 days)
BayeuxTapestryScene13(crop2).jpg c. 1022
Son of Godwin of Wessex
and Gytha Thorkelsdóttir
(1) Edith Swannesha
5 children
(2) Ealdgyth
c. 1064
2 sons
14 October 1066
Hastings
Died in battle aged about 44
Supposedly named heir by Edward the Confessor
Elected by the Witenagemot
[45]

Disputed claimant (House of Wessex)

After King Harold was killed at the Battle of Hastings, the Witan elected Edgar Ætheling as king, but he was given little effectual support. He submitted to William the Conqueror.

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death Claim Ref.
(Title disputed)
Edgar Ætheling
15 October 1066

17 December 1066[iv]
(64 days)
Edgar the Ætheling.jpg c. 1051
Son of Edward the Exile
and Agatha
Does not appear Unmarried c. 1126
Aged about 75
Grandson of Edmund Ironside
Elected by the Witenagemot
[46]
[47]

House of Normandy

In 1066, several rival claimants to the English throne emerged. Among them were Harold Godwinson, recognised as king by the Witenagemot after the death of Edward the Confessor, as well as Harald Hardrada, King of Norway who claimed to be the rightful heir of Harthacnut, and Duke William II of Normandy, vassal to the King of France, and first cousin once-removed of Edward the Confessor. Harald and William both invaded separately in 1066. Godwinson successfully repelled the invasion by Hardrada, but ultimately lost the throne of England in the Norman conquest of England.

After the Battle of Hastings on 14 October 1066, William the Conqueror made permanent the recent removal of the capital from Winchester to London. Following the death of Harold Godwinson at Hastings, the Anglo-Saxon Witenagemot elected as king Edgar the Ætheling, the son of Edward the Exile and grandson of Edmund Ironside. The young monarch was unable to resist the invaders and was never crowned. William was crowned King William I of England on Christmas Day 1066, in Westminster Abbey, and is today known as William the Conqueror, William the Bastard or William I.

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death Claim Ref.
William I
William the Conqueror[48]
25 December 1066

9 September 1087
(20 years, 259 days)
William the Conqueror depicted at the Battle of Hastings, on the Bayeux Tapestry c. 1028
Falaise Castle
Son of Robert the Magnificent
and Herleva
Matilda of Flanders
Normandy
1053
9 children
9 September 1087
Rouen
Aged about 59[v]
Supposedly named heir in 1052 by Edward the Confessor
First cousin once removed of Edward the Confessor
Right of conquest
[49]
[50]
William II
William Rufus
26 September 1087[a]

2 August 1100
(12 years, 311 days)
William Rufus depicted in the Stowe Manuscript c. 1056
Normandy
Son of William the Conqueror
and Matilda of Flanders
Does not appear Unmarried 2 August 1100
New Forest
Shot with an arrow aged 44
Son of William I
Granted the Kingdom of England over elder brother Robert Curthose
[51]
[52]
Henry I
Henry Beauclerc
5 August 1100[b]

1 December 1135
(35 years, 119 days)
Henry I September 1068
Selby
Son of William the Conqueror
and Matilda of Flanders
(1) Matilda of Scotland
Westminster Abbey
11 November 1100
2 children
(2) Adeliza of Louvain
Windsor Castle
29 January 1121
No children
1 December 1135
Saint-Denis-en-Lyons
Aged 67[vi]
Son of William I
Seizure of the Crown (from Robert Curthose)
[53]
[52]

House of Blois

Henry I left no legitimate male heirs, his son William Adelin having died in the White Ship disaster. This ended the direct Norman line of kings in England. Henry named his eldest daughter, Matilda (Countess of Anjou by her second marriage to Geoffrey Plantagenet, Count of Anjou, as well as widow of her first husband, Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor), as his heir. Before naming Matilda as heir, he had been in negotiations to name his nephew Stephen of Blois as his heir. When Henry died, Stephen invaded England, and in a coup d'etat had himself crowned instead of Matilda. The period which followed is known as The Anarchy, as parties supporting each side fought in open warfare both in Britain and on the continent for the better part of two decades.

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death Claim Ref.
Stephen
Stephen of Blois
22 December 1135[c]

25 October 1154
(18 years, 308 days)
Stephen c. 1096
Blois
Son of Stephen II of Blois
and Adela of Normandy
Matilda of Boulogne
Westminster
1125
6 children
25 October 1154
Dover Castle
Aged about 58
Grandson of William I
Appointment / usurpation
[52]
[54]

Disputed claimants

Matilda was declared heir presumptive by her father, Henry I, after the death of her brother on the White Ship, and acknowledged as such by the barons. Upon Henry I's death, the throne was seized by Matilda's cousin, Stephen of Blois. During the ensuing Anarchy, Matilda controlled England for a few months in 1141—the first woman to do so—but was never crowned and is rarely listed as a monarch of England.[vii]

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death Claim Ref.
(Title disputed)
Matilda
Empress Matilda
7 April 1141

1 November 1141
(209 days)
Matilda 7 February 1102
Sutton Courtenay
Daughter of Henry I
and Edith of Scotland
(1) Henry V of the Holy Roman Empire
Mainz Cathedral
6 January 1114
No children
(2) Geoffrey Plantagenet
Le Mans Cathedral
22 May 1128
3 sons
10 September 1167
Rouen
Aged 65
Daughter of Henry I
Seizure of the Crown
[55]
[54]

Count Eustace IV of Boulogne (c. 1130 – 17 August 1153) was appointed co-king of England by his father, King Stephen, on 6 April 1152, in order to guarantee his succession to the throne (as was the custom in France, but not in England). The Pope and the Church would not agree to this, and Eustace was not crowned. Eustace died the next year aged 23, during his father's lifetime, and so never became king in his own right.[56]

House of Anjou

King Stephen came to an agreement with Matilda in November 1153 with the signing of the Treaty of Wallingford, where Stephen recognised Henry, son of Matilda and her second husband Geoffrey Plantagenet, Count of Anjou, as the designated heir. The royal house descended from Matilda and Geoffrey is widely known by two names, the House of Anjou (after Geoffrey's title as Count of Anjou) or the House of Plantagenet, after his sobriquet. Some historians prefer to group the subsequent kings into two groups, before and after the loss of the bulk of their French possessions, although they are not different royal houses.

The Angevins (from the French term meaning "from Anjou") ruled over the Angevin Empire during the 12th and 13th centuries, an area stretching from the Pyrenees to Ireland. They did not regard England as their primary home until most of their continental domains were lost by King John. The direct, eldest male line from Henry II includes monarchs commonly grouped together as the House of Plantagenet, which was the name given to the dynasty after the loss of most of their continental possessions, while cadet branches of this line became known as the House of Lancaster and the House of York during the War of the Roses.

The Angevins formulated England's royal coat of arms, which usually showed other kingdoms held or claimed by them or their successors, although without representation of Ireland for quite some time. Dieu et mon droit has generally been used as the motto of English monarchs since being adopted by Edward III,[57] but it was first used as a battle cry by Richard I in 1198 at the Battle of Gisors, when he defeated the forces of Philip II of France, after which he made it his motto.[57][58]

Name Portrait Arms Birth Marriages Death Claim Ref.
Henry II
Henry Curtmantle
19 December 1154[d]

6 July 1189
(34 years, 200 days)
Henry II Royal Arms of England (1154-1189).svg 5 March 1133
Le Mans
Son of Geoffrey V of Anjou
and Matilda
Eleanor of Aquitaine
Bordeaux Cathedral
18 May 1152
8 children
6 July 1189
Chinon
Aged 56[viii]
Grandson of Henry I
Treaty of Wallingford
[59]
[60]
Richard I
Richard the Lionheart
3 September 1189[e]

6 April 1199
(9 years, 216 days)
Richard the Lionheart, an illustration from a 12th-century codex Royal Arms of England (1189-1198).svg
Royal Arms of England (1198-1340).svg
8 September 1157
Beaumont Palace
Son of Henry II
and Eleanor of Aquitaine
Berengaria of Navarre
Limassol
12 May 1191
No children
6 April 1199
Châlus
Shot by a quarrel aged 41[ix]
Son of Henry II
Primogeniture
[61]
[60]
John
John Lackland
27 May 1199[f]

19 October 1216
(17 years, 146 days)
King John Royal Arms of England (1198-1340).svg 24 December 1166
Beaumont Palace
Son of Henry II
and Eleanor of Aquitaine
(1) Isabel of Gloucester
Marlborough Castle
29 August 1189
No children
(2) Isabella of Angoulême
Bordeaux Cathedral
24 August 1200
5 children
19 October 1216
Newark-on-Trent
Aged 49[x]
Son of Henry II
Proximity of blood
[62]
[63]

Henry II named his son, another Henry (1155–1183), as co-ruler with him. But this was a Norman custom of designating an heir, and the younger Henry did not outlive his father and rule in his own right, so he is not counted as a monarch on lists of kings.


Disputed claimant

Louis VIII of France briefly won about half of England over to his side from 1216 to 1217 at the conclusion of the First Barons' War against King John. On marching into London he was openly received by the rebel barons and citizens of London and proclaimed (though not crowned) king at St Paul's cathedral. Many nobles, including Alexander II of Scotland, gathered to give homage to him. However, in signing the Treaty of Lambeth in 1217, Louis conceded that he had never been the legitimate king of England.

