wanweipedia

List of canids

10 of the 12 extant canid genera left-to-right, top-to-bottom: Canis, Cuon, Lycaon, Cerdocyon, Chrysocyon, Speothos, Vulpes, Nyctereutes, Otocyon, and Urocyon

Canidae is a family of mammals in the order Carnivora, which includes domestic dogs, wolves, coyotes, foxes, jackals, dingoes, and many other extant and extinct dog-like mammals. A member of this family is called a canid; all extant species are a part of a single subfamily, Caninae, and are called canines. They are found on all continents except Antarctica, having arrived independently or accompanied human beings over extended periods of time. Canids vary in size, including tails, from the 2 meter (6 ft 7 in) gray wolf to the 46 cm (18 in) fennec fox. Population sizes range from the Falkland Islands wolf, extinct since 1876, to the wolf, whose domestic dog subspecies has a worldwide population of over 1 billion.[1] The body forms of canids are similar, typically having long muzzles, upright ears, teeth adapted for cracking bones and slicing flesh, long legs, and bushy tails.[2] Most species are social animals, living together in family units or small groups and behaving cooperatively. Typically, only the dominant pair in a group breeds, and a litter of young is reared annually in an underground den. Canids communicate by scent signals and vocalizations.[3] One canid, the domestic dog, entered into a partnership with humans at least 14,000 years ago and today remains one of the most widely kept domestic animals.[4]

The 14 genera and 37 species of Caninae are primarily split into two tribes: Canini, which includes 10 genera and 20 species, comprising the wolf-like Canina subtribe and the South American Cerdocyonina subtribe; and Vulpini, the fox-like canids, comprising 3 genera and 14 species. Not included in either tribe is the Urocyon genus, which includes 2 species, mainly comprising the gray fox and believed to be basal to the family. In addition to the extant Caninae, Canidae comprises two extinct subfamilies designated as Hesperocyoninae and Borophaginae. Extinct species have also been placed into Caninae, in both extant and extinct genera; at least 80 extinct Caninae species have been found, as well as over 70 species in Borophaginae and nearly 30 in Hesperocyoninae, though due to ongoing research and discoveries the exact number and categorization is not fixed. The earliest canids found belong to Hesperocyoninae, and are believed to have diverged from the existing Caniformia suborder around 37 million years ago.[5]

Conventions

IUCN Red List categories
Conservation status
 EX Extinct (2 species)
 EW Extinct in the wild (0 species)
 CR Critically endangered (0 species)
 EN Endangered (4 species)
 VU Vulnerable (0 species)
 NT Near threatened (5 species)
 LC Least concern (26 species)

Conservation status codes listed follow the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species. Range maps are provided wherever possible; if a range map is not available, a description of the canid's range is provided. Ranges are based on the IUCN red list for that species unless otherwise noted. All extinct species or subspecies listed alongside extant species went extinct after 1500 CE, and are indicated by a dagger symbol "Extinct".

Classification

The family Canidae consists of 35 extant species belonging to 12 genera and divided into 194 extant subspecies, as well the extinct genus Dusicyon, comprising two extinct species, and 13 extinct wolf subspecies, which are the only canid species to go extinct since prehistoric times. This does not include hybrid species (such as wolfdogs or coywolfs) or extinct prehistoric species (such as the dire wolf or Epicyon). Modern molecular studies indicate that the 13 genera can be grouped into 3 tribes or clades.

Subfamily Caninae

Caninae  
Canini  
Canina  

Canis

Cuon

Lupulella

Lycaon

Cerdocyonina  

Speothos

Chrysocyon

DusicyonExtinct

Lycalopex

Cerdocyon

Atelocynus

Vulpini  

Otocyon

Nyctereutes

Vulpes

Urocyon

Canids

The following classification is based on the taxonomy described by Mammal Species of the World (2005), with augmentation by generally accepted proposals made since using molecular phylogenetic analysis, such as the promotion of the African golden wolf to a separate species from the golden jackal, and splitting out the Lupulella genus from Canis. Range maps are based on IUCN range data. There are several additional proposals which are disputed, such as the promotion of the red wolf and eastern wolf as species from subspecies of the wolf, or the addition of the Italian wolf subspecies, which are not included here.

Subfamily Caninae

Tribe Canini

Genus Atelocynus (Cabrera, 1940) – one species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population[a]
Short-eared dog

Black small-eared canine

A. microtis
Cabrera, 1940

Two subspecies
  • A. m. microtis
  • A. m. sclateri
Western Amazon rainforest in South America
Size: 72–100 cm (28–39 in) long, plus 24–35 cm (9–14 in) tail[6]

Habitat: Wetlands, forest, and savanna[7]

Diet: Primarily eats fish, insects, and small mammals, as well as fruit, birds, and crabs[7][8]
 NT 


Unknown Population declining[7]

Genus Canis (Linnaeus, 1758) – five species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population[a]
African golden wolf

Gray and brown canine in grass

C. lupaster
Hemprich and Ehrenberg, 1832

Six subspecies
North and northeastern Africa
Size: 100 cm (39 in) long, plus 20 cm (8 in) tail[9]

Habitat: Grassland, shrubland, and savanna[10]

Diet: Primarily eats wild boar and livestock, as well as other mammals and fruit[10][11]
 LC 


Unknown Population declining[10]

Coyote

Gray and brown canine in the snow

C. latrans
Say, 1823

Nineteen subspecies
  • C. l. cagottis (Mexican coyote)
  • C. l. clepticus (San Pedro Martir coyote)
  • C. l. dickeyi (El Salvador coyote)
  • C. l. frustor (Southeastern coyote)
  • C. l. goldmani (Belize coyote)
  • C. l. hondurensis (Honduras coyote)
  • C. l. impavidus (Durango coyote)
  • C. l. incolatus (Northern coyote)
  • C. l. jamesi (Tiburón Island coyote)
  • C. l. latrans (Plains coyote)
  • C. l. lestes (Mountain coyote)
  • C. l. mearnsi (Mearns' coyote)
  • C. l. microdon (Lower Rio Grande coyote)
  • C. l. ochropus (California valley coyote)
  • C. l. peninsulae (Peninsula coyote)
  • C. l. texensis (Texas plains coyote)
  • C. l. thamnos (Northeastern coyote)
  • C. l. umpquensis (Northwest coast coyote)
  • C. l. vigilis (Colima coyote)
North America
Size: 100–135 cm (39–53 in) long, plus 40 cm (16 in) tail[12]

Habitat: Forest, desert, shrubland, and grassland[13]

Diet: Eats a wide variety of foods, including both small and large mammals, fruit, and insects[13]
 LC 


1 million+ Population increasing[13][14]

Ethiopian wolf

Red canine on grassy rocks

C. simensis
Rüppell, 1840

Two subspecies
  • C. s. citernii (Southern Ethiopian wolf)
  • C. s. simensis (Northern Ethiopian wolf)
Ethiopian Highlands
Size: 84–100 cm (33–39 in) long, plus 27–40 cm (11–16 in) tail[15]

