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List of elections in Belgium

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This is an overview of all regular elections held in the Kingdom of Belgium since its independence. This excludes local referenda and special elections (by-elections) that existed before 1919. Municipal elections prior to 1919 are not listed either.

Constituent elections (1830)

Elections to the temporary National Congress:

Unitary state (1831–1994)

Elections in 1831–1919

Representatives were elected for a 4-year term; half of the Chamber was up for election each two years. Senators were elected for an 8-year term; half of the Senate was up for election each four years. The first series (referenced as "E" here) consisted of the provinces of East Flanders, Hainaut, Liège and Limburg; the second series ("A" below) of Antwerp, Brabant, Luxembourg, Namur and West Flanders.

An equivalent system applied to elections for municipal and provincial councils.

Year Provincial elections Legislative elections
1831 N/A 29 August 1831
1833 N/A 23 May 1833 (full: Chamber fully renewed following its dissolution)[1]
1835 N/A 9 June 1835 (partial: Chamber E and Senate E)
Municipal law and provincial law of 1836
1836 29 September 1836 (full) N/A
1837 N/A 13 June 1837 (partial: Chamber A)
1838 28 May 1838 (partial) N/A
1839 N/A 11 June 1839 (partial: Chamber E and Senate A)
1840 25 May 1840 (partial) N/A
1841 N/A 8 June 1841 (partial: Chamber A)
1842 23 May 1842 (partial) N/A
1843 N/A 12 June 1843 (partial: Chamber E and Senate E)
1844 27 May 1844 (partial) N/A
1845 N/A 10 June 1845 (partial: Chamber A)
1846 25 May 1846 (partial) N/A
1847 N/A 8 June 1847 (partial: Chamber E and Senate A)
Equalisation of cens (tax as part of censitary suffrage) to the constitutional minimum by law of 12 March 1848.
1848 12 juli 1848 (full) 13 June 1848 (full: both chambers)[2]
1850 27 May 1850 (partial) 11 June 1850 (partial: Chamber A)
1851 N/A 27 September 1851 (full: Senate)[3]
1852 24 May 1852 (partial) 8 June 1852 (partial: Chamber E)
1854 22 May 1854 (partial) 13 June 1854 (partial: Chamber A)
1855 N/A 12 June 1855 (partial: Senate E)
1856 26 May 1856 (partial) 10 June 1856 (partial: Chamber E)
1857 N/A 10 December 1857 (full: Chamber)[1]
1858 24 May 1858 (partial) N/A
1859 N/A 14 June 1859 (partial: Chamber A and Senate A)
1860 28 May 1860 (partial) N/A
1861 N/A 11 June 1861 (partial: Chamber E)
1862 26 May 1862 (partial) N/A
1863 N/A 9 June 1863 (partial: Chamber A and Senate E)
1864 23 May 1864 (partial) 11 August 1864 (full: Chamber)[1]
1866 28 May 1866 (partial) 12 June 1866 (partial: Chamber E)
1867 N/A 11 June 1867 (partial: Senate A)
1868 25 May 1868 (partial) 9 June 1868 (partial: Chamber A)
1870 23 May 1870 (partial) 11 June 1870 (partial: Chamber E)
2 August 1870 (full: both chambers)[2]
1872 27 May 1872 (full) 11 June 1872 (partial: Chamber A)
1874 25 May 1874 (partial) 9 June 1874 (partial: Chamber E and Senate E)
1876 22 May 1876 (partial) 13 June 1876 (partial: Chamber A)
1878 27 May 1878 (partial) 11 June 1878 (partial: Chamber E and Senate A)
1880 24 May 1880 (partial) 8 June 1880 (partial: Chamber A)
1882 22 May 1882 (partial) 13 June 1882 (partial: Chamber E and Senate E)
1884 25 May 1884 (partial) 10 June 1884 (partial: Chamber A) and 8 July 1884 (full: Senate)[3]
1886 23 May 1886 (partial) 8 June 1886 (partial: Chamber E)
1888 27 May 1888 (partial) 12 June 1888 (partial: Chamber A and Senate A)
1890 25 May 1890 (partial) 10 June 1890 (partial: Chamber E)
1892 22 May 1892 (partial) 14 June 1892 (full: both chambers)[4]
Constitutional reforms of 1893 and Electoral Code of 12 April 1894:
  • Universal plural suffrage for men above 25 years of age
  • Introduction of compulsory voting
  • Elections are now always held on Sundays instead of Tuesdays
  • Provincial senators introduced
1894 28 October 1894 (full) 14 October 1894 (full: both chambers)[2]
1896 26 July 1896 (partial) 5 July 1896 (partial: Chamber A)
Provincial Elections Law of 22 April 1898:
  • Term of provincial councils doubled to eight years instead of four, with partial elections each four years instead of each two years
  • By-elections for provincial councillors replaced by a system of substitutes
1898 5 June 1898 (partial) 22 May 1898 (partial: Chamber E and Senate E)
Legislative elections now use a proportional system with substitutes instead of a majority system with run-off and special elections
1900 3 June 1900 (partial) 27 May 1900 (full: both chambers)[2]
1902 N/A 25 May 1902 (partial: Chamber A)
1904 5 June 1904 (partial) 29 May 1904 (partial: Chamber E and Senate A)
1906 N/A 27 May 1906 (partial: Chamber A)
1908 14 June 1908 (partial) 24 May 1908 (partial: Chamber E and Senate E)
1910 N/A 22 May 1910 (partial: Chamber A)
1912 9 June 1912 (partial) 12 June 1912 (full: both chambers)[2]
1914 N/A 24 May 1914 (partial: Chamber E)

