wanweipedia

List of indigenous languages of South America

This article lists the indigenous languages of South America. Extinct languages are marked by dagger signs ().

Demographics by country

Demographics of indigenous languages of South America by country as of 2012, as reported by Crevels (2012):[1]

Language Alternate names Family Branch Population Speaker number Degree of endangerment Country Other countries
Mapudungun Mapuche Araucanian 113,680 8,413 seriously endangered  Argentina Chile
Aymara Aymaran 4,104 ? endangered  Argentina Chile, Bolivia, Peru
Gününa Yajich Gününa Küne, Pampa Chonan 1,585 extinct (1960–1970)  Argentina
Selk'nam Ona Chonan 696 extinct (1970s)  Argentina Chile †
Tehuelche Aonek’enk, P’e:nk’enk Chonan 10,590 3 moribund  Argentina
Teushen Tehuesh Chonan extinct (early 1900s)  Argentina
Mocoví Moqoyt La’qa:tqa Guaicuruan 15,837 2,780 endangered  Argentina
Pilagá PitelaGa Laqtak Guaicuruan 4,465 3,494 potentially endangered  Argentina
Toba Namqom Guaicuruan 69,452 30,410 endangered  Argentina Paraguay
Vilela Lule-Vilelan 50 2 moribund  Argentina
Chorote Yofuáha, Yowúwa Matacoan 2,613 1,692 endangered  Argentina Paraguay
Nivaclé Nivaklé, Chulupí, Ashluslay Matacoan 553 224 seriously endangered  Argentina Paraguay
Wichí Mataco, ’Weenhayek in Bolivia Matacoan 40,036 28,631 potentially endangered  Argentina Bolivia
Santiagueño Quechua Quechuan 60,000 – 80,000 endangered  Argentina
Ava Guaraní Guaraní in Bolivia, Guaraní Occidental in Paraguay Tupían Tupí-Guaranían 21,807 5,139 endangered  Argentina Bolivia
Guaraní Correntino Guaraní Goyano Tupían Tupí-Guaranían 100,000 – 1,000,000 potentially endangered  Argentina
Mbyá Tupían Tupí-Guaranían 8,223 3,908 endangered  Argentina Paraguay, Brazil
Tapieté Ñandevá in Paraguay Tupían Tupí-Guaranían 524 178 seriously endangered  Argentina Bolivia, Paraguay
Kunza Atacameño, Likan Antai, Ulipe, Lipe Isolate 3,044 extinct  Argentina Chile †
Yahgan Yámana Isolate extinct (late 1900s)  Argentina Chile
Quechua Quechuan 2,125,000 1,540,833 potentially endangered  Bolivia Peru, Ecuador, Colombia, Chile, Argentina
Aymara Aymaran 1,470,000 1,008,825 potentially endangered  Bolivia Peru, Chile, Argentina
Chipaya Uru-Chipayan 2,134 1,800 endangered  Bolivia
Uchumataqu Uru Uru-Chipayan 230 extinct (2004)  Bolivia
Chholo Uru-Chipayan ? 1? extinct  Bolivia
Puquina Puquinan extinct  Bolivia Peru †
Kallawaya Mixed ? seriously endangered  Bolivia
Machineri Arawakan 30 13 seriously endangered  Bolivia Brazil
Baure Arawakan 886 67 seriously endangered  Bolivia
Moxo (Mojeño), Trinitario Arawakan 30,000 3,140 endangered  Bolivia
Moxo (Mojeño), Ignaciano Arawakan 2,000 1,080 seriously endangered  Bolivia
Paunaca Arawakan ? 5 moribund  Bolivia
Moré Itene Chapacuran 64 44 seriously endangered  Bolivia
Chácobo Pano-Tacanan Tacanan 516 380 endangered  Bolivia
Pacahuara Pano-Tacanan Tacanan 46 6 moribund  Bolivia
Yaminahua Pano-Tacanan Tacanan 93 51 seriously endangered  Bolivia Peru, Brazil
Ese Ejja Pano-Tacanan Tacanan 732 518 endangered  Bolivia Peru
Araona Pano-Tacanan Tacanan 158 111 seriously endangered  Bolivia
Cavineña Pano-Tacanan Tacanan 1,683 601 endangered  Bolivia
Tacana Pano-Tacanan Tacanan 7,345 1,153 / 50–500 seriously endangered  Bolivia
Maropa Reyesano Pano-Tacanan Tacanan 4,919 53 / 12 moribund  Bolivia
Yuki Tupían Tupí-Guaranían 208 140 seriously endangered  Bolivia
Sirionó Tupían Tupí-Guaranían 268 187 endangered  Bolivia
Guarayo Tupían Tupí-Guaranían 11,953 8,433 potentially endangered  Bolivia
Guaraní Chiriguano Tupían Tupí-Guaranían 125,159 43,633 potentially endangered  Bolivia Argentina
Tapieté Tupían Tupí-Guaranían 41 29 seriously endangered  Bolivia Argentina, Paraguay
'Weenhayek Mataco, Wichí in Argentina Matacoan 1,797 1,929 endangered  Bolivia Argentina
Ayoreo Zamucoan 1,398 1,398 endangered  Bolivia Paraguay
Canichana Isolate 404 4 / 0? extinct  Bolivia
Movima Isolate 12,230 1,173 seriously endangered  Bolivia
Cayubaba Isolate 664 23 / <3 moribund  Bolivia
Itonama Isolate 2,791 389 / < 2 moribund  Bolivia
Mosetén Mosetenan 1,588 948 endangered  Bolivia
Tsimane' Chimane Mosetenan 8,615 6,351 potentially endangered  Bolivia
Leko Isolate 4,186 132 / 20 moribund  Bolivia
Yurakaré Isolate 2,829 1,809 endangered  Bolivia
Besïro Chiquitano Macro-Gê Chiquitano 195,624 4,615 seriously endangered  Bolivia Brazil
Banawá Yafí Banawá Arawan 100 (2006) 100 seriously endangered  Brazil
Deni Arawan 875 (2006) 875 endangered  Brazil
Jamamadí Yamamadí, Kanamantí Arawan 884 (2006) 800 endangered  Brazil
Jarawara Jarauara Arawan 180 (2006) 180 endangered  Brazil