Habitat: Inland wetlands, grassland, shrubland, and rocky areas[16]

Diet: Primarily eats rodents as well as small mammals[16][17]
 EN 


200 Population declining[16]

Golden jackal

Gray and brown canine next to grass

C. aureus
Linnaeus, 1758

Seven subspecies
  • C. a. aureus (Persian jackal)
  • C. a. cruesemanni (Siamese jackal)
  • C. a. ecsedensis (Pannonian jackal)
  • C. a. indicus (Indian jackal)
  • C. a. moreoticus (European jackal)
  • C. a. naria (Sri Lankan jackal)
  • C. a. syriacus (Syrian jackal)
Eastern Europe, Middle East, and southern Asia
Size: 60–132 cm (24–52 in) long, plus 20–30 cm (8–12 in) tail[18]

Habitat: Forest, grassland, shrubland, and savanna[19]

Diet: Eats a wide variety of foods, including small to large mammals, birds, fish, fruit, and insects[19][18]
 LC 


Unknown, but at least 150,000 Population increasing[19]

Wolf

Gray canine in grass

C. lupus
Linnaeus, 1758

38 subspecies
Eurasia and northern North America
Size: 105–160 cm (41–63 in) long, plus 29–50 cm (11–20 in) tail[20]

Habitat: Forest, desert, rocky areas, shrubland, grassland, and inland wetlands[21]

Diet: Primarily eats large ungulates, as well as small animals, carrion, and berries[21][22]
 LC 


300,000 (excluding 1 billion domestic dogs) Population steady[21][23][1]

Genus Cerdocyon (C. E. H. Smith, 1839) – one species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population[a]
Crab-eating fox

Gray canine in jungle

C. thous
Linnaeus, 1766

Five subspecies
  • C. t. aquilus
  • C. t. azarae
  • C. t. entrerianus
  • C. t. germanus
  • C. t. thous
Eastern and northern South America
Size: 64 cm (25 in) long, plus 28 cm (11 in) tail[24]

Habitat: Forest, savanna, shrubland, grassland, and inland wetlands[25]

Diet: Primarily eats crabs and insects, as well as rodents, birds, turtles, eggs, fruit, and carrion[24][25]
 LC 


Unknown Population steady[25]

Genus Chrysocyon (C. E. H. Smith, 1839) – one species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population[a]
Maned wolf

Red, furry canine in grass

C. brachyurus
Illiger, 1815
Central South America
Size: 100–130 cm (39–51 in) long, plus 45 cm (18 in) tail[26][27]

Habitat: Forest, wetlands, grassland, shrubland, and savanna[28]

Diet: Primarily eats fruit, arthropods, and small and medium vertebrates[28]
 NT 


17,000 Unknown[28]

Genus Cuon (Hodgson, 1838) – one species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population[a]
Dhole

Red canine in grass

C. alpinus
Pallas, 1811

Three subspecies
Southeast Asia
Size: 90 cm (35 in) long, plus 40–45 cm (16–18 in) tail[29]

Habitat: Forest, grassland, and shrubland[30]

Diet: Primarily eats ungulates, as well as small rodents and hares[30]
 EN 


1,000–2,200 Population declining[30]

Genus DusicyonExtinct (C. E. H. Smith, 1839) – two species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population[a]
Falkland Islands wolfExtinct

Stuffed gray canine

D. australis
Kerr, 1792
Falkland Islands at tip of South America
Size: Unknown

Habitat: Grassland and shrubland[31]

Diet: Unknown[31]
 EX 


0[b] Population steady[31]

South American foxExtinct D. avus
Burmeister, 1866
Southern South America Size: Unknown

Habitat: Grassland and shrubland[32]

Diet: Unknown[32]
 EX 


0[c] Population steady[32]

Genus Lupulella (Hilzheimer, 1906) – two species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population[a]
Black-backed jackal

Brown and black canine in shrubland

L. mesomelas
Schreber, 1775

Two subspecies
  • L. m. mesomelas (Cape black-backed jackal)
  • L. m. schmidti (East African black-backed jackal)
Southern Africa and eastern Africa
Size: 60–95 cm (24–37 in) long, plus 16–40 cm (6–16 in) tail[34]

Habitat: Marine intertidal, forest, desert, grassland, shrubland, and savanna[35]

Diet: Primarily eats small to medium-sized mammals and birds[35][36]
 LC 


Unknown Population steady[35]

Side-striped jackal

Gray and brown canine next to grass

L. adustus
Sundevall, 1847

Seven subspecies
  • L. a. adustus (Sundevall's side-striped jackal)
  • L. a. bweha
  • L. a. centralis
  • L. a. grayi
  • L. a. kaffensis (Kaffa side-striped jackal)
  • L. a. lateralis
  • L. a. notatus (East African side-striped jackal)
Central Africa
Size: 69–81 cm (27–32 in) long, plus 30–41 cm (12–16 in) tail[37]

Habitat: Forest, shrubland, savanna, grassland, and inland wetlands[38]

Diet: Primarily eats small to medium-sized mammals and fruit, as well as birds, insects, grass, and carrion[38][39]
 LC 


3 million Population steady[38][40]

Genus Lycalopex (Burmeister, 1854) – six species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population[a]
Culpeo

Gray canine on barren ground

L. culpeo
Molina, 1782

Six subspecies
  • L. c. andinus
  • L. c. culpaeus
  • L. c. lycoides
  • L. c. magellanicus
  • L. c. reissii
  • L. c. smithersi
Western South America
Size: 95–132 cm (37–52 in) long, plus 32–44 cm (13–17 in) tail[41]

Habitat: Forest, rocky areas, grassland, shrubland, and savanna[42]

Diet: Primarily eats rodents and lagomorphs, as well as livestock and guanacos[42][43]
 LC 


Unknown Population steady[42]

Darwin's fox

Small dark canine in grass

L. fulvipes
Martin, 1837
Limited areas in southern Chile
Size: 48–59 cm (19–23 in) long, plus 18–26 cm (7–10 in) tail[44]

Habitat: Forest and shrubland[45]

Diet: Primarily eats small mammals, insects, crabs, and fruit[44][45]
 EN 


600-2,500 Population declining[45]

Hoary fox

Gray canine lying in grass

L. vetulus
Lund, 1842
South-central Brazil
Size: 49–71 cm (19–28 in) long, plus 25–38 cm (10–15 in) tail[44]

Habitat: Savanna[46]

Diet: Primarily eats insects, as well as small rodents, birds, reptiles, and fruit[44][46]
 LC 


Unknown Unknown[46]

Pampas fox

Gray canine in barren grass

L. gymnocercus
Waldheim, 1814

Five subspecies
  • L. g. antiquus
  • L. g. domeykoanus
  • L. g. gracilis
  • L. g. gymnocercus
  • L. g. maulinicus
Southern South America
Size: 51–74 cm (20–29 in) long, plus 25–41 cm (10–16 in) tail[44]