Name Portrait Arms Birth Marriages Death Claim
(Title disputed)
Louis
Louis VIII the Lion
1216

22 September 1217
(1 year)
Louis8.png France Ancient Arms.svg 5 September 1187
Paris
Son of Philip II of France
and Isabella of Hainault
Blanche of Castile
Port-Mort
23 May 1200
13 children
8 November 1226
Montpensier
Aged 39
Right of conquest

House of Plantagenet

The House of Plantagenet takes its name from Geoffrey Plantagenet, Count of Anjou, husband of the Empress Matilda and father of Henry II. The name Plantagenet itself was unknown as a family name per se until Richard of York adopted it as his family name in the 15th century. It has since been retroactively applied to English monarchs from Henry II onward. It is common among modern historians to refer to Henry II and his sons as the "Angevins" due to their vast continental Empire, and most of the Angevin kings before John spent more time in their continental possessions than in England.

It is from the time of Henry III, after the loss of most of the family's continental possessions, that the Plantagenet kings became more English in nature. The Houses of Lancaster and York are cadet branches of the House of Plantagenet.

Name Portrait Arms Birth Marriages Death Claim Ref.
Henry III
Henry of Winchester
28 October 1216[g]

16 November 1272
(56 years, 20 days)
Henry III Royal Arms of England (1198-1340).svg 1 October 1207
Winchester Castle
Son of John
and Isabella of Angoulême
Eleanor of Provence
Canterbury Cathedral
14 January 1236
5 children
16 November 1272
Westminster Palace
Aged 65
Son of John
Primogeniture
[64]


[63]

Edward I
Edward Longshanks
20 November 1272[h]

7 July 1307
(34 years, 230 days)
Edward I of England Royal Arms of England (1198-1340).svg 17 June 1239
Palace of Westminster
Son of Henry III
and Eleanor of Provence
(1) Eleanor of Castile
Abbey of Santa María la Real de Las Huelgas
18 October 1254
16 children
(2) Margaret of France
Canterbury
10 September 1299
3 children
7 July 1307
Burgh by Sands
Aged 68
Son of Henry III
Primogeniture
[65]
[66]
Edward II
Edward of Caernarfon
8 July 1307[i]

20 January 1327
(19 years, 197 days)
Edward II - British Library Royal 20 A ii f10 (detail).jpg Royal Arms of England (1198-1340).svg 25 April 1284
Caernarfon Castle
Son of Edward I
and Eleanor of Castile
Isabella of France
Boulogne Cathedral
24 January 1308
4 children
21 September 1327
Berkeley Castle
Murdered aged 43[xi]
Son of Edward I
Primogeniture
[68]
[69]
Edward III
25 January 1327[j]

21 June 1377
(50 years, 148 days)
Edward III of England (Order of the Garter).jpg Royal Arms of England (1198-1340).svg
Royal Arms of England (1340-1367).svg
13 November 1312
Windsor Castle
Son of Edward II
and Isabella of France
Philippa of Hainault
York Minster
25 January 1328
14 children
21 June 1377
Sheen Palace
Aged 64
Son of Edward II
Primogeniture
[70]
[69]
Richard II
22 June 1377[k]

29 September 1399
(22 years, 100 days)
Richard II King of England.jpg Royal Arms of England (1395-1399).svg 6 January 1367
Bordeaux
Son of Edward the Black Prince
and Joan of Kent
(1) Anne of Bohemia
14 January 1382
No children
(2) Isabella of Valois
Calais
4 November 1396
No children
14 February 1400
Pontefract Castle
Aged 33
Grandson of Edward III
Primogeniture
[71]
[72]

House of Lancaster

This house descended from Edward III's third surviving son, John of Gaunt. Henry IV seized power from Richard II (and also displaced the next in line to the throne, Edmund Mortimer (then aged 7), a descendant of Edward III's second son, Lionel of Antwerp).

Name Portrait Arms Birth Marriages Death Claim Ref.
Henry IV
Henry of Bolingbroke
30 September 1399[l]

20 March 1413
(13 years, 172 days)
Henry IV Royal Arms of England (1340-1367).svg 15 April 1367
Bolingbroke Castle
Son of John of Gaunt
and Blanche of Lancaster
(1) Mary de Bohun
Arundel Castle
27 July 1380
6 children
(2) Joanna of Navarre
Winchester Cathedral
7 February 1403
No children
20 March 1413
Westminster Abbey
Aged 45
Grandson / heir male of Edward III
Usurpation / agnatic primogeniture
[73]
[74]
[72]
Henry V
21 March 1413[m]

31 August 1422
(9 years, 164 days)
Henry V Royal Arms of England (1399-1603).svg 16 September 1386
Monmouth Castle
Son of Henry IV
and Mary de Bohun
Catherine of Valois
Troyes Cathedral
2 June 1420
1 son
31 August 1422
Château de Vincennes
Aged 36
Son of Henry IV
Agnatic primogeniture
[75]
[76]
[77]
(1st reign)
Henry VI
1 September 1422[n]

4 March 1461
(38 years, 185 days)
Henry VI Royal Arms of England (1399-1603).svg 6 December 1421
Windsor Castle
Son of Henry V
and Catherine of Valois
Margaret of Anjou
Titchfield Abbey
22 April 1445
1 son
21 May 1471
Tower of London
Allegedly murdered aged 49
Son of Henry V
Agnatic primogeniture
[78]
[77]

House of York

The House of York claimed the right to the throne through Edward III's second surviving son, Lionel of Antwerp, but it inherited its name from Edward's fourth surviving son, Edmund of Langley, first Duke of York.

The Wars of the Roses (1455–1485) saw the throne pass back and forth between the rival houses of Lancaster and York.

Name Portrait Arms Birth Marriages Death Claim Ref.
(1st reign)
Edward IV
4 March 1461[o]

3 October 1470
(9 years, 214 days)
Edward IV Royal Arms of England (1399-1603).svg 28 April 1442
Rouen
Son of Richard of York
and Cecily Neville
Elizabeth Woodville
Grafton Regis
1 May 1464
10 children
9 April 1483
Westminster Palace
Aged 40
Great-great-grandson / heir general of Edward III
Seizure of the Crown
Cognatic primogeniture
[79]

House of Lancaster (restored)

Name Portrait Arms Birth Marriages Death Claim Ref.
(2nd reign)
Henry VI
3 October 1470

11 April 1471
(191 days)
Henry VI Royal Arms of England (1470-1471).svg 6 December 1421
Windsor Castle
Son of Henry V
and Catherine of Valois
Margaret of Anjou
Titchfield Abbey
22 April 1445
1 son
21 May 1471
Tower of London
Allegedly murdered aged 49
Son of Henry V
Seizure of the Crown
[78]

House of York (restored)

Name Portrait Arms Birth Marriages Death Claim Ref.
(2nd reign)
Edward IV
11 April 1471

9 April 1483
(11 years, 364 days)
Edward IV Royal Arms of England (1399-1603).svg 28 April 1442
Rouen
Son of Richard of York
and Cecily Neville
Elizabeth Woodville
Grafton Regis
1 May 1464
10 children
9 April 1483
Westminster Palace
Aged 40
Great-great-grandson / heir general of Edward III
Seizure of the Crown
Cognatic primogeniture
[79]
Edward V
9 April 1483

25 June 1483[xii]
(78 days)
Edward V Royal Arms of England (1399-1603).svg 2 November 1470
Westminster
Son of Edward IV
and Elizabeth Woodville
Does not appear Unmarried Disappeared mid-1483
London
Allegedly murdered aged 12
Son of Edward IV
Cognatic primogeniture
[80]
[81]
[77]
Richard III
26 June 1483[p]

22 August 1485
(2 years, 58 days)
Richard III Royal Arms of England (1399-1603).svg 2 October 1452
Fotheringhay Castle
Son of Richard of York
and Cecily Neville
Anne Neville
Westminster Abbey
12 July 1472
1 son
22 August 1485
Bosworth Field
Killed in battle aged 32[xiii]
Great-great-grandson of Edward III
Titulus Regius
[82]
[83]

House of Tudor

The Tudors descended in the female line from John Beaufort, one of the illegitimate children of John of Gaunt (third surviving son of Edward III), by Gaunt's long-term mistress Katherine Swynford. Those descended from English monarchs only through an illegitimate child would normally have no claim on the throne, but the situation was complicated when Gaunt and Swynford eventually married in 1396 (25 years after John Beaufort's birth). In view of the marriage, the church retroactively declared the Beauforts legitimate via a papal bull the same year.[84] Parliament did the same in an Act in 1397.[85] A subsequent proclamation by John of Gaunt's legitimate son, King Henry IV, also recognised the Beauforts' legitimacy, but declared them ineligible ever to inherit the throne.[86] Nevertheless, the Beauforts remained closely allied with Gaunt's other descendants, the Royal House of Lancaster.