Kulina Culina, Madihá, Madiha, Madija Arawan 3,500 (2006) 3,000 endangered  Brazil Peru
Paumari Palmari Arawan 892 (2006) 290 (2000) seriously endangered  Brazil
Zuruahã Sorowaha, Suruwaha Arawan 136 (2007) 136 seriously endangered  Brazil
Apurinã Popingaré, Kangitê, Kaxiriri, Cacharary Arawakan 3,256 (2006) 2,000 endangered  Brazil
Asháninka Kampa, Axíninka Arawakan 869 (2004) 813 endangered  Brazil Peru
Baniwa Baniwa do Içana, Baniva, Baniua, Walimanai, Wakuenai Arawakan 5,811 (2005) 5,811 potentially endangered  Brazil Colombia, Venezuela
Baré Arawakan 10,275 (2005) 2 moribund  Brazil Venezuela
Enawê-Nawê Salumã Arawakan 445 (2006) 445 endangered  Brazil
Kaixana Caixana Arawakan 505 (2006) 1 moribund  Brazil
Kinikinau Guaná Arawakan 250 (2005) 11 (2007) moribund  Brazil
Kuripako Curripaco, Curipaco, Coripaco Arawakan 1,332 (2005) 1,332 endangered  Brazil Colombia, Venezuela
Machineri Manchineri, Yine Arawakan 937 (2004) 937 endangered  Brazil Bolivia
Mehinako Mehinaku, Meinaku Arawakan 227 (2006) 200 seriously endangered  Brazil
Palikur Paliku’ene, Aukwayene, Aukuyene Arawakan 1,330 (2006) 1,300 endangered  Brazil French Guiana
Parecí Paresí, Arití, Halití Arawakan 2,005 (2008) 1,000 endangered  Brazil
Tariana Tariano Arawakan 1,914 (2002) 100 seriously endangered  Brazil Colombia
Terêna Terena, Tereno Arawakan 19,961 19,000 potentially endangered  Brazil
Wapixana Wapishana, Wapisiana, Uapixana, Vapidiana Arawakan 7,000 (2008) 4,000? endangered  Brazil Guyana
Warekena Werekena, Uarequena Arawakan 806 (206) 20 seriously endangered  Brazil Venezuela
Waurá Waujá, Uará Arawakan 321 (2008) 321 endangered  Brazil
Yawalapití Iaualapití Arawakan 222 (2006) 10? moribund  Brazil
Bakairí Bacairí, Kurâ Cariban 950 (1999) 950 endangered  Brazil
Galibí Galibí do Oiapoque, Kari’na, Kaliña Cariban 66 only elders seriously endangered  Brazil Venezuela, French Guiana, Suriname, Guyana
Hixkaryana Hyxkaryana Cariban 631 (2006) 600 endangered  Brazil
Ikpeng Txicão, Txikão Cariban 342 (2006) 342 endangered  Brazil
Ingarikó Akawayo, Kapon Cariban 1,170 (2007) 1,170 endangered  Brazil Guyana, Venezuela
Kalapalo Calapalu Cariban 506 (2006) 506 endangered  Brazil
Katxuyana-Xikuyana Kaxuyana-Xikuyana, Kaxuyana, Caxuiana Cariban 230 (2006) 150 seriously endangered  Brazil
Kuikuro Cuicuro Cariban 509 (2006) 600 endangered  Brazil
Makuxí Macuxi, Macushi, Pemon Cariban 23,433 (2006) 15,000 potentially endangered  Brazil Venezuela
Matipú Cariban 103 (2006) 10 moribund  Brazil
Nahukwá Nahukuá, Nafuquá Cariban 124 (2006) 124 seriously endangered  Brazil
Naruvoto Cariban 78 (2003) ? seriously endangered  Brazil
Patamona Kapon, Akawayo Cariban 87 (2006) ? seriously endangered  Brazil Guyana, Venezuela
Taurepang Taulipang, Pemon, Arekuna Cariban 582 (2002) 500 seriously endangered  Brazil Guyana, Venezuela
Tiriyó Trio, Tarëno, Tirió, Tirio, Tarona, Yawi, Pianokoto Cariban 1,156 (2006) 1,156 endangered  Brazil Suriname
Waimirí-Atroarí Kinã, Kinja Cariban 1,120 (2005) 1,120 endangered  Brazil
Waiwai Wai Wai, TunayanaWaiwai, Katuena Cariban 2,914 (2005) 2,914 potentially endangered  Brazil Guyana
Wayana Waiana, Uaiana, Aparaí Cariban 288 (2006) 288 endangered  Brazil Suriname, French Guiana
Yekuana Ye’kuana, Yekwana, Yecuana, Makiritare, Maquiritare, Maiongong, So’to Cariban 430 (2000) 430 endangered  Brazil Venezuela
Kuyubim Kujubí, Cojubím, Kaw Ta Yo Chapacuran 55 (2006) 2 (2001) moribund  Brazil
Miguelenho Uomo Chapacuran 50 1 moribund  Brazil
Moré Chapacuran 30 (2002) 12 (2002) seriously endangered  Brazil Bolivia
Oro Win Oro Towati Chapacuran 56 (2006) 5 moribund  Brazil
Torá Chapacuran 312 (2006) extinct  Brazil
Wari' Pakaa Nova, Pacaás Novos Chapacuran 2,721 (2006) 2,721 potentially endangered  Brazil
Kadiweu Kadiweo, Caduveo, Cadiuéu, Ejiwajigi, Mbaya-Guaicuru Guaicuruan 1,629 (2006) 1,600 endangered  Brazil
Kanamarí Canamarí, Tüküná, Tâkâna Harakmbut-Katukinan 1,654 (2006) most? endangered  Brazil
Katawixí Catawixi, Catauixi, Catawishi Harakmbut-Katukinan 10? (1986) 10? seriously endangered  Brazil
Katukina do Biá Pedá Djapá, Tüküná Harakmbut-Katukinan 450 (2007) 1 (1976) possibly extinct  Brazil
Tsohom Djapá Tucano Harakmbut-Katukinan 100 (1985) 30? seriously endangered  Brazil
Bororo Eastern Bororo, Boe, Boe Wadáru Macro-Gê Bororo 1,390(2006) 1,390 endangered  Brazil
Umutina Omotina, Barbados Macro-Gê Bororo 445 (2009) extinct  Brazil
Chiquitano Linguará, Anenho Macro-Gê Chiquitano 737 (2006) 50 seriously endangered  Brazil Bolivia
Guató Macro-Gê Guató 370 (2006) 5 moribund  Brazil