Habitat: Forest, shrubland, and savanna[47]

Diet: Primarily eats small rodents, hares, birds, insects, and fruit, as well as carrion[44][47]
 LC 


Unknown Population steady[47]

Sechuran fox

Gray canine head

L. sechurae
Thomas, 1900
Sechura Desert in southwestern Ecuador and northwestern Peru
Size: 50–78 cm (20–31 in) long, plus 27–34 cm (11–13 in) tail[44]

Habitat: Forest, desert, grassland, and shrubland[48]

Diet: Primarily eats fruit and seeds, as well as small rodents, birds, reptiles, insects, scorpions, and carrion[44][48]
 NT 


15,000 Unknown[48][49]

South American gray fox

Gray canine in grass

L. griseus
Gray, 1837
Southern South America
Size: 50–66 cm (20–26 in) long, plus 12–34 cm (5–13 in) tail[44]

Habitat: Forest, grassland, and shrubland[50]

Diet: Primarily eats small rodents, hares, and carrion[44][50]
 LC 


Unknown Population steady[50]

Genus Lycaon (Brookes, 1827) – one species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population[a]
African wild dog

Black, brown, and white canine in yellow grass

L. pictus
Temminck, 1820

Five subspecies
Scattered areas of Africa
Size: 76–112 cm (30–44 in) long, plus 30–42 cm (12–17 in) tail[44]

Habitat: Forest, grassland, shrubland, savanna, and desert[51]

Diet: Primarily eats medium-sized antelope[51]
 EN 


1,400 Population declining[51]

Genus Speothos (Lund, 1839) – one species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population[a]
Bush dog

Small brown canine in grass

S. venaticus
Lund, 1842

Three subspecies
  • S. v. panamensis (Panamanian bush dog)
  • S. v. venaticus (South American bush dog)
  • S. v. wingei (Southern bush dog)
Northern South America
Size: 57–75 cm (22–30 in) long, plus 12–15 cm (5–6 in) tail[52]

Habitat: Shrubland, forest, grassland, and savanna[53]

Diet: Primarily eats small and medium mammals, as well as birds, reptiles, and fruit[53]
 NT 


15,000 Population declining[53][54]

Tribe Vulpini

Genus Nyctereutes (Temminck, 1839) – one species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population[a]
Raccoon dog

Gray and brown fox by a bush

N. procyonoides
Gray, 1834

Five subspecies
  • N. p. procyonoides (Chinese raccoon dog)
  • N. p. koreensis (Korean raccoon dog)
  • N. p. orestes (Yunnan raccoon dog)
  • N. p. ussuriensis (Ussuri raccoon dog)
  • N. p. viverrinus (Japanese raccoon dog)
Eastern Asia, introduced to Central and Eastern Europe
Size: 49–71 cm (19–28 in) long, plus 15–23 cm (6–9 in) tail[44]

Habitat: Forest, grassland, and shrubland[55]

Diet: Primarily eats insects, rodents, amphibians, birds, fish, and reptiles, as well as fruit, nuts, and berries[55]
 LC 


Unknown, but at least 1.5 million in fur farms Population steady[55][56]

Genus Otocyon (Müller, 1835) – one species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population[a]
Bat-eared fox

Brown fox with large ears

O. megalotis
Desmarest, 1822

Two subspecies
  • O. m. megalotis
  • O. m. virgatus
Southern and Eastern Africa
Size: 46–61 cm (18–24 in) long, plus 23–34 cm (9–13 in) tail[44]

Habitat: Grassland, shrubland, and savanna[57]

Diet: Primarily eats harvester termites as well as other arthropods[57]
 LC 


Unknown Population steady[57]

Genus Vulpes (Frisch, 1775) – twelve species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population[a]
Arctic fox

Arctic fox in the snow facing the viewer

V. lagopus
Linnaeus, 1758

Five subspecies
  • V. l. lagopus (Common Arctic Fox)
  • V. l. beringensis (Bering Islands Arctic fox)
  • V. l. foragoapusis (Greenland Arctic fox)
  • V. l. fuliginosus (Iceland Arctic fox)
  • V. l. pribilofensis (Pribilof Islands Arctic fox)
Arctic North America and Eurasia
Size: 50–75 cm (20–30 in) long, plus 25–43 cm (10–17 in) tail[44]

Habitat: Grassland[58]

Diet: Primarily eats lemmings, as well as other rodents, birds, and reindeer[58]
 LC 


Unknown Population steady[58]

Bengal fox

Brown fox in the grass

V. bengalensis
Shaw, 1800
India
Size: 39–58 cm (15–23 in) long, plus 25–32 cm (10–13 in) tail[44]

Habitat: Grassland and shrubland[59]

Diet: Primarily eats arthropods, rodents, reptiles, fruit, and birds[59]
 LC 


Unknown Population declining[59]

Blanford's fox

Brown fox on rocks

V. cana
Blanford, 1877
The Middle East and Central Asia
Size: 34–47 cm (13–19 in) long, plus 26–36 cm (10–14 in) tail[44]

Habitat: Desert and rocky areas[60]

Diet: Primarily eats fruit and insects[60]
 LC 


Unknown Population steady[60]

Cape fox

Brown and gray fox in the grass

V. chama
A Smith, 1833
Southern Africa
Size: 45–61 cm (18–24 in) long, plus 25–41 cm (10–16 in) tail[44]

Habitat: Rocky areas, grassland, shrubland, and savanna[61]

Diet: Primarily eats fruit and insects[61]
 LC 


20,000 Population steady[61]

Corsac fox

Gray fox standing on a rock

V. corsac
Linnaeus, 1768

Three subspecies
  • V. c. corsac
  • V. c. kalmykorum
  • V. c. turkmenicus
Central Asia
Size: 45–60 cm (18–24 in) long, plus 19–34 cm (7–13 in) tail[44]

Habitat: Desert, grassland, and shrubland[62]

Diet: Primarily eats insects and small rodents[62]
 LC 


Unknown Unknown[62]

Fennec fox

Large-eared fox on rock

V. zerda
Zimmermann, 1780
Northern Africa
Size: 33–40 cm (13–16 in) long, plus 13–23 cm (5–9 in) tail[44]

Habitat: Desert and marine coastal/supratidal[63]

Diet: Primarily eats rodents, insects, birds, eggs, and rabbits[63]
 LC 


Unknown Unknown[63]

Kit fox

Gray fox standing in grass

V. macrotis
Merriam, 1888

Two subspecies
Western North America
Size: 46–54 cm (18–21 in) long, plus 25–34 cm (10–13 in) tail[44]

Habitat: Shrubland, savanna, and grassland[64]

Diet: Primarily eats rodents, rabbits, invertebrates, birds, lizards, and snakes[64]
 LC 