John Beaufort's granddaughter Lady Margaret Beaufort was married to Edmund Tudor. Tudor was the son of Welsh courtier Owain Tudur (anglicised to Owen Tudor) and Catherine of Valois, the widow of the Lancastrian King Henry V. Edmund Tudor and his siblings were either illegitimate, or the product of a secret marriage, and owed their fortunes to the goodwill of their legitimate half-brother King Henry VI. When the House of Lancaster fell from power, the Tudors followed.

By the late 15th century, the Tudors were the last hope for the Lancaster supporters. Edmund Tudor's son became king as Henry VII after defeating Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth Field in 1485, winning the Wars of the Roses. King Henry married Elizabeth of York, daughter of Edward IV, thereby uniting the Lancastrian and York lineages. (See family tree.)

With Henry VIII's break from the Roman Catholic Church, the monarch became the Supreme Head of the Church of England and of the Church of Ireland. Elizabeth I's title became the Supreme Governor of the Church of England.

Name Portrait Arms Birth Marriages Death Claim Ref.
Henry VII
22 August 1485[q]

21 April 1509
(23 years, 243 days)
Henry VII, by Michel Sittow, 1505 Royal Arms of England (1399-1603).svg 28 January 1457
Pembroke Castle
Son of Edmund Tudor
and Margaret Beaufort
Elizabeth of York
Westminster Abbey
18 January 1486
8 children
21 April 1509
Richmond Palace
Aged 52
Great-great-great-grandson of Edward III
Right of conquest
[87]
Henry VIII
22 April 1509[r]

28 January 1547
(37 years, 282 days)
Henry VIII, by Hans Holbein, c.1536 Royal Arms of England (1399-1603).svg 28 June 1491
Greenwich Palace
Son of Henry VII
and Elizabeth of York
(1) Catherine of Aragon
Greenwich
11 June 1509
1 daughter
(2) Anne Boleyn
Westminster Palace
25 January 1533[xiv]
1 daughter
(3) Jane Seymour
Whitehall Palace
30 May 1536
1 son
3 further marriages
No more children
28 January 1547
Whitehall Palace
Aged 55
Son of Henry VII
Primogeniture
[88]
[89]
Edward VI
28 January 1547[s]

6 July 1553
(6 years, 160 days)
Edward VI, by Hans Eworth Royal Arms of England (1399-1603).svg 12 October 1537
Hampton Court Palace
Son of Henry VIII
and Jane Seymour
Does not appear Unmarried 6 July 1553
Greenwich Palace
Aged 15
Son of Henry VIII
Primogeniture
[90]

Disputed claimant

Edward VI named Lady Jane Grey as his heir in his will, overruling the order of succession laid down by Parliament in the Third Succession Act. Four days after his death on 6 July 1553, Jane was proclaimed queen—the first of three Tudor women to be proclaimed queen regnant. Nine days after the proclamation, on 19 July, the Privy Council switched allegiance and proclaimed Edward VI's Catholic half-sister Mary queen. Jane was executed for treason in 1554, aged 16.

Name Portrait Arms Birth Marriages Death Claim Ref.
(Title disputed)
Jane
10 July 1553

19 July 1553
(Overthrown after 9 days)
Streathamladyjayne.jpg Arms of Grey Family.svg October 1537
Bradgate Park
Daughter of the 1st Duke of Suffolk
and Frances Brandon
Guildford Dudley
The Strand
21 May 1553
No children
12 February 1554
Tower of London
Executed aged 16
Great-granddaughter of Henry VII
Devise for the Succession
[91]
[92]

Name Portrait Arms Birth Marriages Death Claim Ref.
Mary I
Bloody Mary
19 July 1553[t]

17 November 1558
(5 years, 122 days)
Mary I, by Antonius Mor, 1554 Royal Arms of England (1554-1558).svg 18 February 1516
Greenwich Palace
Daughter of Henry VIII
and Catherine of Aragon
Philip II of Spain
Winchester Cathedral
25 July 1554
No children
17 November 1558
St James's Palace
Aged 42
Daughter of Henry VIII
Third Succession Act
[93]
(Jure uxoris)
Philip
25 July 1554[xv]

17 November 1558
(4 years, 116 days)
King Philip of England Royal Arms of England (1554-1558).svg 21 May 1527
Valladolid
Son of Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire
and Isabella of Portugal
Mary I of England
Winchester Cathedral
25 July 1554
No children
3 other marriages
7 children
13 September 1598
El Escorial
Aged 71
Husband of Mary I
Act for the Marriage of Queen Mary to Philip of Spain
N/A
Coat of arms of Mary I

Under the terms of the marriage treaty between Philip I of Naples (Philip II of Spain from 15 January 1556) and Queen Mary I, Philip was to enjoy Mary's titles and honours for as long as their marriage should last. All official documents, including Acts of Parliament, were to be dated with both their names, and Parliament was to be called under the joint authority of the couple. An Act of Parliament gave him the title of king and stated that he "shall aid her Highness … in the happy administration of her Grace's realms and dominions"[94] (although elsewhere the Act stated that Mary was to be "sole queen"). Nonetheless, Philip was to co-reign with his wife.[95]

As the new King of England could not read English, it was ordered that a note of all matters of state should be made in Latin or Spanish.[95][96][97] Coins were minted showing the heads of both Mary and Philip, and the coat of arms of England (pictured right) was impaled with Philip's to denote their joint reign.[98][99] Acts which made it high treason to deny Philip's royal authority were passed in England (see Treason Act 1554) and Ireland.[100] In 1555, Pope Paul IV issued a papal bull recognising Philip and Mary as rightful King and Queen of Ireland.

Name Portrait Arms Birth Marriages Death Claim Ref.
Elizabeth I
17 November 1558[u]

24 March 1603
(44 years, 128 days)
Elizabeth I, by Darnley Royal Arms of England (1399-1603).svg 7 September 1533
Greenwich Palace
Daughter of Henry VIII
and Anne Boleyn
Does not appear Unmarried 24 March 1603
Richmond Palace
Aged 69
Daughter of Henry VIII
Third Succession Act
[101]

House of Stuart

Following the death of Elizabeth I in 1603 without issue, her first cousin twice removed, King James VI of Scotland, succeeded to the English throne as James I in the Union of the Crowns. James was descended from the Tudors through his great-grandmother, Margaret Tudor, the eldest daughter of Henry VII and wife of James IV of Scotland. In 1604, he adopted the title King of Great Britain. However, the two parliaments remained separate until the Acts of Union 1707.[102]

Name Portrait Arms Birth Marriages Death Claim Ref.
James I
24 March 1603[v]

27 March 1625
(22 years, 4 days)
James I, by Paulus van Somer Royal Arms of England (1603-1707).svg 19 June 1566
Edinburgh Castle
Son of Mary, Queen of Scots and Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley
Anne of Denmark
Oslo
23 November 1589
7 children
27 March 1625
Theobalds House
Aged 58
Great-great-grandson / heir general of Henry VII [103]
Charles I
27 March 1625[w]

30 January 1649
(23 years, 310 days)
Charles I, by Anthony van Dyck Royal Arms of England (1603-1707).svg 19 November 1600
Dunfermline Palace
Son of James I
and Anne of Denmark
Henrietta Maria of France
St Augustine's Abbey
13 June 1625
9 children
30 January 1649
Whitehall Palace
Executed aged 48
Son of James I
Cognatic primogeniture
[104]

Interregnum

No monarch reigned between the execution of Charles I in 1649 and the Restoration of Charles II in 1660. Between 1649 and 1653, there was no single English head of state, as England was ruled directly by the Rump Parliament with the English Council of State acting as executive power during a period known as the Commonwealth of England. After a coup d'etat in 1653, Oliver Cromwell forcibly took control of England from Parliament. He dissolved the Rump Parliament at the head of a military force and England entered a period known as The Protectorate, under Cromwell's direct control with the title Lord Protector.

It was within the power of the Lord Protector to choose his heir and Oliver Cromwell chose his eldest son, Richard Cromwell, to succeed him. Richard lacked both the ability to rule and confidence of the Army, and he was forcibly removed by the English Committee of Safety under the leadership of Charles Fleetwood in May 1659. England again lacked any single head of state during several months of conflict between Fleetwood's party and that of George Monck. Monck took control of the country in December 1659, and after almost a year of anarchy, the monarchy was formally restored when Charles II returned from France to accept the throne of England. This was following the Declaration of Breda and an invitation to reclaim the throne from the Convention Parliament of 1660.

Name Portrait Arms Birth Marriages Death
Lords Protector
Oliver Cromwell
16 December 1653

3 September 1658[105]
(4 years, 262 days)
Oliver Cromwell Arms of the Protectorate (1653–1659).svg 25 April 1599
Huntingdon[105]
Son of Robert Cromwell
and Elizabeth Steward[106]
Elizabeth Bourchier
St Giles[107]
22 August 1620
9 children[105]
3 September 1658
Whitehall
Aged 59[105]
Richard Cromwell
Tumbledown Dick
3 September 1658

7 May 1659[108]
(247 days)
Richard Cromwell, c.1650 Arms of the Protectorate (1653–1659).svg 4 October 1626
Huntingdon
Son of Oliver Cromwell
and Elizabeth Bourchier[108]
Dorothy Maijor
May 1649
9 children[108]
12 July 1712
Cheshunt
Aged 85[109]

House of Stuart (restored)

After the Monarchy was restored, England came under the rule of Charles II, whose reign was relatively peaceful domestically, given the tumultuous time of the Interregnum years. Tensions still existed between Catholics and Protestants. With the ascension of Charles's brother, the openly Catholic James II, England was again sent into a period of political turmoil.