Apinajé Apinayé, Apinaié, Timbira Ocidentais Macro-Gê Gêan 1,525 (2006) 1,500 endangered  Brazil
Canela Kanela, Kanela Ramkokamekrá, Kanela Apanyekra Macro-Gê Gêan 2,502 (2006) 2,502 endangered  Brazil
Gavião Perkatêjê Gavião, Parkatêjê, Gavião do Pará, Gavião do Mãe Maria Macro-Gê Gêan 476 (2006) 476 endangered  Brazil
Gavião Pukobiê Pykopjê, Gavião do Maranhão, Timbira Macro-Gê Gêan 494 (2006) 494 endangered  Brazil
Kaingang Caingangue, Kanhgág Macro-Gê Gêan 28,000 (2006) 18,500 potentially endangered  Brazil
Krahô Craô, Kraô, Mehim, Timbira Macro-Gê Gêan 2,184 (2006) 2,184 endangered  Brazil
Kren-Yê Macro-Gê Gêan 30 (1999) 1 (1981) extinct  Brazil
Krikatí Krinkatí, Krikatí-Timbira, Timbira Macro-Gê Gêan 682 (2005) 682 endangered  Brazil
Mebêngokrê Kayapó, Xikrin, Put Karot Macro-Gê Gêan 7,266 (2006) 7,266 potentially endangered  Brazil
Panará Krenhakarore, Krenakore, Krenakarore, Kreen-Akarore, Índios Gigantes Macro-Gê Gêan 374 (2008) 374 endangered  Brazil
Kisêdjê Suyá, Suiá, Mëkisêdjê Macro-Gê Gêan 351 (2006) 351 endangered  Brazil
Tapayuna Suyá Orientais, Novos Suyá, Beiço-de-Pau Macro-Gê Gêan 58 (1995) 58? seriously endangered  Brazil
Xakriabá Xacriabá, Xikriabá Macro-Gê Gêan 7,665 (2006) 0? possibly extinct  Brazil
Xavante A’uwe, Awen Macro-Gê Gêan 13,303 (2007) 13,303 potentially endangered  Brazil
Xerente Akwê, Akwen, Acuen Macro-Gê Gêan 2,569 (2006) 2,569 potentially endangered  Brazil
Xokleng Shokleng, Xokrén, Laklanô, Bugres, Botocudos, Aweikoma, Kaingang de Santa Catarina, Aweikoma-Kaingang Macro-Gê Gêan 887 (2004) 100 seriously endangered  Brazil
Arikapú Aricapú Macro-Gê Jabutí 30 (2006) 1 moribund  Brazil
Djeoromitxí Jeoromitxí, Jabutí Macro-Gê Jabutí 165 (2006) 30 (2008) seriously endangered  Brazil
Yatê Iatê, Fulniô, Carnijó Macro-Gê Yatê 2,930 (1999) 1,000 endangered  Brazil
Javaé Karajá Macro-Gê Karajá 1,208 (2006) 800? endangered  Brazil
Karajá Carajá, Iny Macro-Gê Karajá 2,532 (2006) 2,250 endangered  Brazil
Xambioá Karajá do Norte, Ixybiowa, Iraru Mahãdu Macro-Gê Karajá 269 (2006) 10 moribund  Brazil
Krenak Crenaque, Crenac, Krenac, Nakrehé, Krenak-Nakrehé, Borun; Botocudos; Aimorés Macro-Gê Krenakan 204 (2006) 10 moribund  Brazil
Maxakalí Maxacalí, Monacó, Kumanuxú, Tikmuún Macro-Gê Maxakalí 1,271 (2006) 1,271 endangered  Brazil
Pataxó Pataxó do Norte, Pataxó do Sur, Hã Hã Hãe Macro-Gê Maxakalí 2,219 (2005) extinct (late 1900s)  Brazil
Ofayé Ofaié, Opayé, Ofayé-Xavante Macro-Gê Ofayé 61 (2006) 12 seriously endangered  Brazil
Rikbaktsá Erikbaktsá, Erigpaktsá, Orelhas de Pau, Canoeiros Macro-Gê Rikbaktsá 1,117 (2006) 900 endangered  Brazil
Mura Muran 9,299 (2006) extinct  Brazil
Pirahã Mura-Pirahã Muran 389 (2006) 389 endangered  Brazil
Dâw Kamã Nadahup 120 120 seriously endangered  Brazil
Hup Hupdá, Hupdé, Hupdá Makú Nadahup 1,500 1,500 endangered  Brazil Colombia
Kuyabi Kuyawi Nadahup 20 20 seriously endangered  Brazil
Nadëb Nadöbö, Anodöb, Makunadöbö, Guariba, Guariba Tapuyo, Kabori, Xiriwai Nadahup 350 350 endangered  Brazil
Yuhup Nadahup 617 617 endangered  Brazil Colombia
Latundê Northern Nambikwara (Nambikwara do Norte) Nambikwaran 19 19 seriously endangered  Brazil
Lakondê Northern Nambikwara (Nambikwara do Norte) Nambikwaran 7 1 seriously endangered  Brazil
Mamaindê Northern Nambikwara (Nambikwara do Norte) Nambikwaran 250 250 endangered  Brazil
Negarotê Northern Nambikwara (Nambikwara do Norte) Nambikwaran 80 80 seriously endangered  Brazil
Tawandê Northern Nambikwara (Nambikwara do Norte) Nambikwaran few 1 moribund  Brazil
Southern Nambikwara Nambikwara do Sul Nambikwaran 721 721 seriously endangered  Brazil
Sabanê Nambikwaran 140 3 moribund  Brazil
Arara Shawãdawa Arara do Acre, Shawanauá Panotacanan Panoan 332 (2004) 9 (2000) moribund  Brazil
Katukina-Kanamari Katukina [Tüküná, Pi:Dyapa], Kanamarí [Tüküna Kanamarí, Canamari], Tsohom-Dyapa [Tsunhum-Djapá, Tyonhwak Dyapa], Katukina do Acre, Katukina Pano Panotacanan Panoan 2,239 (2008) 2,239 potentially endangered  Brazil
Kaxararí Caxarari, Kaxariri Panotacanan Panoan 322 (2009) 300? seriously endangered  Brazil
Kaxinawá Caxinauá, Cashinahuá, Cashinahua, Hantxa Kuin, Huni Kuin Panotacanan Panoan 4,500 (2004) 4,500 potentially endangered  Brazil Peru
Korubo Panotacanan Panoan 26 (2007) 26 seriously endangered  Brazil
Kulina do Acre Kulina Pano, Culina Panotacanan Panoan 125 (2006) only elders seriously endangered  Brazil
Marubo Panotacanan Panoan 1,252 (2006) 1,252 endangered  Brazil
Matís Panotacanan Panoan 322 (2008) 322 endangered  Brazil
Matsés Panotacanan Panoan 1,592 (2006) 1,500 endangered  Brazil Peru
Maya Quixito Panotacanan Panoan 400 400 endangered  Brazil Peru?