Unknown Population declining[64]

Pale fox

Painting of a light brown fox

V. pallida
Cretzschmar, 1827

Five subspecies
  • V. p. cyrenaica
  • V. p. edwardsi
  • V. p. harterti
  • V. p. oertzeni
  • V. p. pallida
Upper middle Africa
Size: 38–55 cm (15–22 in) long, plus 23–29 cm (9–11 in) tail[44]

Habitat: Desert, grassland, shrubland, and savanna[65]

Diet: Primarily eats plants and berries as well as rodents, reptiles, and insects[65]
 LC 


10,000–100,000 Unknown[65]

Rüppell's fox

Red and gray fox on the snow

V. rueppellii
Schinz, 1825
Northern Africa and the Middle East
Size: 35–56 cm (14–22 in) long, plus 25–39 cm (10–15 in) tail[44]

Habitat: Desert, shrubland, and marine coastal/supratidal[66]

Diet: Primarily eats small mammals, lizards, birds, and insects, as well as fruit and succulents[66]
 LC 


Unknown Population steady[66]

Red fox

Red fox on grass

V. vulpes
Linnaeus, 1758

44 subspecies
  • V. v. abietorum (British Columbian fox)
  • V. v. alascensis (Northern Alaskan fox)
  • V. v. alpherakyi (Eastern Trans-Caucasian fox)
  • V. v. anatolica (Anatolian fox)
  • V. v. arabica (Arabian red fox)
  • V. v. atlantica (Atlas fox)
  • V. v. bangsi (Labrador fox)
  • V. v. barbara (Barbary fox)
  • V. v. beringiana (Anadyr fox)
  • V. v. cascadensis (Cascade red fox)
  • V. v. caucasica (North Caucasian fox)
  • V. v. crucigera (European fox)
  • V. v. daurica (Trans-Baikal fox)
  • V. v. deletrix (Newfoundland fox)
  • V. v. dolichocrania (Ussuri fox)
  • V. v. dorsalis
  • V. v. lavescens (Turkmenian fox)
  • V. v. fulvus (American red fox)
  • V. v. harrimani (Afghan red fox)
  • V. v. hoole (Southern Chinese fox)
  • V. v. ichnusae (Sardinian fox)
  • V. v. indutus (Cyprus fox)
  • V. v. jakutensis (Yakutsk fox)
  • V. v. japonica (Japanese fox)
  • V. v. karagan (Karaganka fox)
  • V. v. kenaiensis (Kenai Peninsula fox)
  • V. v. kurdistanica (Trans-Caucasian montane fox)
  • V. v. macroura (Wasatch Mountains fox)
  • V. v. montana (Hill fox)
  • V. v. necator (Sierra Nevada red fox)
  • V. v. niloticus (Nile fox)
  • V. v. ochroxantha (Turkestan fox)
  • V. v. palaestina (Palestinian fox)
  • V. v. peculiosa (Korean fox)
  • V. v. pusilla (White-footed fox)
  • V. v. regalis (Northern plains fox)
  • V. v. rubricosa (Nova Scotia fox)
  • V. v. schrencki (Sakhalin fox)
  • V. v. silacea (Iberian fox)
  • V. v. splendidissima (Kuril Islands fox)
  • V. v. stepensis (Steppe red fox)
  • V. v. tobolica (Tobol'sk fox)
  • V. v. tschiliensis (Northern Chinese fox)
  • V. v. vulpes (Scandinavian red fox)
North America, Europe, Asia, and Australia
Size: 62–72 cm (24–28 in) long, plus 40 cm (16 in) tail[67]

Habitat: Shrubland, grassland, inland wetlands, forest, and desert[68]

Diet: Primarily eats small rodents, as well as birds, larger mammals, reptiles, insects, and fish[68]
 LC 


Unknown Population steady[68]

Swift fox

Gray fox on dirt

V. velox
Say, 1823
Western grasslands of North America
Size: 48–54 cm (19–21 in) long, plus 25–34 cm (10–13 in) tail[44]

Habitat: Grassland[69]

Diet: Primarily eats rabbits, mice, ground squirrels, birds, insects and lizards, as well as grasses and fruit[69]
 LC 


Unknown Population steady[69]

Tibetan sand fox

Painting of gay and brown fox

V. ferrilata
Hodgson, 1842
High plateaus in Nepal and western China
Size: 49–70 cm (19–28 in) long, plus 22–29 cm (9–11 in) tail[44]

Habitat: Desert, rocky areas, grassland, and shrubland[70]

Diet: Primarily eats pikas, as well as carrion and other small mammals[70]
 LC 


Unknown Unknown[70]

Urocyon

Genus Urocyon (Baird, 1857) – two species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population[a]
Gray fox

Gray fox on a rock

U. cinereoargenteus
Schreber, 1775

Sixteen subspecies
  • U. c. borealis
  • U. c. californicus
  • U. c. cinereoargenteus
  • U. c. costaricensis
  • U. c. floridanus
  • U. c. fraterculus
  • U. c. furvus
  • U. c. guatemalae
  • U. c. madrensis
  • U. c. nigrirostris
  • U. c. ocythous
  • U. c. orinomus
  • U. c. peninsularis
  • U. c. scottii
  • U. c. townsendi
  • U. c. venezuelae
North America and Central America
Size: 53–66 cm (21–26 in) long, plus 28–44 cm (11–17 in) tail[44]

Habitat: Forest and shrubland[71]

Diet: Primarily eats rabbits, voles, shrews, and birds, as well as insects and fruit[71]
 LC 


Unknown Population steady[71]

Island fox

Gray and red fox in shrubland

U. littoralis
Baird, 1857

Six subspecies
  • U. l. catalinae
  • U. l. clementae
  • U. l. dickeyi
  • U. l. littoralis
  • U. l. santacruzae
  • U. l. santarosae
Channel Islands of California
Size: 46–63 cm (18–25 in) long, plus 12–32 cm (5–13 in) tail[44]

Habitat: Marine intertidal, forest, grassland, and shrubland[72]

Diet: Primarily eats fruit, insects, birds, eggs, crabs, lizards, and small mammals[72]
 NT 


4,000 Population increasing[72]

Prehistoric canids

In addition to extant canids, a number of prehistoric species have been discovered and classified as a part of Canidae. Morphogenic and molecular phylogenic research has placed them within the extant subfamily Caninae as well as the extinct subfamilies Hesperocyoninae and Borophaginae. Within Caninae, prehistoric species have been placed into both extant genera and separate extinct genera.

The generally accepted classification of extinct canid species is primarily based for Hesperocyoninae on work by Xiaoming Wang, curator of terrestrial mammals at the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County,[5] and on work by Wang and zoologists Richard H. Tedford and Beryl E. Taylor for Borophaginae and Caninae.[73][74][75] The species and classifications listed below are all from these works; exceptions due to more recently-described species are also listed with citations. Not all of these classifications are universally accepted, and alternate classifications for species are noted below. Where available, the approximate time period the species was extant is given in millions of years before the present (Mya), based on data from the Paleobiology Database. All listed species are extinct; where a genus, subtribe, or tribe within Caninae comprises only extinct species, it is indicated with a dagger symbol Extinct.