James II was ousted by Parliament less than three years after ascending to the throne, replaced by his daughter Mary II and her husband (also his nephew) William III during the Glorious Revolution. While James and his descendants would continue to claim the throne, all Catholics (such as James and his son Charles) were barred from the throne by the Act of Settlement 1701, enacted by Anne, another of James's Protestant daughters. After the Acts of Union 1707, England as a sovereign state ceased to exist, replaced by the new Kingdom of Great Britain.

Name Portrait Arms Birth Marriages Death Claim Ref.
(Recognised by Royalists in 1649)
Charles II
29 May 1660[x]

6 February 1685
(24 years, 254 days)
Charles II of England.jpeg Royal Arms of England (1603-1707).svg 29 May 1630
St James's Palace
Son of Charles I
and Henrietta Maria of France
Catherine of Braganza
Portsmouth
21 May 1662
No children
6 February 1685
Whitehall Palace
Aged 54
Son of Charles I
Cognatic primogeniture
English Restoration
[110]
[111]
James II
6 February 1685[y]

23 December 1688
(Overthrown after 3 years, 321 days)
James II (Gennari Benedetto).jpg Royal Arms of England (1603-1707).svg 14 October 1633
St James's Palace
Son of Charles I
and Henrietta Maria of France
(1) Anne Hyde
The Strand
3 September 1660
8 children
(2) Mary of Modena
Dover
21 November 1673
7 children
16 September 1701
Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye
Aged 67
Son of Charles I
Cognatic primogeniture
[112]
Mary II
13 February 1689[z]

28 December 1694
(5 years, 319 days)
Mary II - Kneller 1690.jpg Royal Arms of England (1689-1694).svg 30 April 1662
St James's Palace
Daughter of James II
and Anne Hyde
William III of England
St James's Palace
4 November 1677
No children
28 December 1694
Kensington Palace
Aged 32
Daughter of James II
Offered the Crown by Parliament
[113]
William III
William of Orange
13 February 1689[z]

8 March 1702
(13 years, 24 days)
Portrait of William III, (1650-1702).jpg Royal Arms of England (1694-1702).svg 4 November 1650
The Hague
Son of William II of Orange
and Mary of England
Mary II of England
St James's Palace
4 November 1677
No children
8 March 1702
Kensington Palace
Aged 51
Grandson of Charles I
Offered the Crown by Parliament
[114]
[113]
Anne
8 March 1702[aa]

1 May 1707[115]
(5 years, 55 days)
(Queen of Great Britain until
1 August 1714)
(12 years, 147 days)
Dahl, Michael - Queen Anne - NPG 6187.jpg Royal Arms of England (1603-1707).svg 6 February 1665
St James's Palace
Daughter of James II
and Anne Hyde
George of Denmark
St James's Palace
28 July 1683
No surviving children
1 August 1714
Kensington Palace
Aged 49
Daughter of James II
Cognatic primogeniture
Bill of Rights 1689
[116]
After the Acts of Union 1707 → See List of British monarchs.

Wales

King of Wales was a very rarely used title, because Wales, much like Ireland, never achieved a degree of political unity, like that of England or Scotland during the Middle Ages. While many different leaders in Wales claimed the title of 'King of Wales', the country was only truly united once and that occurred under the rule of Gruffydd ap Llywelyn from 1055 to 1063.[117]

Scotland

House of Alpin (848–1034)

The reign of Kenneth MacAlpin begins what is often called the House of Alpin, an entirely modern concept. The descendants of Kenneth MacAlpin were divided into two branches; the crown would alternate between the two, the death of a king from one branch often hastened by war or assassination by a pretender from the other. Malcolm II was the last king of the House of Alpin; in his reign, he successfully crushed all opposition to him and, having no sons, was able to pass the crown to his daughter's son, Duncan I, who inaugurated the House of Dunkeld.

Portrait Traditional modern English regnal name
(with modern Gaelic equivalent)
Medieval Gaelic name Dynastic Status Reign Title Epithet
Kenneth MacAlpin.jpg Kenneth I MacAlpin[118]
(Coinneach mac Ailpein)[119]
Cináed mac Ailpín
Ciniod m. Ailpin
son of Alpin king of Dál Riata 843/848 – 13 February 858 Rex Pictorum
("King of the Picts")
An Ferbasach,
"The Conqueror"[120]
Donald MacAlpin.jpg Donald I[121]
(Dòmhnall mac Ailpein)
Domnall mac Ailpín son of Alpin king of Dál Riata, and brother of Kenneth I 858 – 13 April 862
Constantine I of Scotland (Holyrood).jpg Constantine I[122]
(Còiseam mac Choinnich)
Causantín mac Cináeda Son of Kenneth I 862–877 An Finn-Shoichleach,
"The Wine-Bountiful"[123]
Áed, king of Scots.jpg Áed[124]
(Aodh mac Choinnich)
Áed mac Cináeda 877–878
Gregorius the Great or Giric of Scotland.jpg Giric[125]
(Griogair mac Dhunghail)
Giric mac Dúngail Son of Donald I? 878–889 Mac Rath,
"Son of Fortune"[126]
Eochaid Eochaid mac Run grandson of Kenneth I* 878–889?*
Donald II of Scotland (Holyrood).jpg Donald II[127]
(Dòmhnall mac Chòiseim)
Domnall mac Causantín Son of Constantine I 889–900 Rí Alban
("King of Scotland")

Rì nan Albannaich
("King of Scots")
Dásachtach,
"the Madman"[128]
Constantine II of Scotland (Holyrood).jpg Constantine II[129]
(Còiseam mac Aoidh)
Causantín mac Áeda Son of Áed 900–943 An Midhaise,
"the Middle Aged"[130]
Malcolm I of Scotland (Holyrood).jpg Malcolm I[131]
(Maol Chaluim mac Dhòmhnaill)
Máel Coluim mac Domnall Son of Donald II 943–954 An Bodhbhdercc,
"the Dangerous Red"[132]
An Ionsaighthigh.jpg Indulf[133][134] Ildulb mac Causantín Son of Constantine II 954–962 An Ionsaighthigh,
"the Aggressor"[135]
Dub, King of Scotland d. 967, r. 962-967.jpg Dub[136]
(Dubh or Duff)
(Dubh mac Mhaoil Chaluim)
Dub mac Maíl Choluim Son of Malcolm I 962–967 Dén,
"the Vehement"[137]
Culenus, King of Scotland, 966 (crop).jpg Cuilén[138]
(Cailean)
Cuilén mac Ilduilb Son of Indulf 967–971 An Fionn,
"the White"[139]
Amlaíb mac Illuilb (Oxford Bodleian Library MS Rawlinson B 488, folio 15r).jpg Amlaíb
(Amhlaigh)
Amlaíb mac Ilduilb Son of Indulf 973–977‡
Kenneth II of Scotland (Holyrood).jpg Kenneth II[140]
(Coinneach mac Mhaoil Chaluim)
Cináed mac Maíl Choluim Son of Malcolm I 971–995 An Fionnghalach,
"the Fratricide"[141]
Constantine III (Alba).jpg Constantine III[142]
(Còiseam mac Chailein)
Causantín mac Cuiléin Son of Cuilén 995–997
Kenneth III of Scotland.jpg Kenneth III[143]
(Coinneach mac Dhuibh)
Cináed mac Duib Son of Dub 997 – 25 March 1005 An Donn,
"the Chief"/ "the Brown"[144]
Malcolm II of Scotland (Holyrood).jpg Malcolm II[145]
(Maol Chaluim mac Choinnich)
Máel Coluim mac Cináeda Son of Kenneth II 1005–1034 Forranach,
"the Destroyer"[146]

*Eochiad was a son of Run, King of Strathclyde, but his mother was a daughter of Kenneth I. Evidence of his reign is unclear. He may have never actually been king and if he was, he was co-king with Giric.

‡Amlaíb is known only by a reference to his death in 977, which reports him as King of Alba; since Kenneth II is known to have still been King in 972–973, Amlaíb must have taken power between 973 and 977.

House of Dunkeld (1034–1286)

Duncan succeeded to the throne as the maternal grandson of Malcolm II. He was also the heir-general of Malcolm I, as his paternal grandfather, Duncan of Atholl was the third son of Malcolm I. The House of Dunkeld was therefore closely related to the House of Alpin. Duncan was killed in battle by Macbeth, who had a long and relatively successful reign. In a series of battles between 1057 and 1058, Duncan's son Malcolm III defeated and killed Macbeth and Macbeth's stepson and heir Lulach, claiming the throne. The dynastic feuds did not end there: on Malcolm III's death in battle, his brother Donald III, known as "Bán", claimed the throne, expelling Malcolm III's sons from Scotland. A civil war in the family ensued, with Donald III and Malcolm III's son Edmund opposed by Malcolm III's English-backed sons, led first by Duncan II and then by Edgar. Edgar triumphed, sending his uncle and brother to monasteries. After the reign of David I, the Scottish throne was passed according to rules of primogeniture, moving from father to son, or where not possible, brother to brother.