Nukini Nuquini, Nukuíni Panotacanan Panoan 600 (2003) extinct  Brazil
Poyanawa Poianáua Panotacanan Panoan 403 (1999) 2 moribund  Brazil
Shanenawá Katukina, Shanenawá Panotacanan Panoan 361 (2006) 300 endangered  Brazil
Yaminawa Jaminawa, Iauminawa Panotacanan Panoan 855 (2006) 600 endangered  Brazil Bolivia, Peru
Yawanawá Yauanauá, Iauanauá Panotacanan Panoan 519 (2006) 519 endangered  Brazil
Arapaso Arapaço Tucanoan 569 0? possibly extinct  Brazil
Bará Waimajã, Waípinõmakã Tucanoan 21 (2005) 21 seriously endangered  Brazil Colombia
Barasana Barasano, Pãnerã, Hanera, Panenoá Tucanoan 34 (2005) 34 seriously endangered  Brazil Colombia
Desano Desana, Dessano, Wira, Umúkomasá Tucanoan 2,204 (2005) 700 endangered  Brazil Colombia
Karapanã Carapanã, Muteamasa, Ukopinõpõna Tucanoan 63 (2005) 63 seriously endangered  Brazil Colombia
Kotiria Wanano, Wanana, Guanano, Uanano Tucanoan 735 (2005) 650 endangered  Brazil Colombia
Kubeo Cubeo, Cobewa, Kubéwa, Pamíwa Tucanoan 381 (2005) 150–200 seriously endangered  Brazil Colombia
Makuna Macuna, Yeba-Masã Tucanoan 32 (2005) 32 seriously endangered  Brazil Colombia
Mirity-Tapuya Miriti-Tapuia, Buia-Tapuya Tucanoan 75 (2005) 0? possibly extinct  Brazil
Piratapuya Piratapuia, PiraTapuia, Piratapuyo, Waíkana Tucanoan 1,433 (2005) 700 seriously endangered  Brazil Colombia
Siriano Siria-Masã Tucanoan 71 (2005) 71? seriously endangered  Brazil Colombia
Tukano Tucano, Ye’pãmasa, Dasea Tucanoan 6,241 (2005) 7,000 potentially endangered  Brazil Colombia
Tuyuka Tuyuca, Tuiuca, Dokapuara, Utapinõmakãphõná Tucanoan 825 (2005) 800? endangered  Brazil Colombia
Yurutí Jurití Tucanoan ? 0? possibly extinct  Brazil Colombia
Karitiana Tupían Arikem 320 (2005) 320 endangered  Brazil
Awetí Aueti Tupían Awetí 160 (2008) 160 seriously endangered  Brazil
Aruá Tupían Monde 36 12 seriously endangered  Brazil
Cinta Larga Tupían Monde 645 645 endangered  Brazil
Gavião Gavião de Rondônia, Ikõlej, Ikõleey, Ikõro Tupían Monde 523 (2004) 523 endangered  Brazil
Zoró Pageyn Tupían Monde 599 (2008) 599 endangered  Brazil
Paiter Suruí-Paiter, Suruí de Rondônia Tupían Monde 1,007 (2006) 1,007 endangered  Brazil
Salamãi Sanamãika, Mondé Tupían Monde ? 2 moribund  Brazil
Kuruaya Kuruaia, Curuaia Tupían Mundurukú 129 (2006) 3 moribund  Brazil
Mundurukú Mundurucú Tupían Mundurukú 10,065 (2002) 8,000 endangered  Brazil
Puruborá Tupían Puruborá 62 (2006) 2 moribund  Brazil
Karo Arara, Arara Karo, Arara de Rondônia, Arara Tupi, Ntogapíd, Itoga-púk, Ramarama, Uruku, Urumi, Ytangá Tupían Ramaraman 208 (2006) 200 seriously endangered  Brazil
Sateré-Mawé Sataré-Maué, Sateré, Mawé Tupían Sateré-Mawé 9,156 (2008) 6,219 endangered  Brazil
Ajurú Wayurú, Wayoró Tupían Tuparían 94 (2006) 8 seriously endangered  Brazil
Akuntsú Akunt’su, Akunsu Tupían Tuparían 5 (2009) 5 moribund  Brazil
Makurap Macurap Tupían Tuparían 381 (2006) 50 seriously endangered  Brazil
Sakurabiat Mekens, Mekém, Sakirabiat Tupían Tuparían 84 (2006) 22 (2008) seriously endangered  Brazil
Tuparí Tupían Tuparían 433 (2006) 150 (2005) seriously endangered  Brazil
Amanayé Amanaié, Ararandeuara Tupían Tupí-Guaranían 192 (2001) 0? possibly extinct  Brazil
Anambé Tupían Tupí-Guaranían 132 (2000) 6 (2000) moribund  Brazil
Apiaká Apiacá Tupían Tupí-Guaranían 1,000 (2009) 1 (2008) moribund  Brazil
Araweté Araueté Tupían Tupí-Guaranían 339 (2006) 339 endangered  Brazil
Akwawa varieties: Asuriní do Tocantins, Parakanã, Suruí do Tocantins Tupían Tupí-Guaranían 1,548 1,548 endangered  Brazil
Asuriní do Tocantins Tupían Tupí-Guaranían 384 (2006) 384 endangered  Brazil
Parakanã Apiterewa Tupían Tupí-Guaranían 900 (2004) 900 endangered  Brazil
Suruí do Tocantins Tupían Tupí-Guaranían 264 (2006) 264 endangered  Brazil
Asuriní do Xingu Awaeté Tupían Tupí-Guaranían 125 (2006) 125 seriously endangered  Brazil
Avá-Canoeiro Canoeiro, Carijó, Índios Negros, Cara Preta Tupían Tupí-Guaranían 16 16? seriously endangered  Brazil
Diahoi Jiahui, Jahói, Djahui, Diahkoi, Diarroi Tupían Tupí-Guaranían 88 1 moribund  Brazil
Guajá Awá, Avá Tupían Tupí-Guaranían 283 (2005) 283 endangered  Brazil
Guajajara Tenetehára, Ze’egete Tupían Tupí-Guaranían 19,471(2006) 14,000 potentially endangered  Brazil
Juma Yuma Tupían Tupí-Guaranían 5 5 moribund  Brazil
Ka'apor Urubu-Kaapor, Kaaporté Tupían Tupí-Guaranían 991 (2006) 991 endangered  Brazil
Kayabí Kaiabí, Caiabí Tupían Tupí-Guaranían 1,619 (2006) 1,000 endangered  Brazil
Kaiowa Kaiova, Paï-Tavyterã Tupían Tupí-Guaranían 20,000 (2003) most? endangered  Brazil Paraguay
Kamaiurá Camaiurá Tupían Tupí-Guaranían 492 (2006) 400 (2008) endangered  Brazil
Karipuna Tupían Tupí-Guaranían 14 (2004) 10 moribund  Brazil
Kokama Kocama, Cocama Tupían Tupí-Guaranían 9,000(2003) 5 (1993) moribund  Brazil Peru, Colombia
Mbyá Tupían Tupí-Guaranían 6,000 (2003) 6,000 potentially endangered  Brazil Argentina, Paraguay
Ñandeva Ava-Guaraní or Chiripá in Paraguay Tupían Tupí-Guaranían 13,000 (2008) 13,000 potentially endangered  Brazil Paraguay