Subfamily Caninae

Restoration of C. dirus (Dire wolf)
Restoration of C. arnensis (Arno River dog)
Restoration of C. etruscus (Etruscan wolf)
Restoration of C. othmani
  • Tribe Vulpini
    • Genus FerrucyonExtinct[79]
      • F. avius (4.9–2.6 Mya)[79]
    • Genus MetalopexExtinct (10–4.9 Mya)
      • M. bakeri (10–4.9 Mya)
      • M. macconnelli (10–5.3 Mya)
      • M. merriami (10–5.3 Mya)
    • Genus Prototocyon
      • P. curvipalatus
      • P. recki
    • Genus Vulpes
      • V. alopecoides (2.5–0.13 Mya)
      • V. angustidens
      • V. beihaiensis
      • V. chikushanensis
      • V. galaticus
      • V. praecorsac (3.2–0.78 Mya)
      • V. praeglacialis
      • V. riffautae
      • V. skinneri
      • V. stenognathus (14–0.3 Mya)
      • V. qiuzhudingi[80]
  • Urocyon
    • Genus Urocyon
      • U. minicephalus (1.8–0.3 Mya)
      • U. progressus (4.9–1.8 Mya)
  • Basal Caninae
    • Genus LeptocyonExtinct (31–10 Mya)
      • L. delicatus (31–20 Mya)
      • L. douglassi (31–26 Mya)
      • L. gregorii (25–20 Mya)
      • L. leidyi (20–14 Mya)
      • L. matthewi (14–10 Mya)
      • L. mollis (31–20 Mya)
      • L. tejonensis (14–10 Mya)
      • L. vafer (14–10 Mya)
      • L. vulpinus (20–16 Mya)
  • Unclassified


Subfamily Borophaginae

Restoration of Mesocyon
Restoration of Tephrocyon
  • Tribe Borophagini (26–1.8 Mya)
    • Genus Cormocyon (26–20 Mya)
      • C. copei (26–20 Mya)
      • C. haydeni (25–20 Mya)
    • Genus Desmocyon (20–16 Mya)
      • D. matthewi (20–16 Mya)
      • D. thomsoni (20–16 Mya)
    • Genus Euoplocyon (20–14 Mya)
      • E. brachygnathus (16–14 Mya)
      • E. spissidens (20–16 Mya)
    • Genus Metatomarctus (20–16 Mya)
      • M. canavus (20–16 Mya)
    • Genus Microtomarctus (16–14 Mya)
      • M. conferta (16–14 Mya)
    • Genus Protomarctus (16–14 Mya)
      • P. optatus (16–14 Mya)
    • Genus Psalidocyon (16–14 Mya)
      • P. marianae (16–14 Mya)
    • Genus Tephrocyon (16–14 Mya)
      • T. rurestris (16–14 Mya)
    • Subtribe Aelurodontina (16–5.3 Mya)
      • Genus Aelurodon (16–5.3 Mya)
        • A. asthenostylus (16–14 Mya)
        • A. ferox (14–10 Mya)
        • A. mcgrewi (16–14 Mya)
        • A. montanensis (16–14 Mya)[81]
        • A. stirtoni (14–10 Mya)
        • A. taxoides (10–5.3 Mya)
      • Genus Tomarctus (16–14 Mya)
        • T. brevirostris (16–14 Mya)
        • T. hippophaga (16–14 Mya)
    • Subtribe Borophagina (16–1.8 Mya)
    • Subtribe Cynarctina (16–10 Mya)
      • Genus Cynarctus (16–10 Mya)
        • C. crucidens (12–10 Mya)
        • C. galushai (16–14 Mya)
        • C. marylandica (16–14 Mya)
        • C. saxatilis (16–14 Mya)
        • C. voorhiesi (14–10 Mya)
        • C. wangi (16–14 Mya)[82]
      • Genus Paracynarctus (16–14 Mya)
        • P. kelloggi (16–14 Mya)
        • P. sinclairi (16–14 Mya)
  • Tribe Phlaocyonini (30.8–13.6 Mya)
    • Genus Cynarctoides (31–14 Mya)
      • C. acridens (20–14 Mya)
      • C. emryi (20–16 Mya)
      • C. gawnae (20–16 Mya)
      • C. harlowi (25–20 Mya)
      • C. lemur (31–20 Mya)
      • C. luskensis (25–20 Mya)
      • C. roii (31–26 Mya)
    • Genus Phlaocyon (31–16 Mya)
  • Basal Borophaginae
    • Genus Archaeocyon (31–20 Mya)
      • A. falkenbachi (31–20 Mya)
      • A. leptodus (31–26 Mya)
      • A. pavidus (31–26 Mya)
    • Genus Otarocyon (34–26 Mya)
      • O. cooki (31–26 Mya)
      • O. macdonaldi (34–33 Mya)
    • Genus Oxetocyon (33–31 Mya)
      • O. cuspidatus (33–31 Mya)
    • Genus Rhizocyon (31–20 Mya)
      • R. oregonensis (31–20 Mya)

Subfamily Hesperocyoninae

Restoration of H. gregarius
Restoration of Hesperocyon head
  • Genus Cynodesmus (31–20 Mya)
    • C. martini (31–20 Mya)
    • C. thooides (31–26 Mya)
  • Genus Caedocyon (31–20 Mya)
    • C. tedfordi (31–20 Mya)
  • Genus Ectopocynus (31–16 Mya)
    • E. antiquus (31–20 Mya)
    • E. intermedius (31–20 Mya)
    • E. siplicidens (20–16 Mya)
  • Genus Enhydrocyon (31–20 Mya)
    • E. basilatus (25–20 Mya)
    • E. crassidens (26–20 Mya)
    • E. pahinsintewkpa (26–20 Mya)
    • E. stenocephalus (31–20 Mya)
    • E. sectorius
  • Genus Hesperocyon (37–31 Mya)
    • H. coloradensis (34–33 Mya)
    • H. gregarius (37–31 Mya)
  • Genus Mesocyon (33–20 Mya)
    • M. brachyops (31–20 Mya)
    • M. coryphaeus (31–20 Mya)
    • M. temnodon (33–20 Mya)
  • Genus Osbornodon (33–14 Mya)
    • O. brachypus (20–16 Mya)
    • O. fricki (16–14 Mya)
    • O. iamonensis (20–16 Mya)
    • O. renjiei (33–31 Mya)
    • O. scitulus (21–16 Mya)[84]
    • O. sesnoni (31–20 Mya)
    • O. wangi (31–20 Mya)[83]
  • Genus Paraenhydrocyon (25–20 Mya)
    • P. josephi (25–20 Mya)
    • P. robustus (25–20 Mya)
    • P. wallovianus (25–20 Mya)
  • Genus Philotrox (31–26 Mya)
    • P. condoni (31–26 Mya)
  • Genus Prohesperocyon (37–34 Mya)
    • P. wilsoni (37–34 Mya)
  • Genus Sunkahetanka (31–26 Mya)
    • S. geringensis (31–26 Mya)