Modern English & Regnal Name
(Modern Gaelic Name)
(Medieval Gaelic Name)

Reign
Portrait Medieval Title Epithet
Nickname
Marriages Dynastic Status
(Father's Family)
Duncan I[147]
(Donnchadh mac Crìonain)
(Donnchad mac Crínáin)

1034–1040
Donnchad I.jpg Rí Alban An t-Ilgarach
"the Diseased"
or "the Sick"
[148]
Suthen
at least two sons
Grandson of Malcolm II
Macbeth[149]
(MacBheatha mac Fhionnlaigh)
(Mac Bethad mac Findláich)

1040–1057
Macbeth of Scotland (Holyrood).jpg Rí Alban Rí Deircc
"the Red King"[150]
Gruoch of Scotland
no children
Son of Mormaer Findláech
Lulach[151]
(Lughlagh mac Gille Chomghain)
(Lulach mac Gille Comgaín)

1057–1058
Rí Alban Tairbith
"the Unfortunate"[150]
-
Fatuus
"the Foolish"[152]
Unknown
two children
Son of Gille Coemgáin, Mormaer of Moray and Gruoch of Scotland
Step-son of Macbeth
Malcolm III[153]
(Maol Chaluim mac Dhonnchaidh)
(Máel Coluim mac Donnchada)

1058–1093
Malcolm III Engraving.jpg Rí Alban / Scottorum basileus ? Cenn Mór ("Canmore")
"Great Chief"
[154]
Ingibiorg Finnsdottir
three sons

Margaret of Wessex
1070
eight children
Son of Duncan I
Donald III[155]
(Dòmhnall mac Dhonnchaidh)
(Domnall mac Donnchada)

1093–1097
Donald III of Scotland - 16th-17th Century.jpg
Rí Alban Bán,
"the Fair"
Unknown
at least one daughter
Duncan II[156]
(Donnchadh mac Mhaoil Chaluim)
(Donnchad mac Maíl Choluim)

1094
Duncan II of Scotland (Holyrood).jpg Rí Alban / Rex Scottorum Uchtreda of Northumbria
one son
Son of Malcolm III
Edgar[157]
(Eagar mac Mhaoil Chaluim)
(Étgar mac Maíl Choluim)

1097–1107
Edgar of Scotland (Holyrood).jpg Rí Alban / Rex Scottorum Probus,
"the Valiant"[158]
None
Alexander I[159]
(Alasdair mac Mhaoil Chaluim)
(Alaxandair mac Maíl Choluim)

1107–1124
Alexander I of Scotland (Holyrood).jpg Rí Alban / Rex Scottorum "the Fierce"[160] Sybilla of Normandy
no children
David I[161]
(Dàibhidh mac Mhaoil Chaluim)
(Dabíd mac Maíl Choluim)

1124–1153
David I of Scotland (Holyrood).jpg Rí Alban / Rex Scottorum "the Saint"[162] Maud, Countess of Huntingdon
1113
four children
Malcolm IV[163]
(Maol Chaluim mac Eanraig)
(Máel Coluim mac Eanric)

1153–1165
Malcolm IV of Scotland (Holyrood).jpg Rí Alban / Rex Scottorum Virgo
"the Maiden"
-
Cenn Mór,
"Great Chief"[154]
None Grandson of David I
William I
(Uilleam mac Eanraig)
(Uilliam mac Eanric)

1165–1214
William I of Scotland (Holyrood).jpg Rí Alban / Rex Scottorum "the Lion"
-
Garbh,
"the Rough"[164]
Ermengarde de Beaumont
Woodstock Palace, Oxford, England
5 September 1186
four children
Alexander II[165]
(Alasdair mac Uilleim)
(Alaxandair mac Uilliam)

1214–1249
Alexander II (Alba) ii (transparent).png Rí Alban / Rex Scottorum Joan of England
York Minster, England
21 June 1221
no children

Marie de Coucy
Roxburgh
15 May 1239
one son
Son of William I
Alexander III[166]
(Alasdair mac Alasdair)
(Alaxandair mac Alaxandair)

1249–1286
Alexand3.jpg Rí Alban / Rex Scottorum Margaret of England
York Minster, England
25 December 1251
three children

Yolande de Dreux
Jedburgh Abbey
15 October 1285
no children
Son of Alexander II

House of Sverre (1286–1290)

The status of Margaret, Maid of Norway, as a Scottish monarch is debated by historians. One of her biographers, Archie Duncan, argues that because she was "never inaugurated, she was never queen of Scots". Another, Norman H. Reid, insists that Margaret was "accepted as queen" by her contemporaries but that, owing to the lack of Inauguration, "[her] reign never started".

Name Portrait Birth Marriage(s) Death Dynastic status
Margaret[167]
the Maid of Norway
1286–1290
Margaret, Maid of Norway imaginary.jpg c. April 1283
Tønsberg, Norway
daughter of Eric II of Norway and Margaret of Scotland
None September/October 1290
St Margaret's Hope, Orkney
aged 7
granddaughter of Alexander III

First Interregnum (1290–1292)

Monarchy of Scotland restored

House of Balliol (1292–1296)

The death of Margaret of Norway began a two-year interregnum in Scotland caused by a succession crisis. With her death, the descent of William I became extinct and there was no obvious heir. Thirteen candidates presented themselves; the most prominent were John Balliol, great-grandson of William I's younger brother David of Huntingdon, and Robert de Brus, 5th Lord of Annandale, David of Huntingdon's grandson. The Scottish magnates invited Edward I of England to arbitrate the claims. He did so but forced the Scots to swear allegiance to him as overlord. Eventually, it was decided that John Balliol should become king. He proved weak and incapable and, in 1296, was forced to abdicate by Edward I who then attempted to annex Scotland into the Kingdom of England.

Name Portrait Birth Marriage(s) Death Dynastic status
John Balliol[168]
Toom Tabard ("Empty Cloak")
(Iain Balliol)
1292–1296
SetonArmorialJohnBalliolAndWife.jpg c. 1249 Isabella de Warenne
9 February 1281
at least one son

c. 25 November 1314
Picardy, France

great-grandson of David of Huntingdon (brother of William I)

Second Interregnum (1296–1306)

Monarchy of Scotland restored (second time)

House of Bruce (1306–1371)

For ten years, Scotland had no king. The Scots, however, refused to tolerate English rule. First William Wallace then John Comyn and finally Robert the Bruce (the grandson of the 1292 competitor, Robert de Brus, 5th Lord of Annandale) fought against the English. Bruce and his supporters had murdered their rival to the throne of Scotland, John Comyn, on 10 February 1306 at Greyfriars Church in Dumfries. Shortly after in 1306, Robert was crowned King of Scots at Scone. Robert Bruce was then hunted down for his crime of murder, and subsequently he escaped to the outskirt islands. Leaving the country completely leaderless and the English invaded once again. Bruce would return a year later and gain support for his cause. His energy, and the corresponding replacement of the vigorous Edward I with his weaker son Edward II in 1307, allowed Scotland to free itself from English rule. At the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314, the Scots routed the English, and by 1328 the English had agreed by treaty to accept Scottish independence. Robert's son, David, acceded to the throne as a child. The English renewed their war with Scotland, and David was forced to flee the kingdom by Edward Balliol, son of King John, who managed to get himself crowned (1332–1356) and to give away Scotland's southern counties to England before being driven out again. David spent much of his life in exile, first in freedom with his ally, France, and then in prison in England. He was only able to return to Scotland in 1357. Upon his death, childless, in 1371, the House of Bruce came to an end.

Name Portrait Birth Marriage(s) Death Dynastic status
Robert I[169]
the Bruce
(Raibeart a Briuis)
1306–1329
Robert I and Isabella of Mar, Seton Armorial.jpg 11 July 1274
Turnberry Castle, Ayrshire
son of Robert de Brus, 6th Lord of Annandale and Marjorie, Countess of Carrick[170]
Isabella of Mar
1295
one daughter

Elizabeth de Burgh
Writtle, Essex, England
1302
four children
7 June 1329
Manor of Cardross, Dunbartonshire
aged 54
great-great-grandson of David of Huntingdon (brother of William I)
(election)
David II[171]
(Dàibhidh Bruis)
1329–1371
David II, King of Scotland and Edward III, King of England (British Library MS Cotton Nero D VI, folio 66v).jpg 5 March 1324
Dunfermline Palace, Fife
son of Robert I and Elizabeth de Burgh
Joan of England
Berwick-upon-Tweed
17 July 1328
no children

Margaret Drummond
Inchmurdach, Fife
20 February 1364
no children
22 February 1371
Edinburgh Castle
aged 46
son of Robert I (primogeniture)

Disputed claimant

House of Balliol (1332–1356)

Edward Balliol was the son of King John Balliol, who had himself ruled for four years following his election in the Great Cause. Following his abdication, John Balliol lived out his life in obscurity in Picardy, France. During the minority of David II, Edward Balliol seized the opportunity to assert his claim to the throne, and backed by the English, he defeated the forces of David's regency and was himself crowned king at Scone in 1332. He was quickly defeated by loyalist forces, and sent back to England. With English support, he would mount two more attempts to seize the throne again, in 1333 and 1335, each time his actual control of the throne was brief before being sent back to England, for the last time in 1336. When David returned from exile in 1341 to rule in his own right, Edward lost most of his support. When David II was captured in battle in 1346, Edward made one last attempt to seize the throne for himself, but had little support and the campaign fizzled before it gained much traction. In 1356 he renounced all claims to the throne.