Nheengatu Yeral, Língua Geral, Língua Geral Amazônica Tupían Tupí-Guaranían 3,000 (1977) endangered  Brazil Venezuela
Omagua Kambeba, Kambewa, Cambeba Tupían Tupí-Guaranían 347 few? moribund  Brazil Peru
Parintintin Kagwahiwa Tupían Tupí-Guaranían 284 (2006) 10 moribund  Brazil
Tapirapé Tapi’irape Tupían Tupí-Guaranían 564 (2006) 564 endangered  Brazil
Tembé Timbé, Tenetehára, Turiwara Tupían Tupí-Guaranían 1,425 (2006) 60 seriously endangered  Brazil
Tenharim Kagwahiwa Tupían Tupí-Guaranían 699 (2006) 350 seriously endangered  Brazil
Tupinamba Coastal Tupi Tupían Tupí-Guaranían 2,590 (2006) extinct  Brazil
Uru-Eu-Wau-Wau Amondawa, Jupaú, Kawahíb Tupían Tupí-Guaranían 183 (2006) 183 seriously endangered  Brazil
Wajãpi Wayãpy, Waiãpi, Guaiapi, Wayampi, Oyampi Tupían Tupí-Guaranían 905 (2008) 905 endangered  Brazil French Guiana
Xetá Hetá Tupían Tupí-Guaranían 86 (2006) 8 moribund  Brazil
Zo'é Poturu, Jo’é Tupían Tupí-Guaranían 177 (2003) 177 seriously endangered  Brazil
Xipaya Xipaia, Shipaya Tupían Tupí-Guaranían 595 (2002) 2 (2003) moribund  Brazil
Yudjá Yuruna, Juruna, Jurûna Tupían Yuruna 362 (2006) 300? seriously endangered  Brazil
Witoto Huitoto, Uitoto Witotoan Witotoan proper 42 ? possibly extinct (in Brazil)  Brazil Peru, Colombia
Miranha Mirãnha, Miraña Witotoan Boran 836 (2006) extinct  Brazil Colombia
Sánuma Sanïma, Sánïma, Sánema Yanomaman 462 (2006) 462 endangered  Brazil Venezuela
Yanam Ninam, Xirianá Yanomaman 466 (2006) 466 seriously endangered  Brazil Venezuela
Yanomam Yanomae Yanomaman 4,000 (2006) 4,000 potentially endangered  Brazil Venezuela
Yanomami Yanomamï, Yanomamõ, Yanomama, Yanoama Yanomaman 6,000 (2006) 6,000 potentially endangered  Brazil Venezuela
Chamacoco Ishir Zamucoan 1,572 (2002) 1,572 endangered  Brazil Paraguay
Aikanã Aikaná, Masaká, Kasupá, Huarí, Mondé, Tubarão Isolate 200 150 seriously endangered  Brazil
Atikum Aticum, Wamoé Isolate 5,852 (1999) extinct (1960s)  Brazil
Iranxe Irantxe, Manoki Isolate 276 (2006) 10 seriously endangered  Brazil
Myky Menky, Munku Isolate 80 (2000) 80? seriously endangered  Brazil
Kanoê Canoé, Kapixaná Isolate 95 (2002) 3 moribund  Brazil
Kwazá Koaiá, Coaiá, Quaia Isolate 40 (2008) 25 seriously endangered  Brazil
Ticuna Tikuna, Tukuna, Magüa Isolate 35,000 (2008) 35,000 potentially endangered  Brazil Colombia, Peru
Trumai Isolate 147 (2006) 51 (2007) seriously endangered  Brazil
Tuxá Isolate 3,927 2 (1961) extinct (1960s)  Brazil
Arara do Aripuanã Arara do Beiradão, Arara do Rio Branco Unclassified 209 (2005) extinct  Brazil
Isolados do Massaco Unclassified 100? 100? seriously endangered  Brazil
Isolados do Tanarú Unclassified 1 1 moribund  Brazil
Kambiwá Cambiuá Unclassified 2,820 2 (1961) extinct  Brazil
Kantaruré Unclassified 493 (2006) extinct  Brazil
Kapinawá Capinauá Unclassified 3,294 extinct  Brazil
Kariri Cariri, Kipea, Kiriri, Dzubukuá; Tumbalalá Unclassified ? 1,469 (2006) extinct  Brazil
Kiriri Katembri, Kariri, Kariri de Mirandela Unclassified 1,612 1 (1960s) extinct  Brazil
Máku Macu, Mako Unclassified ? possibly extinct (2000–2002)  Brazil
Pankararu Pancararu, Pankararé Unclassified 6,515 extinct  Brazil
Potiguara Potyguara Unclassified 11,424 extinct  Brazil
Tapeba Tapebano, Perna-de-Pau Unclassified 5,741 (2006) extinct  Brazil
Tingui-Botó Unclassified 302 extinct  Brazil
Tremembé Unclassified 2,049 (2006) extinct  Brazil
Truká Unclassified 4,169 (2006) extinct  Brazil
Wassú Unclassified 1,560 (2003) extinct  Brazil
Xokó Chocó Unclassified 364 (2006) extinct  Brazil
Kariri-Xocó Unclassified 1,763 (2000) extinct  Brazil
Xukuru-Kariri Unclassified 2,652 (2006) extinct  Brazil
Xukuru Unclassified 9,064 (2006) extinct (early 1960s)  Brazil
Huilliche Chesungun Araucanian 2,000 (1982) few elders moribund  Chile
Mapudungun Mapuche Araucanian 604,349 250,000 endangered  Chile Argentina
Aymara Aymaran 48,501 24,000 endangered  Chile Bolivia, Peru, Argentina
Selk'nam Ona Chonan extinct  Chile Argentina †
Quechua Quechuan 6,175 1,000 ? endangered  Chile Argentina, Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador, Colombia
Kunza Atacameño, Likan Antai, Ulipe, Lipe Isolate 21,015 extinct (1960)  Chile Argentina †, Bolivia †
Yahgan Yámana, Háusi Kútə Isolate 1685 / 70 1 moribund  Chile Argentina †
Kawésqar Qawasqar, Alacaluf Isolate 2622 / 101 20 moribund  Chile
Achagua Arawakan 283 (2001) 283 seriously endangered  Colombia Venezuela †
Baniva Baniva del Guainía Arawakan ? few? seriously endangered  Colombia Venezuela, Brazil
Cabiyarí Kabiyari, Kawiyarí, Kawiri, Cauyari, Cabuyari Arawakan 311 (2001) 311 seriously endangered  Colombia
Curripaco Curripaco-Baniva, Kurripako, Baniva del Isana Arawakan 7,827 (2001) 7,000? potentially endangered  Colombia Venezuela, Brazil
Wayuunaiki Guajiro, Goajiro Arawakan 149,827 (2001) 149,827 potentially endangered  Colombia Venezuela
Piapoco Piapoko, Tsáçe Arawakan 4,926 (2001) 4,926 potentially endangered  Colombia Venezuela
Tariana Tariano Arawakan 445 (2001) 0? possibly extinct  Colombia Brazil
Yucuna-Matapí Yukuna Arawakan 770 (221) 770 endangered  Colombia Brazil?