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Population figures rounded to the nearest hundred. Population trends as described by the International Union for Conservation of Nature.
  2. ^ The Falklands Island wolf is believed to have been driven extinct in 1876[31]
  3. ^ The South American fox is believed to have gone extinct sometime between 1454 and 1626[33]
  4. ^ Also potentially placed in the Eucyon genus
  5. ^ Xenocyon is sometimes considered a subgenus of Canis

References

  1. ^ a b Gompper, Matthew E. (October 17, 2013). "1.4 – The demographics and ownership of free-ranging dogs". Free-Ranging Dogs and Wildlife Conservation. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-164011-7.
  2. ^ Mivart, St. George Jackson (1890). Dogs, Jackals, Wolves, and Foxes: A Monograph of the Canidae. R. H. Porter. pp. xiv–xxxvi. Archived from the original on April 12, 2016. Retrieved October 1, 2019.
  3. ^ Fahey, Bridget; Myers, Phil (2000). "Canidae: Coyotes, dogs, foxes, jackals, and wolves". Animal Diversity Web. University of Michigan. Archived from the original on April 18, 2019. Retrieved September 30, 2019.
  4. ^ Giemsch, Liane; Feine, Susanne C.; Alt, Kurt W.; Fu, Qiaomei; Knipper, Corina; Krause, Johannes; Lacy, Sarah; Nehlich, Olaf; Niess, Constanze; Pääbo, Svante; Pawlik, Alfred; Richards, Michael P.; Schünemann, Verena; Street, Martin; Thalmann, Olaf; Tinnes, Johann; Trinkaus, Erik; Schmitz, Ralf W. (April 7–11, 2015). Interdisciplinary investigations of the late glacial double burial from Bonn-Oberkassel. 57th Annual Meeting. Heidenheim an der Brenz, Germany: Hugo Obermaier Society for Quaternary Research and Archaeology of the Stone Age. pp. 36–37.
  5. ^ a b Wang, X. (1994). "Phylogenetic systematics of the Hesperocyoninae". Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. 221: 1–207. hdl:2246/829.
  6. ^ "Small-eared zorro (Atelocynus microtis)". ARKive. Wildscreen. Archived from the original on February 6, 2019. Retrieved May 28, 2019.
  7. ^ a b c Leite-Pitman, M. R. P.; Williams, R. S. R. (2011). "Atelocynus microtis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2011: e.T6924A12814890. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2011-2.RLTS.T6924A12814890.en.
  8. ^ Leite Pitman, Renata; S. R. Williams, Robert (2004). Sillero-Zubiri, C.; Gingsberg, J. R.; Macdonald, D. W. (eds.). Canids: Species status and conservation (2004 ed.). International Union for Conservation of Nature. pp. 26–31.
  9. ^ Viranta, S.; Atickem, A.; Werdelin, L.; et al. (December 2017). "Rediscovering a forgotten canid species". BMC Zoology. 2 (6). doi:10.1186/s40850-017-0015-0. Archived from the original on July 20, 2018. Retrieved August 28, 2019.
  10. ^ a b c Hoffmann, M.; Atickem, A. (2019). "Canis lupaster". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2019: e.T118264888A118265889. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2019-1.RLTS.T118264888A118265889.en.
  11. ^ Eddine, A.; Mostefai, N.; De Smet, K.; Klees, D.; Ansorge, H.; Karssene, Y.; Nowak, C.; Leer, P. (November 1, 2017). "Diet composition of a Newly Recognized Canid Species, the African Golden Wolf (Canis anthus), in Northern Algeria". Annales Zoologici Fennici. 54 (5–6): 347–356. doi:10.5735/086.054.0506. S2CID 90155276.
  12. ^ Bekoff, M. (1977). "Canis latrans". Mammalian Species. 79 (79): 1–9. doi:10.2307/3503817. ISSN 1545-1410. JSTOR 3503817. OCLC 46381503.
  13. ^ a b c Kays, R. (2018). "Canis latrans". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2018: e.T3745A103893556. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-2.RLTS.T3745A103893556.en.
  14. ^ Schneck, Marcus (February 2018). "Coyotes in Pennsylvania: What's the latest information and research?". The Patriot-News. Archived from the original on August 21, 2019. Retrieved August 21, 2019.
  15. ^ "Ethiopian wolf (Canis simensis)". ARKive. Wildscreen. Archived from the original on April 21, 2016. Retrieved August 21, 2019.
  16. ^ a b c Marino, J.; Sillero-Zubiri, C. (2011). "Canis simensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2011: e.T3748A10051312. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2011-1.RLTS.T3748A10051312.en.
  17. ^ Sillero-Zubiri, C.; Gottelli, D. (December 2, 1994). "Canis simensis" (PDF). Mammalian Species (385): 1–6. doi:10.2307/3504136. JSTOR 3504136. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 24, 2015. Retrieved August 21, 2019.
  18. ^ a b "Golden jackal (Canis aureus)". ARKive. Wildscreen. Archived from the original on April 23, 2016. Retrieved August 21, 2019.
  19. ^ a b c Hoffmann, M.; Arnold, J.; Duckworth, J. W.; Jhala, Y.; Kamler, J. F.; Krofel, M. (2018). "Canis aureus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2018: e.T118264161A46194820. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-2.RLTS.T118264161A46194820.en.
  20. ^ Heptner, V. G.; Naumov, N. P. (1998). Mammals of the Soviet Union Vol. II Part 1a, Sirenia and Carnivora (Sea cows; Wolves and Bears). Science Publishers. pp. 164–270. ISBN 978-1-886106-81-9. Archived from the original on December 28, 2018. Retrieved August 21, 2019.
  21. ^ a b c Boitani, L.; Phillips, M.; Jhala, Y. (2018). "Canis lupus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2018: e.T3746A119623865. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-2.RLTS.T3746A119623865.en.
  22. ^ "Grey wolf (Canis lupus)". ARKive. Wildscreen. Archived from the original on May 1, 2016. Retrieved August 21, 2019.
  23. ^ Mech, L. David; Boitani, Luigi, eds. (2003). Wolves: Behaviour, Ecology and Conservation. University of Chicago Press. p. 230. ISBN 978-0-226-51696-7.
  24. ^ a b Berta, A. (November 23, 1982). "Cerdocyon thous". Mammalian Species (186): 1–4. doi:10.2307/3503974. JSTOR 3503974.
  25. ^ a b c Lucherini, M. (2015). "Cerdocyon thous". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2015: e.T4248A81266293. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2015-4.RLTS.T4248A81266293.en.
  26. ^ "Maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus)". ARKive. Wildscreen. Archived from the original on September 13, 2009. Retrieved May 23, 2019.
  27. ^ Dietz, J. M. (1984). "Ecology and social organization of the maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus)". Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology (392): 1–51. doi:10.5479/si.00810282.392.
  28. ^ a b c Paula, R. C.; DeMatteo, K. (2015). "Chrysocyon brachyurus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2015: e.T4819A82316878. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2015-4.RLTS.T4819A82316878.en.