Elections in 1919–1994

Year Municipal elections Provincial elections Legislative elections Other
Following World War I, major reforms were passed:
  • A single vote per man instead of plural voting
  • Voting age was reduced from 25 to 21 years
  • A four-year full legislative term instead of partial renewal of the Chamber each two years
  • Introduction of co-opted senators
1919 N/A N/A 16 November 1919[4]
1920 N/A N/A 16 May 1920 (special Senate election)
Provincial Elections Law of 19 October 1921:
  • A four-year full term for provincial councils instead of partial renewal
  • Proportional representation instead of a majority system
1921 24 April 1921 27 November 1921 20 November 1921[2]
1925 N/A 8 November 1925 5 April 1925[2]
1926 10 October 1926 N/A
1929 N/A 9 June 1929 26 May 1929
1932 9 October 1932 4 December 1932 27 November 1932[2]
1935 N/A N/A 14 April 1935 (partial Chamber election in Brussels)
1936 N/A 7 June 1936 24 May 1936[2]
1937 N/A N/A 11 April 1937 (partial Chamber election in Brussels)
1938 9 October 1938 N/A
1939 N/A N/A 2 April 1939[2] (snap)
World War II
1946 24 November 1946 24 February 1946 17 February 1946[2]
Reforms:
1949 N/A 26 June 1949[2]
1950 N/A 4 June 1950[2] (snap) 12 March 1950 (referendum)
1952 12 October 1952 N/A
1954 N/A 11 April 1954[4]
1958 12 October 1958 1 June 1958[4]
1961 N/A 26 March 1961[2] (snap)
1964 11 October 1964 N/A
1965 N/A 23 May 1965[4]
1968 N/A 31 March 1968[4] (snap)
1970 11 October 1970 N/A
1971 N/A 7 November 1971[2] 21 November 1971 (Brussels Agglomeration Council)
1974 N/A 10 March 1974[2] (snap) Including for the Council of the German cultural community
Large-scale merging of municipalities; their number was reduced from 2,663 to 589
1976 10 October 1976 N/A
1977 N/A 17 April 1977[2] (snap) Including for the Council of the German cultural community
1978 N/A 17 December 1978[4] (snap) Including for the Council of the German cultural community
1979 N/A N/A 10 June 1979 (European)
1982 10 October 1982 N/A
1981 N/A 8 November 1981[4] (snap) Including for the Council of the German cultural community
1984 N/A N/A 17 June 1984 (European)
1985 N/A 13 October 1985[2]
1986 N/A N/A 26 October 1986 (German-speaking Community)
1987 N/A 13 December 1987[4] (snap)
1988 9 October 1988 N/A
1989 N/A N/A 18 June 1989 (European); 18 June 1989 (Brussels)
1990 N/A N/A 28 October 1990 (German-speaking Community)
1991 N/A 24 November 1991[4]

Federal state (1994–present)

The 1993–1994 fourth state reform had far-reaching consequences for the institutional structure of the country.

Local elections (six-year terms) include provincial and municipal elections, as well as district elections in Antwerp.

Regional elections (five-year terms, concurrently with European elections) are elections to the different parliaments of communities and regions: the Flemish Parliament, the Walloon Parliament, the Parliament of the Brussels-Capital Region, the Parliament of the German-speaking Community and indirectly the Parliament of the French Community and the three assemblies of the community commissions in Brussels.

Year Local elections Regional elections Federal elections European elections
1994 N/A N/A N/A 12 June 1994
9 October 1994 N/A
1995 N/A 21 May 1995 21 May 1995[4] N/A
1999 N/A 13 June 1999 13 June 1999[4] 13 June 1999
Districts in the city of Antwerp are established; their councils are now elected as well during local elections
2000 8 October 2000 N/A
Federal constituencies changed from arrondissements to provinces; electoral threshold of 5% introduced
2003 N/A N/A 18 May 2003[4] N/A
2004 N/A 13 June 2004 N/A 13 June 2004
Fifth state reform:
  • Local elections are now organised by the three regional governments (other elections remain a matter for the federal government)
2006 8 October 2006 N/A
2007 N/A N/A 10 June 2007[4] N/A
2009 N/A 7 June 2009 N/A 7 June 2009
2010 N/A N/A 13 June 2010[4] (snap) N/A
2012 14 October 2012 N/A
Sixth state reform:
  • Direct elections to the Senate are abolished; federal elections are now only for the Chamber
  • Federal legislative term is increased from 4 to 5 years
2014 N/A 25 May 2014 25 May 2014[4] 25 May 2014
2018 14 October 2018 N/A
2019 N/A 26 May 2019 26 May 2019 26 May 2019
2024 13 October 2024 May 2024 May 2024

Notes

  1. ^ a b c The Chamber of Representatives was dissolved by royal order.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Both Chambers were dissolved by royal order.
  3. ^ a b The Senate was dissolved by royal order.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Both Chambers were dissolved automatically by Declaration of Revision of the Constitution.

See also


This page was last updated at 2019-11-15 03:55, update this pageView original page

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