Awa Pit Awapit, Awá, Awa-Cuaiquer, Cuaiquer, Kwaiker Barbacoan 15,364 (2001) < 15,364 endangered  Colombia Ecuador
Guambiano Coconuco, Guanaca Barbacoan 23,462 (2001) 23,462 endangered  Colombia
Totoró Barbacoan 4,130 (2001) 4 moribund  Colombia
Carijona Karijona, Tsahá Cariban 307 (2001) < 10 moribund  Colombia
Opón-Carare Cariban ? extinct  Colombia
Yuko Yukpa, Yucpa, Japrería Cariban 3,651 (2001) 3,651 potentially endangered  Colombia Venezuela
Arhuaco Ika, Ijka, Bíntukua Chibchan 14,799 (2001) 14,799 potentially endangered  Colombia
Barí Motilón Chibchan 3,617 (2001) 3,617 potentially endangered  Colombia Venezuela
Chimila Ette Taara Chibchan 900 (2001) 900 endangered  Colombia
Cuna Kuna, Tule Chibchan 1,231 (2001) 1,231 endangered  Colombia PA
Damana Sanka, Malayo, Arsario, Wiwa Chibchan 1,922 (2001) 1,922 endangered  Colombia
Kogui Kawgian, Kággaba, Kogi Chibchan 9,911 (2001) 9,911 potentially endangered  Colombia
Uwa-Tunebo Uw Kuwa, U’wa Chibchan 7,231 (2001) 7,231 potentially endangered  Colombia Venezuela †
Emberá Pede Epenã, Epérã Pedée, Pede, Chamí, Catío, Katío, Sambú Chocoan 88,747 (2001) 88,747? potentially endangered  Colombia Ecuador, PA
Waunana Waunán, Waunméu, Waumeo, Chocó, Noanama Chocoan 8,177 8,177 potentially endangered  Colombia PA
Zenú Chocoan 34,566 extinct  Colombia
Cuiba Cuiva, Kuiva Guahiboan 2,445 (2001) 2,445 endangered  Colombia Venezuela
Sikuani Hiwi, Jive, Guahibo, Vichadeño, Amorúa, Tigrero Guahiboan 23,006 (2001) 23,006 potentially endangered  Colombia Venezuela
Guayabero Mitua, Jiw Guahiboan 1,118 (2001) 1,118 endangered  Colombia
Hitnu Jitnu, Macaguane-Hitnu Guahiboan 441 (2001) 441? endangered  Colombia
Pepojivi Playero, Guahibo Playero Guahiboan < 200 (1982) < 200 seriously endangered  Colombia Venezuela
Hup Hupda, Hupdë Nadahup 235 235 seriously endangered  Colombia Brazil
Kakua Cakua Nadahup 220 220 seriously endangered  Colombia
Nukak Nadahup 390 390 endangered  Colombia
Yuhup Yuhuo Makú Nadahup 200 200 seriously endangered  Colombia Brazil
Yagua Yawa Peba-Yaguan 297 (2001) 297 endangered  Colombia Peru
Inga Ingano Quechuan 19,079 (2001) 8,000 endangered  Colombia
Piaroa Sáliba-Piaroan 773 (2001) 773 endangered  Colombia Venezuela
Sáliba Sáliva Sáliba-Piaroan 1,929 (2001) < 1,929 endangered  Colombia Venezuela
Bará Waimaja, Waimasa, Waymasa, Waimaha, Barasano del Norte Tucanoan 109 (2001) 109 seriously endangered  Colombia Brazil
Barasana Barasano, Barasano del Sur, Pãnerã, Banera Yae Tucanoan 1,890 (1997) 1,890 endangered  Colombia Brazil
Carapana Karapana Tucanoan 464 (2001) 464 endangered  Colombia Brazil
Cubeo Kubeo Tucanoan 6,647 (2001) 6,647 potentially endangered  Colombia Brazil
Desano Tucanoan 2,457 (2001) 2,457 endangered  Colombia Brazil
Koreguaje Coreguaje, Ko’reuaju Tucanoan 2,212 (2001) 2,212 endangered  Colombia
Macaguaje Makaguaje Tucanoan 50 (2001) 0? possibly extinct  Colombia
Macuna Makuna Tucanoan 1,009 (2001) 1,009 endangered  Colombia Brazil
Piratapuyo Piratapuya Tucanoan 630 (2001) 630 endangered  Colombia Brazil
Pisamira Pápiwa Tucanoan 61 (2001) 25 seriously endangered  Colombia Brazil
Siona SionaSecoya Tucanoan 734 (2001) 500 (2003) endangered  Colombia Ecuador, Peru
Siriano Tucanoan 749 (2001) 749 endangered  Colombia Brazil
Taiwano Taibano, Eduria Tucanoan 22 (2001) 22 moribund  Colombia
Tanimuca-Letuama Opaina, Ufaina, Retuarã Tucanoan 1,952 (2001) < 1,952 endangered  Colombia
Tatuyo Tucanoan 331 (2001) 331 endangered  Colombia
Tucano Tucanoan 6,996 (2001) 6,996 potentially endangered  Colombia Brazil
Tuyuca Tucanoan 642 (2001) 642 endangered  Colombia Brazil
Wanano Guanano, Kotiria Tucanoan 1,395 (2001) 1,395 endangered  Colombia Brazil
Yauna Tucanoan 103 (2001) 103? seriously endangered  Colombia
Yurutí Tucanoan 687 (2001) 687 endangered  Colombia Brazil
Cocama Kokama, Cocama, Cocamilla Tupían Tupí-Guaranían 792 (2001) few semi-speakers moribund  Colombia Peru, Brazil
Nonuya Witotoan Witotoan proper 228 (2001) 2 moribund  Colombia
Ocaina Witotoan Witotoan proper 137 137 seriously endangered  Colombia Peru
Witoto Witoto, Witoto Murui, Witoto Mïnïca, Witoto Muinane Witotoan Witotoan proper 7,343 7,343 potentially endangered  Colombia Peru, Brazil †?