  29. ^ "Dhole (Cuon alpinus)". ARKive. Wildscreen. Archived from the original on September 7, 2017. Retrieved August 21, 2019.
  30. ^ a b c Kamler, J. F.; Songsasen, N.; Jenks, K.; Srivathsa, A.; Sheng, L.; Kunkel, K. (2015). "Cuon alpinus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2015: e.T5953A72477893. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2015-4.RLTS.T5953A72477893.en.
  31. ^ a b c d Sillero-Zubiri, C. (2015). "Dusicyon australis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2015: e.T6923A82310440. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2015-4.RLTS.T6923A82310440.en.
  32. ^ a b c Sillero-Zubiri, C. (2015). "Dusicyon avus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2015: e.T82337482A82337485. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2015-4.RLTS.T82337482A82337485.en.
  33. ^ Prevosti, F. J.; Ramírez, M. A.; Schiaffini, M.; Martin, F.; Udrizar Sauthier, D. E.; Carrera, M.; Sillero-Zubiri, C.; Pardiñas, U. F. J. (November 2015). "Extinctions in near time: new radiocarbon dates point to a very recent disappearance of the South American fox Dusicyon avus (Carnivora: Canidae)". Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. 116 (3): 704–720. doi:10.1111/bij.12625.
  34. ^ de Waal, H. O. (September 2017). "Demography and morphometry of black-backed jackals Canis mesomelasin South Africa and Namibia" (PDF). African Large Predator Research Unit. Retrieved August 21, 2019.
  35. ^ a b c Hoffmann, M. (2014). "Canis mesomelas". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2014: e.T3755A46122476. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2014-1.RLTS.T3755A46122476.en.
  36. ^ Minnie, Liaan; Avenant, N.; Drouilly, Marine; Samuels, Mogamat (November 2018). "Biology and ecology of black-backed jackal and caracal". Livestock predation and its management in South Africa: a scientific assessment. Centre for African Conservation Ecology. pp. 178–204.
  37. ^ Burnie, D.; Wilson, D. E., eds. (August 29, 2011). "Side-striped jackal". Animal: The Definitive Visual Guide to the World's Wildlife (2nd ed.). DK Adult. ISBN 978-0-7894-7764-4.
  38. ^ a b c Hoffmann, M. (2014). "Canis adustus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2014: e.T3753A46254734. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2014-1.RLTS.T3753A46254734.en.
  39. ^ Camacho, G.; Page-Nicholson, S.; Child, M. F.; Do Linh San, E. (2016). "7. A conservation assessment of Canis adustus" (PDF). The Red List of Mammals of South Africa, Swaziland and Lesotho. South African National Biodiversity Institute and Endangered Wildlife Trust. Retrieved August 21, 2019.
  40. ^ "Side-Striped Jackal". IUCN Canid Specialist Group. Archived from the original on August 21, 2019. Retrieved August 21, 2019.
  41. ^ Burnie, D.; Wilson, D. E., eds. (August 29, 2011). "Culpeo". Animal: The Definitive Visual Guide to the World's Wildlife (2nd ed.). DK Adult. ISBN 978-0-7894-7764-4.
  42. ^ a b c Lucherini, M. (2016). "Lycalopex culpaeus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T6929A85324366. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-1.RLTS.T6929A85324366.en.
  43. ^ Novaro, Andres J.; Moraga, Claudio A.; Bricen, Cristobal; Funes, Martin C.; Marino, Andrea (2009). "First records of culpeo (Lycalopex culpaeus) attacks and cooperative defense by guanacos (Lama guanicoe)". Mammalian Species. 73 (2). doi:10.1515/MAMM.2009.016. S2CID 84525738.
  44. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z Hunter, Luke (January 8, 2019). Carnivores of the World (2nd ed.). Princeton University Press. pp. 110–126. ISBN 978-0-691-18295-7.
  45. ^ a b c Silva-Rodríguez, E.; Farias, A.; Moreira-Arce, D.; Cabello, J.; Hidalgo-Hermoso, E.; Lucherini, M.; Jiménez, J. (2016). "Lycalopex fulvipes". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T41586A85370871. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-1.RLTS.T41586A85370871.en.
  46. ^ a b c Dalponte, J.; Courtenay, O. (2008). "Lycalopex vetulus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2008: e.T6926A12815527. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2008.RLTS.T6926A12815527.en.
  47. ^ a b c Lucherini, M. (2016). "Lycalopex gymnocercus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T6928A85371194. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-1.RLTS.T6928A85371194.en.
  48. ^ a b c Cossios, D. (2017). "Lycalopex sechurae". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2017: e.T6925A86074993. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-2.RLTS.T6925A86074993.en.
  49. ^ "Sechuran fox". IUCN Canid Specialist Group. Archived from the original on August 21, 2019. Retrieved August 21, 2019.
  50. ^ a b c Lucherini, M. (2016). "Lycalopex griseus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T6927A86440397. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-1.RLTS.T6927A86440397.en.
  51. ^ a b c Woodroffe, R.; Sillero-Zubiri, C. (2012). "Lycaon pictus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2012: e.T12436A16711116. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012.RLTS.T12436A16711116.en.
  52. ^ "Bush dog (Speothos venaticus)". ARKive. Wildscreen. Archived from the original on December 5, 2008. Retrieved May 23, 2019.
  53. ^ a b c DeMatteo, K.; Michalski, F.; Leite-Pitman, M. R. P. (2011). "Speothos venaticus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2011: e.T20468A9203243. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2011-2.RLTS.T20468A9203243.en.
  54. ^ Castelló, José R. (September 11, 2018). Canids of the World. Princeton University Press. p. 33. ISBN 978-0-691-17685-7.
  55. ^ a b c Kauhala, K.; Saeki, M. (2016). "Nyctereutes procyonoides". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T14925A85658776. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-1.RLTS.T14925A85658776.en.
  56. ^ Hsieh-Yi; Yi-Chiao; Fu, Yu; Rissi, Mark; Maas, Barbera (August 22, 2019). Fun Fur? A report on the Chinese fur industry (PDF). Care for the Wild International. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 11, 2006.
  57. ^ a b c Hoffmann, M. (2014). "Otocyon megalotis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2014: e.T15642A46123809. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2014-1.RLTS.T15642A46123809.en.
  58. ^ a b c Angerbjörn, A.; Tannerfeldt, M. (2014). "Vulpes lagopus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2014: e.T899A57549321. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2014-2.RLTS.T899A57549321.en.