Name Portrait Birth Marriage(s) Death Claim
Edward Balliol[172]
1332–1356
In opposition to David II
Edward Balliol.jpg 1283
Son of John Balliol and Isabella de Warenne
None 1367
Doncaster, Yorkshire, England
aged 83–84
Son of John Balliol, candidate of the English to replace the exiled David II

House of Stewart/Stuart (1371–1651)

Robert the Stewart was a grandson of Robert I by the latter's daughter, Marjorie. Having been born in 1316, he was older than his uncle, David II. Consequently, he was at his accession a middle aged man, already 55, and unable to reign vigorously, a problem also faced by his son Robert III, who also ascended in middle age at 53 in 1390, and suffered lasting damage in a horse-riding accident. These two were followed by a series of regencies, caused by the youth of the succeeding five boy kings. Consequently, the Stewart era saw periods of royal inertia, during which the nobles usurped power from the crown, followed by periods of personal rule by the monarch, during which he or she would attempt to address the issues created by their own minority and the long-term effects of previous reigns. Governing Scotland became increasingly difficult, as the powerful nobility became increasingly intractable. James I's attempts to curb the disorder of the realm ended in his assassination. James III was killed in a civil war between himself and the nobility, led by his own son. When James IV, who had governed sternly and suppressed the aristocrats, died in the Battle of Flodden, his wife Margaret Tudor, who had been nominated regent for their young son James V, was unseated by noble feuding, and James V's own wife, Mary of Guise, succeeded in ruling Scotland during the regency for her young daughter Mary I only by dividing and conquering the noble factions, distributing French bribes with a liberal hand. Finally, Mary I, the daughter of James V, found herself unable to govern Scotland faced with the surliness of the aristocracy and the intransigence of the population, who favoured Calvinism and disapproved of her Catholicism. She was forced to abdicate, and fled to England, where she was imprisoned in various castles and manor houses for eighteen years and finally executed for treason against the English queen Elizabeth I. Upon her abdication, her son, fathered by Henry, Lord Darnley, a junior member of the Stewart family, became King as James VI.

James VI became King of England and Ireland as James I in 1603, when his cousin Elizabeth I died. Thereafter, although the two crowns of England and Scotland remained separate, the monarchy was based chiefly in England. Charles I, James's son, found himself faced with Civil War. The resultant conflict lasted eight years, and ended in his execution. The English Parliament then decreed their monarchy to be at an end. The Scots Parliament, after some deliberation, broke their links with England, and declared that Charles II, son and heir of Charles I, would become King. He ruled until 1651 when the armies of Oliver Cromwell occupied Scotland and drove him into exile.

Name Portrait Birth Marriage(s) Death Dynastic status
Robert II[173]
the Stewart
(Raibeart II Stiùbhairt)
1371–1390
Robert and Euphemia.jpg 2 March 1316
Paisley, Renfrewshire
son of Walter Stewart, 6th High Steward of Scotland and Marjorie Bruce
Elizabeth Mure
1336 (uncertain canonicity)
1349 (with Papal dispensation)
ten children

Euphemia de Ross
2 May 1355
four children
19 April 1390
Dundonald Castle, Ayrshire
aged 74
grandson of Robert I (primogeniture)
Robert III[174] (born John Stewart)
the Lame King
(Raibeart III Stiùbhairt, An Righ Bhacaigh)
1390–1406
Robert III and Annabella Drummond.jpg c. 1337
Scone Palace, Perth
son of Robert II and Elizabeth Mure
Anabella Drummond
1367
seven children
4 April 1406
Rothesay Castle
aged about 69
son of Robert II (primogeniture)
James I[175]
(Seumas I Stiùbhairt)
1406–1437
King James I of Scotland.jpg late July 1394
Dunfermline Palace, Fife
son of Robert III and Anabella Drummond
Joan Beaufort
Southwark Cathedral
2 February 1424
eight children
21 February 1437
Blackfriars, Perth
aged about 42
son of Robert III (primogeniture)
James II[176]
Fiery Face
(Seumas II Stiùbhairt)
1437–1460
James II of Scotland 17th century.jpg 16 October 1430
Holyrood Abbey, Edinburgh
son of James I and Joan Beaufort
Mary of Guelders
Holyrood Abbey
3 July 1449
seven children
3 August 1460
Roxburgh Castle
aged 29
son of James I (primogeniture)
James III[177]
(Seumas III Stiùbhairt)
1460–1488
James III of Scotland.jpg 10 July 1451
Stirling Castle or St Andrews Castle
son of James II and Mary of Guelders
Margaret of Denmark
Holyrood Abbey
13 July 1469
three children
11 June 1488
Sauchie Burn
aged 36
son of James II (primogeniture)
James IV[178]
(Seumas IV Stiùbhairt)
1488–1513
James IV of Scotland.jpg 17 March 1473
Stirling Castle
son of James III and Margaret of Denmark
Margaret Tudor
Holyrood Abbey
8 August 1503
six children
9 September 1513
Flodden Field, Northumberland, England
aged 40
son of James III (primogeniture)
James V[179]
(Seumas V Stiùbhairt)
1513–1542
James V of Scotland2.jpg 15 April 1512
Linlithgow Palace, West Lothian
son of James IV and Margaret Tudor
Madeleine of Valois
Notre Dame Cathedral, Paris, France
1 January 1537
no children

Mary of Guise
Notre Dame Cathedral, Paris, France
18 May 1538
three children
14 December 1542
Falkland Palace, Fife
aged 30
son of James IV (primogeniture)
Mary I[180]
(Màiri Stiùbhairt)
1542–1567
Mary Queen of Scots Blairs Museum.jpg 8 December 1542
Linlithgow Palace
daughter of James V and Mary of Guise
François II, King of France
24 April 1558
no children

Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley
Holyrood Palace, Edinburgh
9 July 1565
one child

James Hepburn, 4th Earl of Bothwell
Holyrood Palace
15 May 1567
no children
8 February 1587
Fotheringhay Castle, Northamptonshire, England
aged 44 (executed)
daughter of James V (cognatic primogeniture)
James VI[181]
(Seumas VI Stiùbhairt)
1567–1625
JamesIEngland.jpg 19 June 1566
Edinburgh Castle
son of Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley and Mary I
Anne of Denmark
Old Bishop's Palace, Oslo, Norway
23 November 1589
seven children
27 March 1625
Theobalds House, Hertfordshire, England
aged 58
son of Mary I (primogeniture)
Charles I[182]
(Teàrlach I Stiùbhairt)
1625–1649
King Charles I after original by van Dyck.jpg 19 November 1600
Dunfermline Palace, Dunfermline
son of James VI and Anne of Denmark
Henrietta Maria of France
St Augustine's Church, Canterbury, England
13 June 1625
nine children
30 January 1649
Palace of Whitehall, Westminster, England
aged 48 (executed)
son of James VI (primogeniture)
Charles II[183]
(Teàrlach II Stiùbhairt)
1649–1651
Charles II of England.jpeg 29 May 1630
St James's Palace, Westminster, England
son of Charles I and Henrietta Maria of France
Catherine of Braganza
Portsmouth, England
14 May 1662
no children
6 February 1685
Palace of Whitehall, Westminster, England
aged 54
son of Charles I (primogeniture)

Third Interregnum (1651–1660)

Monarchy of Scotland restored (third time)

House of Stuart restored (1660–1707)

With the Scottish Restoration, the Stuarts became Kings of Scotland once more but Scotland's rights were not respected. During the reign of Charles II the Scottish Parliament was dissolved and James was appointed Governor of Scotland. James II himself became James VII in 1685. His Catholicism was not tolerated, and he was driven out of England after three years. In his place came his daughter Mary and her husband William of Orange, the ruler of the Dutch Republic. The two were accepted as monarchs of Scotland after a period of deliberation by the Scottish Parliament, and ruled together as William II and Mary II.

An attempt to establish a Scottish colonial empire through the Darien Scheme, in rivalry to that of England, failed, leaving the Scottish nobles who financed the venture for their own profit bankrupt. This coincided with the accession of Queen Anne, daughter of James VII. Anne had multiple children but none of these survived her, leaving as her heir her half-brother, James, then living in exile in France. The English favoured the Protestant Sophia of Hanover (a granddaughter of James VI) as heir. Many Scots preferred Prince James, who as a Stuart was a Scot by ancestry, and threatened to break the Union of Crowns between England and Scotland by choosing him for themselves. To preserve the union, the English elaborated a plan whereby the two Kingdoms of Scotland and England would merge into a single Kingdom, the Kingdom of Great Britain, ruled by a common monarch, and with a single Parliament. Both national parliaments agreed to this (the Scots albeit reluctantly, motivated primarily by the national finances), and some subterfuge as a total majority of signatories was needed to ratify the Scottish parliament's assent, bribes and payments. Thereafter, although monarchs continued to rule over the nation of Scotland, they did so first as monarchs of Great Britain, and from 1801 of the United Kingdom.