Bora Witotoan Boran 701 (2001) <500 seriously endangered  Colombia Peru
Miraña Witotoan Boran 715 (2001) <100 seriously endangered  Colombia Brazil
Muinane Bora Muinane Witotoan Boran 547 50–100? seriously endangered  Colombia
A'ingae Cofán, Kofán Isolate 1,143 (2000) 379 (2008) endangered  Colombia Ecuador
Andoke Andoque Isolate 597 (2001) 597 endangered  Colombia
Kamsá Camsá, Kamëntsa Isolate 4,773 (2001) 4,773 potentially endangered  Colombia
Nasa Yuwe Paéz Isolate 138,501 (2001) 60,000 endangered  Colombia
Ticuna Tikuna Isolate 7,102 (2001) 7,102 potentially endangered  Colombia Peru, Brazil
Tinigua Isolate 1? 1 (2008) moribund  Colombia
Carabayo Yuri Unclassified 217 (2001) 217 seriously endangered  Colombia
Wãnsöhöt Puinave Unclassified 6,604 (2001) 6,604 potentially endangered  Colombia Venezuela
Awapit Barbacoan 3,283 2,100 endangered  Ecuador Colombia
Cha'palaa Cha’palaachi, Chachi, Cayapa Barbacoan 5,465 5,871 endangered  Ecuador
Tsafiqui Tsafiki, Tsáchila, Tsachela, Colorado Barbacoan 1,484 1,872 endangered  Ecuador
Epera Pedede Êpera, Epena Pedee, Siapedie, Emberá, Emberá del Sur, Emberá Chami Chocoan 65 52 seriously endangered  Ecuador Colombia
Achuar-Shiwiara Achiar Chicham Jivaroan 2,404 2,943 endangered  Ecuador Peru
Shiwiar Chicham Jivaroan 612 579 endangered  Ecuador
Shuar Chicham Jivaroan 52,697 42,261 potnetially endangered  Ecuador
Quichua Cañar, Azuay, Cotopaxo, Tungurahua, Chimborazo, Imbabura, Loza, Napo, Pastaza, and Salasaca dialects Quechuan 408,395 451,783 potnetially endangered  Ecuador Argentina, Chile, Bolivia, Peru, Colombia
Secoya Siona-Secoya, Pai Coca Tucanoan 240 85 seriously endangered  Ecuador Colombia, Peru
Pai Coca Siona, Kokakañú Tucanoan 304 260 seriously endangered  Ecuador
Teteté Tucanoan ? 2 (1969) possibly extinct  Ecuador
Záparo Kayapi Zaparoan 346 176 seriously endangered  Ecuador
A'ingae Cofán Isolate 1,044 638 endangered  Ecuador Colombia
Huao Wao, Waorani, Waotededo, Wao Tiriro, Auca, Sabela Isolate 1,534 1,616 endangered  Ecuador
Lokono Arawak Arawakan 15,500 (2000) 1,500 seriously endangered  Guyana Suriname, French Guiana, Venezuela
Wapishana Arawakan 6,900 (2000) < 6,900 endangered  Guyana Brazil
Mawayana Arawakan ? few rememberers extinct  Guyana Suriname, Brazil †
Akawayo Kapon Cariban 5,000 (2000) < 5,000 endangered  Guyana Venezuela, Brazil
Arekuna Pemon Cariban 400–500 400–500 endangered  Guyana Venezuela, Brazil
Kari'na Carib Cariban 3,000 (2000) few hundred seriously endangered  Guyana French Guiana, Suriname, Venezuela, Brazil
Makushi Pemon Cariban 7,750 (2000) < 7,750 endangered  Guyana Venezuela, Brazil
Patamona Kapon Cariban 5,000 (2000) < 5,000 endangered  Guyana Venezuela, Brazil
Waiwai Cariban 240 240 seriously endangered  Guyana Brazil
Warao Isolate 5,000 (2000) few seriously endangered  Guyana Venezuela, Brazil
Taruma Saluma, Saloema, Charuma Unclassified ? few moribund  Guyana Suriname †, Brazil †
Lokono Arawak Arawakan 2,000 500-700 endangered  Suriname French Guiana, Guyana, Venezuela
Mawayana Arawakan 60-80 < 5 moribund  Suriname
Akuriyo Cariban 40-50 3 moribund  Suriname
Kari'na Carib Cariban 3,000 1,200 seriously endangered  Suriname Guyana, French Guiana, Venezuela, Brazil
Sikïiyana Cariban 60-70 < 12 moribund  Suriname
Trio Cariban 1,300 1,300 endangered  Suriname Brazil
Tunayana Katuena Cariban 80-90 10 moribund  Suriname
Wayana Cariban 450 450 endangered  Suriname French Guiana, Brazil
Arawak Lokono Arawakan 1,500 375 seriously endangered  French Guiana Suriname, Guyana, Venezuela
Palikur Arawakan 1,500 < 1500 endangered  French Guiana Brazil
Aparaí Cariban ? few seriously endangered  French Guiana Brazil
Galibi Kari’na, Kali’na Cariban 4,000 2,400 endangered  French Guiana Suriname, Guyana, Venezuela, Brazil
Wayana Cariban 1,000 1,000 endangered  French Guiana Suriname, Brazil
Emérillon Teko Tupían Tupí-Guaranían 400 400 endangered  French Guiana
Wayãpi Wajãpi, Wayampi Tupían Tupí-Guaranían 750 750 endangered  French Guiana Brazil
Angaité Enlhet-Enenlhet 3,730 1,030 endangered  Paraguay
Enlhet Enlhet Norte, Enslet, Enthlit, Enlhet-Lengua, Lengua Enlhet-Enenlhet 7,316 6,439 endangered  Paraguay
Enxet Enxet Sur Enlhet-Enenlhet 5,930 3,842 endangered  Paraguay
Guaná Kashika Enlhet-Enenlhet 258 29 seriously endangered  Paraguay
Sanapaná Sa’apan, Kasnapan Enlhet-Enenlhet 2,327 984 endangered  Paraguay
Toba-Enenlhet including Toba-Maskoy Enlhet-Enenlhet 1,509 1,253 endangered  Paraguay
Toba-Maskoy Enlhet-Enenlhet 764 12 moribund  Paraguay
Toba-Qom Qom-Lik, Emok-Lik, Takshika, Toba in Argentina Guaicuruan 1,499 1,183 endangered  Paraguay Argentina
Maká Maca Matacoan 1,307 1,042 endangered  Paraguay
Manjuy Manjui, Chorote in Argentina; three varieties: Iyo’wuhwa, Iyojwa’ja [Yohwaha], and Montaraz [Wikinawos, Manjuy] Matacoan 452 365 endangered  Paraguay Argentina
Nivaclé Nivaklé, Chulupí, Ashluslay Matacoan 12,169 10,109 endangered  Paraguay Argentina
Aché Axé, Aché-Guayaki, Guayakí Tupían Tupí-Guaranían 1,242 911 endangered  Paraguay
Ava-Guaraní Chiripá, Ava-Chiripá, Chiripá-Guaraní, Avakatu-ete, Ñandeva in Brazil Tupían Tupí-Guaranían 13,872 6,308 endangered  Paraguay Brazil
Guaraní-Ñandeva Ñandeva, Tapieté Tupían Tupí-Guaranían 2,021 1,550 endangered  Paraguay Argentina, Bolivia