  59. ^ a b c Jhala, Y. (2016). "Vulpes bengalensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T23049A81069636. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-1.RLTS.T23049A81069636.en.
  60. ^ a b c Hoffmann, M.; Sillero-Zubiri, C. (2015). "Vulpes cana". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2015: e.T23050A48075169. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2015-4.RLTS.T23050A48075169.en.
  61. ^ a b c Hoffmann, M. (2014). "Vulpes chama". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2014: e.T23060A46126992. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2014-1.RLTS.T23060A46126992.en.
  62. ^ a b c Murdoch, J. D. (2014). "Vulpes corsac". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2014: e.T23051A59049446. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2014-2.RLTS.T23051A59049446.en.
  63. ^ a b c Wacher, T.; Bauman, K.; Cuzin, F. (2015). "Vulpes zerda". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2015: e.T41588A46173447. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2015-4.RLTS.T41588A46173447.en.
  64. ^ a b c Cypher, B.; List, R. (2014). "Vulpes macrotis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2014: e.T41587A62259374. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2014-3.RLTS.T41587A62259374.en.
  65. ^ a b c Sillero-Zubiri, C.; Wacher, T. (2012). "Vulpes pallida". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2012: e.T23052A16813736. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012.RLTS.T23052A16813736.en.
  66. ^ a b c Mallon, D.; Murdoch, J. D.; Wacher, T. (2015). "Vulpes rueppellii". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2015: e.T23053A46197483. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2015-4.RLTS.T23053A46197483.en.
  67. ^ "Red fox (Vulpes vulpes)". ARKive. Wildscreen. Archived from the original on June 22, 2017. Retrieved August 22, 2019.
  68. ^ a b c Hoffmann, M.; Sillero-Zubiri, C. (2016). "Vulpes vulpes". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T23062A46190249. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-1.RLTS.T23062A46190249.en.
  69. ^ a b c Moehrenschlager, A.; Sovada, M. (2016). "Vulpes velox". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T23059A57629306. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T23059A57629306.en.
  70. ^ a b c Harris, R. (2014). "Vulpes ferrilata". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2014: e.T23061A46179412. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2014-3.RLTS.T23061A46179412.en.
  71. ^ a b c Roemer, G.; Cypher, B.; List, R. (2016). "Urocyon cinereoargenteus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22780A46178068. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-1.RLTS.T22780A46178068.en.
  72. ^ a b c Coonan, T.; Ralls, K.; Hudgens, B.; Cypher, B.; Boser, C. (2013). "Urocyon littoralis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2013: e.T22781A13985603. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2013-2.RLTS.T22781A13985603.en.
  73. ^ Wang, X.; Tedford, R. H.; Taylor, B. E. (1999). "Phylogenetic systematics of the Borophaginae". Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. 243: 1–391. hdl:2246/1588.
  74. ^ Tedford, R. H.; Wang, X.; Taylor, B. E. (2009). "Phylogenetic systematics of the North American fossil Caninae (Carnivora: Canidae)" (PDF). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. 325: 1–218. doi:10.1206/574.1. S2CID 83594819.
  75. ^ Wang, Xiaoming; Tedford, Richard H. (April 26, 2010). Dogs: Their Fossil Relatives and Evolutionary History. Columbia University Press. pp. 169–175. ISBN 978-0-231-13529-0.
  76. ^ Brugal, J.; Boudadi-Maligne, M. (2011). "Quaternary small to large canids in Europe: Taxonomic status and biochronological contribution". Quaternary International. 243 (1): 171–182. Bibcode:2011QuInt.243..171B. doi:10.1016/j.quaint.2011.01.046.
  77. ^ Amri, L.; Bartolini Lucenti, S.; Mtimet, M. S.; Karoui-Yaakoub, N.; Ros-Montoya, S.; Espigares, M.; Boughdiri, M.; Bel Haj Ali, N.; Martínez-Navarro, B. (2017). "Canis othmanii sp. nov. (Carnivora, Canidae) from the early Middle Pleistocene site of Wadi Sarrat (Tunisia)". Comptes Rendus Palevol. 16 (7): 774–782. doi:10.1016/j.crpv.2017.05.004.
  78. ^ Ramirez, M. A.; Prevosti, F. J. (2014). "Systematic Revision of "Canis" ensenadensis Ameghino, 1888 (Carnivora, Canidae) and the Description of a New Specimen from the Pleistocene of Argentina". Ameghiniana. 51: 37. doi:10.5710/AMEGH.23.12.2013.1163. hdl:11336/17152. S2CID 86077234.
  79. ^ a b R., Damián; Prevosti, F. J.; Lucenti, S. B.; Montellano-Ballesteros, M.; Carreño, A. L. (2020). "The Pliocene canid Cerdocyon avius was not the type of fox that we thought". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 40 (2): e1774889. doi:10.1080/02724634.2020.1774889. S2CID 222214868.
  80. ^ Wang, Xiaoming; Tseng, Zhijie Jack; Li, Qiang; Takeuchi, Gary T.; Xie, Guangpu (11 June 2014). "From 'third pole' to north pole: a Himalayan origin for the arctic fox". Proceedings of the Royal Society B. Royal Society. 281 (1787): 20140893. doi:10.1098/rspb.2014.0893. PMC 4071559. PMID 24920475.
  81. ^ Wang, X.; Wideman, B. C.; Nichols, R.; Hanneman, D. L. (2004). "A new species of Aelurodon (Carnivora, Canidae) from the Barstovian of Montana" (PDF). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 24 (2): 445–452. doi:10.1671/2493. S2CID 21694500. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 30, 2007. Retrieved 2007-07-08.
  82. ^ Jasinski, S. E.; Wallace, S. C. (2016). "A Borophagine canid (Carnivora: Canidae: Borophaginae) from the middle Miocene Chesapeake Group of eastern North America". Journal of Paleontology. 89 (6): 1082–1088. doi:10.1017/jpa.2016.17. S2CID 130958443.
  83. ^ a b Hayes, F. G. (2000). "The Brooksville 2 local fauna (Arikareean, latest Oligocene) Hernando County, Florida". Bulletin of the Florida Museum of Natural History. 43 (1): 1–47.
  84. ^ Wang, X. (2003). "New Material of Osbornodon from the Early Hemingfordian of Nebraska and Florida" (PDF). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. 279: 163–176. doi:10.1206/0003-0090(2003)279<0163:C>2.0.CO;2. Archived (PDF) from the original on December 16, 2008. Retrieved August 22, 2019.

This page was last updated at 2021-04-21 15:22, update this pageView original page

All information on this site, including but not limited to text, pictures, etc., are reproduced on Wikipedia (wikipedia.org), following the . Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License


Top

If the math, chemistry, physics and other formulas on this page are not displayed correctly, please useFirefox or Safari