Name Portrait Birth Marriage(s) Death Dynastic status
Charles II[183]
(Teàrlach II Stiùbhairt)
1660–1685
Charles II of England.jpeg 29 May 1630
St James's Palace, Westminster, England
son of Charles I and Henrietta Maria of France
Catherine of Braganza
Portsmouth, England
14 May 1662
no children
6 February 1685
Palace of Whitehall, Westminster, England
aged 54
son of Charles I (primogeniture)
James VII[184]
(Seumas VII Stiùbhairt)
1685–1688
James II (Gennari Benedetto).jpg 14 October 1633
St James's Palace, Westminster, England
son of Charles I and Henrietta Maria of France
Anne Hyde
The Strand, London, England
3 September 1660
eight children

Mary of Modena
Dover, England
21 November 1673
seven children
16 September 1701
Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye, France
aged 67
Mary II[185]
(Màiri II Stiùbhairt)
1689–1694
Mary II - Kneller 1690.jpg 30 April 1662
St James's Palace, England
daughter of James VII (II of England) and Anne Hyde
St James's Palace
4 November 1677
three children (none survived infancy)
28 December 1694
Kensington Palace, England
aged 32
grandchildren of Charles I (offered the crown by the Parliament)
William II[185]
(Uilleam Orains, "William of Orange")
1689–1702
Portrait of William III, (1650-1702).jpg 4 November 1650
The Hague, Dutch Republic
son of William II, Prince of Orange and Mary, Princess Royal
8 March 1702
Kensington Palace
aged 51
Anne[186]
(Anna Stiùbhairt)
1702–1707
Queen of Great Britain and Ireland
1707–1714
Dahl, Michael - Queen Anne - NPG 6187.jpg 6 February 1665
St James's Palace
daughter of James VII and Anne Hyde
George of Denmark
St James's Palace
28 July 1683
17 children
1 August 1714
Kensington Palace
aged 49
daughter of James VII (primogeniture; Bill of Rights 1689)

Britain

House of Stuart (1707–1714)

Anne had been Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland since 8 March 1702, and so became Queen of Great Britain upon the Union of England and Scotland. (Her total reign was 12 years and 21 weeks.)

Name Portrait Arms Birth Marriages Death Claim Ref.
Before the Acts of Union 1707 → See List of English monarchs, List of Scottish monarchs
Anne
1 May 1707

1 August 1714
(7 years, 92 days)
Dahl, Michael - Queen Anne - NPG 6187.jpg Royal Arms of Great Britain (1707-1714).svg 6 February 1665
St James's Palace
Daughter of James II and VII
and Anne Hyde
Prince George of Denmark
St James's Palace
28 July 1683
No surviving children
1 August 1714
Kensington Palace
Aged: 49 years, 176 days
Daughter of James II and VII
Cognatic primogeniture
Bill of Rights 1689
[187]

House of Hanover (1714–1901)

The Hanoverian succession came about as a result of the Act of Settlement 1701, passed by the Parliament of England, which excluded "Papists" (i.e. Roman Catholics) from the succession. In return for access to the English plantations in North America and the West Indies, the Hanoverian succession and the Union were ratified by the Parliament of Scotland in 1707.

After the death of Anne, with no living children, her second cousin, George Louis, was the closest heir to the throne who was not Catholic. George was the son of Sophia of Hanover—granddaughter of James VI and I through his daughter Elizabeth.[xvi] The Hanoverian kings of Great Britain retained their German titles, first as electors of Hanover/dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg and later as kings of Hanover; the two lands were ruled as separate states in personal union. The Hanoverian lands were separated when Queen Victoria ascended the throne of Great Britain; as German succession law prevented women from inheriting the Hanoverian throne, her uncle Ernest Augustus inherited in her stead.

Name Portrait Arms Birth Marriages Death Claim Ref.
George I
George Louis
1 August 1714[ab]

11 June 1727
(12 years, 315 days)
King George I by Sir Godfrey Kneller, Bt.jpg Royal Arms of Great Britain (1714-1801).svg 28 May 1660
Leineschloss
Son of Ernest Augustus of Brunswick-Lüneburg
and Sophia of Hanover
Sophia Dorothea of Brunswick-Lüneburg-Celle
21 November 1682
2 children
11 June 1727
Osnabrück
Aged 67 years, 30 days
Great-grandson of James VI and I
Act of Settlement
Eldest son of Sophia of Hanover
[188]
George II
George Augustus
11 June 1727[ac][ad]

25 October 1760
(33 years, 126 days)
George II by Thomas Hudson.jpg Royal Arms of Great Britain (1714-1801).svg 30 October 1683
Herrenhausen
Son of George I
and Sophia Dorothea of Brunswick-Lüneburg-Celle
Caroline of Brandenburg-Ansbach
22 August 1705
Herrenhausen
8 children
25 October 1760
Kensington Palace
Aged 76 years, 361 days
Son of George I [189]
George III
George William Frederick
25 October 1760[ae]

29 January 1820
(59 years, 97 days)
Allan Ramsay - King George III in coronation robes - Google Art Project.jpg Royal Arms of United Kingdom (1816-1837).svg 4 June 1738
Norfolk House
Son of Prince Frederick
and Augusta of Saxe-Gotha
Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
St James's Palace
8 September 1761
15 children
29 January 1820
Windsor Castle
Aged 81 years, 239 days
Grandson of George II [190]
George IV
George Augustus Frederick
29 January 1820[af]

26 June 1830
(10 years, 149 days)
George IV 1821 color.jpg Royal Arms of United Kingdom (1816-1837).svg 12 August 1762
St James's Palace
Son of George III
and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
(1) Maria Fitzherbert
Park Lane
15 September 1785
No verified children
(2) Caroline of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
St James's Palace
8 April 1795
1 daughter
26 June 1830
Windsor Castle
Aged 67 years, 318 days
Sons of George III [191]
William IV
William Henry
26 June 1830[ag]

20 June 1837
(6 years, 360 days)
William IV.jpg Royal Arms of United Kingdom (1816-1837).svg 21 August 1765
Buckingham Palace
Son of George III
and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen
Kew Palace
13 July 1818
2 daughters
20 June 1837
Windsor Castle
Aged 71 years, 303 days
[192]
Victoria
Alexandrina Victoria
20 June 1837[ah]

22 January 1901
(63 years, 217 days)
Queen Victoria 1843.jpg Arms of the United Kingdom (Variant 1).svg 24 May 1819
Kensington Palace
Daughter of the Duke of Kent and Strathearn
and Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
St James's Palace
10 February 1840
9 children
22 January 1901
Osborne House
aged 81 years, 243 days
Granddaughter of George III [193]

Houses of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (1901–1917) and Windsor (from 1917)

Because his father, Albert, Prince Consort, was of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Edward VII inaugurated a new royal house when he succeeded his mother Victoria, the last monarch of the House of Hanover, in 1901. George V changed the name of the House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha to the House of Windsor on 17 July 1917,[194] during the First World War, because of wartime anti-German sentiment in the country.

Name Portrait Arms Birth Marriages Death Claim Ref.
Edward VII
Albert Edward
22 January 1901[ai]

6 May 1910
(9 years, 105 days)
King Edward VII by Sir (Samuel) Luke Fildes.jpg Arms of the United Kingdom (Variant 1).svg 9 November 1841
Buckingham Palace
Son of Queen Victoria
and Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha
Alexandra of Denmark
St George's Chapel
10 March 1863
6 children
6 May 1910
Buckingham Palace
aged 68 years, 178 days
Son of Victoria [195]
George V
George Frederick Ernest Albert
6 May 1910[aj]

20 January 1936
(25 years, 260 days)
King George V 1911.jpg Arms of the United Kingdom (Variant 1).svg 3 June 1865
Marlborough House
Son of Edward VII
and Alexandra of Denmark
Mary of Teck
St James's Palace
6 July 1893
6 children
20 January 1936
Sandringham House
aged 70 years, 231 days
Son of Edward VII [196]
Edward VIII
Edward Albert Christian George Andrew Patrick David
20 January 1936[ak]

11 December 1936
(Abdicated after 326 days)
Edward VIII Portrait - 1936.jpg Arms of the United Kingdom (Variant 1).svg 23 June 1894
White Lodge
Son of George V
and Mary of Teck
Wallis Simpson
Château de Candé
3 June 1937
No children
28 May 1972
Neuilly-sur-Seine
aged 77 years, 340 days
Sons of George V [197]
George VI
Albert Frederick Arthur George
11 December 1936[al]

6 February 1952
(15 years, 58 days)
King George VI.jpg Arms of the United Kingdom (Variant 1).svg 14 December 1895
Sandringham House
Son of George V
and Mary of Teck
Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon
Westminster Abbey
26 April 1923
2 daughters
6 February 1952
Sandringham House
aged 56 years, 54 days
[198]
Elizabeth II
Elizabeth Alexandra Mary
6 February 1952[am]

Present
(69 years, 127 days)
QEII.png Arms of the United Kingdom.svg 21 April 1926
Mayfair
Daughter of George VI
and Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon
Prince Philip of Greece and Denmark
Westminster Abbey
20 November 1947
4 children
Living
Age 95 years, 53 days[xvii]
Daughter of George VI [199]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Ælfweard is buried at Winchester.[9]
  2. ^ Æthelred was forced to go into exile in mid-1013, following Danish attacks, but was invited back following Sweyn Forkbeard's death in 1014.[26]
  3. ^ Harold was only recognised as Regent until 1037, when was recognised as king.[38]
  4. ^ After reigning for approximately 9 weeks, Edgar Atheling submitted to William the Conqueror, who had gained control of the area to the south and immediate west of London.[46]
  5. ^ William I is buried at the Abbey of Saint-Étienne (French: Abbaye aux Hommes) in France.
  6. ^ Henry I is buried at Reading Abbey.
  7. ^ Matilda is not listed as a monarch of England in many genealogies within texts, including Carpenter, David (2003). A Struggle for Mastery. p. 533.; Warren, W.L. (1973). Henry II. p. 176.; and Gillingham, John (1984). The Angevin Empire. p. x..
  8. ^ Henry II is buried at Fontevraud Abbey.
  9. ^ Richard II was buried at Rouen Cathedral. His body currently lies at Fontevraud Abbey.
  10. ^ John is buried at Worcester Cathedral.
  11. ^ The date of Edward II's death is disputed by historian Ian Mortimer, who argues that he may not have been murdered, but held imprisoned in Europe for several more years.[67]
  12. ^ Edward V was deposed by Richard III, who usurped the throne on the grounds that Edward was illegitimate. He was never crowned.[80]
  13. ^ The body of Richard III was exhumed and reburied in Leicester Cathedral in 2015.
  14. ^ Edward Hall and Raphael Holinshed both record an earlier secret wedding between Henry and Anne, which was conducted in Dover on 15 November 1532.
  15. ^ Philip was not meant to be a mere consort; rather, the status of Mary I's husband was envisioned as that of a co-monarch during her reign. (See Act for the Marriage of Queen Mary to Philip of Spain.) However the extent of his authority and his status are ambiguous. The Act says that Philip shall have the title of king and "shall aid her Highness... in the happy administration of her Grace's realms and dominions", but elsewhere says that Mary shall be the sole Queen.
  16. ^ For a family tree showing King George I's relationship to Queen Anne, see George I of Great Britain § Family tree.
  17. ^ Updated daily according to UTC

Coronations

  1. ^ William II was crowned on 26 September 1087.
  2. ^ Henry I was crowned on 5 August 1100.
  3. ^ Stephen was crowned on 22 December 1135.
  4. ^ Henry II was crowned on 19 December 1154 with his queen, Eleanor of Aquitaine.
  5. ^ Richard I was crowned on 3 September 1189.
  6. ^ John was crowned on 27 May 1199.
  7. ^ Henry III was crowned on 28 October 1216.
  8. ^ Edward I was crowned on 19 August 1274 with Queen Eleanor.
  9. ^ Edward II was crowned on 25 February 1308 with Queen Isabella.
  10. ^ Edward III was crowned on 1 February 1327.
  11. ^ Richard II was crowned on 16 July 1377.
  12. ^ Henry IV was crowned on 13 October 1399.
  13. ^ Henry V was crowned on 9 April 1413.
  14. ^ Henry VI was crowned on 6 November 1429.
  15. ^ Edward IV was crowned on 28 June 1461.
  16. ^ Richard III was crowned on 6 July 1483 with Queen Anne.
  17. ^ Henry VII was crowned on 30 October 1485.
  18. ^ Henry VIII was crowned on 24 June 1509 with Queen Catherine.
  19. ^ Edward VI was crowned on 20 February 1547.
  20. ^ Mary I was crowned on 1 October 1553.
  21. ^ Elizabeth I was crowned on 15 January 1559.
  22. ^ James I was crowned on 25 July 1603 with Queen Anne.
  23. ^ Charles I was crowned on 2 February 1626.
  24. ^ Charles II was crowned on 23 April 1661.
  25. ^ James II was crowned on 23 April 1685 with Mary of Modena.
  26. ^ a b Mary II and William III were crowned on 11 April 1689.
  27. ^ Anne was crowned on 23 April 1702.
  28. ^ King George I was crowned on 20 October 1714.
  29. ^ King George II was crowned on 11 October 1727 with Queen Caroline.
  30. ^ Dates of start of reign and coronation given in Old Style calendar; date of death in New Style. (Duration of reign takes this into account.)
  31. ^ King George III was crowned on 22 September 1761 with Queen Charlotte.
  32. ^ King George IV was crowned on 19 July 1821.
  33. ^ King William IV was crowned on 8 September 1831 with Queen Adelaide.
  34. ^ Queen Victoria was crowned on 28 June 1838.
  35. ^ King Edward VII was crowned on 9 August 1902 with Queen Alexandra.
  36. ^ King George V was crowned on 22 May 1911 with Queen Mary.
  37. ^ King Edward VIII was not crowned.
  38. ^ King George VI was crowned on 12 May 1937 with Queen Elizabeth.
  39. ^ Queen Elizabeth II was crowned on 2 June 1953.

References

  1. ^ Pratt, David (2007). The political thought of King Alfred the Great. Cambridge Studies in Medieval Life and Thought. Fourth Series. 67. Cambridge University Press. p. 106. ISBN 978-0-521-80350-2.
  2. ^ "Kings and Queens of England". britroyals.com. Archived from the original on 6 February 2015. Retrieved 4 February 2015.
  3. ^ "Alfred 'The Great' (r. 871–899)". royal.gov.uk. 12 January 2016. Archived from the original on 1 October 2017. Retrieved 16 January 2018.
  4. ^ "Edward 'The Elder' (r. 899–924)". royal.gov.uk. 12 January 2016. Archived from the original on 25 January 2018. Retrieved 16 January 2018.
  5. ^ Yorke, Barbara (1988). Bishop Æthelwold: His Career and Influence. Woodbridge. p. 71.
  6. ^ a b Keynes, Simon (2001). "Rulers of the English, c 450–1066". In Lapidge, Michael (ed.). The Blackwell Encyclopaedia of Anglo-Saxon England. p. 514.
  7. ^ Miller, Sean (2001). "Æthelstan". In Lapidge, Michael (ed.). The Blackwell Encyclopaedia of Anglo-Saxon England. p. 16.
  8. ^ a b Keynes, Simon (2001). "Edward the Elder". In Higham, N. J.; Hill, D. H. (eds.). Edward, King of the Anglo-Saxons. Routledge. pp. 50–51.
  9. ^ Thacker, Alan (2001). "Dynastic Monasteries and Family Cults". In Higham, N. J.; Hill, D. H. (eds.). Edward the Elder. Routledge. p. 253.
  10. ^ "Aethelstan". archontology.org. Archived from the original on 17 March 2007. Retrieved 15 March 2007.
  11. ^ "Athelstan (r.924–939)". royal.gov.uk. 12 January 2016. Archived from the original on 25 January 2018. Retrieved 16 January 2018.
  12. ^ "Eadmund (Edmund)". archontology.org. Archived from the original on 17 March 2007. Retrieved 17 March 2007.
  13. ^ "Edmund the Elder". englishmonarchs.co.uk. Archived from the original on 8 January 2007. Retrieved 17 March 2007.
  14. ^ "Edmund I (r. 939–946)". royal.gov.uk. 12 January 2016. Archived from the original on 25 January 2018. Retrieved 16 January 2018.
  15. ^ "Eadred (Edred)". archontology.org. Archived from the original on 16 March 2007. Retrieved 17 March 2007.
  16. ^ "King Edred". britroyals.com. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 17 March 2007.
  17. ^ "Edred (r. 946–55)". royal.gov.uk. 12 January 2016. Archived from the original on 25 January 2018. Retrieved 16 January 2018.
  18. ^ "Eadwig (Edwy)". archontology.org. Archived from the original on 17 March 2007. Retrieved 17 March 2007.
  19. ^ "Edwy". newadvent.org. Archived from the original on 5 April 2007. Retrieved 17 March 2007.
  20. ^ "Edwy (r.955–959)". royal.gov.uk. 12 January 2016. Archived from the original on 1 July 2018. Retrieved 16 January 2018.
  21. ^ "Eadgar (Edgar the Peacemaker)". archontology.org. Archived from the original on 17 March 2007. Retrieved 17 March 2007.
  22. ^ "Family of Edgar +* and Aelfthryth +* of DEVON". Archived from the original on 27 January 2016. Retrieved 21 January 2016.
  23. ^ "Edgar (r. 959–975)". royal.gov.uk. 12 January 2016. Archived from the original on 25 January 2018. Retrieved 16 January 2018.
  24. ^ "Eadweard (Edward the Martyr)". archontology.org. Archived from the original on 17 March 2007. Retrieved 17 March 2007.
  25. ^ "Edward II 'The Martyr' (r. 975–978)". royal.gov.uk. 12 January 2016. Archived from the original on 25 January 2018. Retrieved 16 January 2018.
  26. ^ a b c "Aethelred (the Unready)". archontology.org. Archived from the original on 15 March 2007. Retrieved 17 March 2007.
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