Guaraní Occidental Ava-Guaraní in Argentina, Guaraní (Chiriguano) in Bolivia Tupían Tupí-Guaranían 2,359 574 seriously endangered  Paraguay Argentina, Bolivia
Mbyá Tupían Tupí-Guaranían 14,624 10,016 endangered  Paraguay Argentina, Brazil
Pãi-Tavyterã Kaiova, Kaiowa, Avá Tupían Tupí-Guaranían 13,391 6,364 endangered  Paraguay Brazil
Ayoreo Moro, Pyta Jovai Zamucoan 2,100 1,756 endangered  Paraguay Bolivia
Chamacoco Ishir, Yshyrö; 2 varieties: Ybytoso, Ybytoso Zamucoan  Paraguay
Ybytoso Zamucoan 1,553 1,174 endangered  Paraguay Brazil
Tamárâho Zamucoan 106 85 endangered  Paraguay Brazil
Madija Madiha, Kulina, Kurina Arawan 300 300 endangered  Peru Brazil
Asháninca Asháninka Arawakan 88,703 (2007) 88,703 potentially endangered  Peru
Ashéninca Ashéninka, Axininca, Ashéninca Pajonal Arawakan 20,000 20,000 potentially endangered  Peru
Campa Caquinte Poyenisati Arawakan 500 500 endangered  Peru
Chamicuro Chamekolo Arawakan 126 (1993) 8 (2008) moribund  Peru
Iñapari Arawakan 68 (1993) 4 (1998) moribund  Peru
Machiguenga Matsiguenga, Matsigenka, Niagantsi Arawakan 8,679 (1993) 5,000 endangered  Peru
Nanti Cugapacori, Kugapakori Arawakan 450 450 endangered  Peru
Nomatsiguenga Inato, Ina’o, Inthome, Intsome Arawakan 5,531 (1993) 5,531 potentially endangered  Peru
Resígaro Arawakan 14 (1993) 2 moribund  Peru
Yanesha' Amuesha Arawakan 10,000 8,000 potentially endangered  Peru
Yine Piro, Apurinã, Yinerï Tokanï Arawakan 2,553 (1993) 2,553 potentially endangered  Peru
Aymara Aymaran 434,372 (2007) < 434,372 potentially endangered  Peru
Cauqui Aymaran ? 9 (2005) moribund  Peru
Jaqaru or Cauqui Aymaran 3,000? 725? endangered  Peru
Shawi Chayahuita Cahuapanan 21,424 (2007) 14,000 endangered  Peru
Shiwilu Jebero, Xebero Cahuapanan 642 (1993) < 30 seriously endangered  Peru
Harakmbut Harakmbut Hate, Harakmbut Ate, Amarakaeri Harakmbut-Katukinan 1,206 (1993) 1,206 endangered  Peru
Cholón or Seeptsá Hibitocholonan ? 2 (1986) possibly extinct  Peru
Achuar-Shiwiar Shiwiar-Maina Jivaroan 2,500 (2008) 2,500 endangered  Peru Ecuador
Awajún Aguajún, Ahuajún, Aguaruna Jivaroan 55,366 (2007) 55,366 potentially endangered  Peru
Huambisa Jivaroan 8,000 8,000 potentially endangered  Peru
Amahuaca Ameuhaque, Amaguaco Pano-Tacanan Panoan 247 (1993) 100? seriously endangered  Peru Brazil
Capanahua Capabaquebo, Kapanawa, Capacho Pano-Tacanan Panoan 275 (2006) 100? seriously endangered  Peru
Cashibo-Cacataibo Uni Pano-Tacanan Panoan 2,191 (1993) 2,191 endangered  Peru
Cashinahua Caxinahua, Kaxinawa, Hantxa Kuin, Pano-Tacanan Panoan 957 (1993) 957 endangered  Peru Brazil
Matsés Matsés-Mayoruna, Mayoruna Pano-Tacanan Panoan 2,500 2,500 endangered  Peru Brazil
Nahua Yura, Yora, Yurahahua Pano-Tacanan Panoan 450 450 endangered  Peru Bolivia
Sharanahua Marinahua, Mastanahua, Parquenahua Pano-Tacanan Panoan 438 <438 endangered  Peru Brazil
Shipibo-Konibo Shipibo-Conibo, Shipibo Pano-Tacanan Panoan 22,517 (2007) 22,517 endangered  Peru
Wariapano Huariapano, Panobo Pano-Tacanan Panoan ? probably extinct (1991)  Peru
Yaminahua Pano-Tacanan Panoan 400 400 endangered  Peru Bolivia, Brazil
Ese Ejja Huarayo, Guarayo, Chama Pano-Tacanan Tacanan 782 (1993) 782 endangered  Peru Bolivia
Yagua Yawa, Iahua Peba-Yaguan 5,000 4,000 endangered  Peru Colombia
Quechua Quechuan 3,262,137 (2007) < 3,262,137 potentially endangered  Peru Ecuador, Bolivia, Chile, Argentina
Orejón Maihuna, Coto, Payagua, Tutapi Tucanoan 300 100 seriously endangered  Peru
Secoya Siona-Secoya Tucanoan 329 (1993) 329 endangered  Peru Ecuador
Cocama-Cocamilla Xibitoana, Huallaga, Pampadeque Tupían Tupí-Guaranían 10,705 1,000 seriously endangered  Peru Colombia, Brazil
Omagua Tupían Tupí-Guaranían 630 (1976) 2 (2010) moribund  Peru Brazil
Huitoto Witoto Witotoan Witotoan proper 3,000 1,000 endangered  Peru Colombia, Brazil †?
Ocaina Witotoan Witotoan proper 150 50 seriously endangered  Peru Colombia
Bora Witotoan Boran 3,000 2,000 endangered  Peru Colombia, Brazil
Andoa-Shimigae Zaparoan ? 2 (2008) moribund  Peru Ecuador
Arabela Chiripuno Zaparoan 500 50 (2001) seriously endangered  Peru
Cahuarano Cahuarana Zaparoan ? 5 (1975) extinct  Peru
Iquito Amacacore, Quiturran, Puca-Uma Zaparoan 500 25–50 seriously endangered  Peru
Candoshi Candoshi-Shapra Isolate 1,586 (1993) 1,586 endangered  Peru
Munichi Muniche Isolate ? 8 (2008) moribund  Peru
Ticuna Isolate 8,000 8,000 potentially endangered  Peru Brazil, Colombia
Urarina Kacha Ere, Shimacu, Itucale, Cimarrón Isolate 2,000 (2003) 2,000 potentially endangered  Peru
Vacacocha Aushiri Isolate ? 2? (2008) moribund  Peru
Aguano Unclassified (Arawakan)? 40 families (1959) extinct  Peru
Culle Culli Unclassified extinct (1950s)  Peru
Mashco Mashco-Piro Unclassified 200–600 200–600 endangered  Peru Brazil
Taushiro Pinche Unclassified 20 1 (2008) moribund  Peru
Achagua Arawakan extinct  Venezuela Colombia
Añu Paraujano Arawakan 11,205 (2001) 20 seriously endangered  Venezuela
Baniva Baníwa, Banibo, Baniva-Yavitero, Baniva del Guainía Arawakan 2,408 (2001) 608 endangered  Venezuela Colombia, Brazil
Baré Arawakan 2,815 (2001) 239 / few moribund  Venezuela Brazil
Kurripako Curripaco, Wakuénai, Baniva-Kurripako, Baniwa del Isana Arawakan 4,925 (2001) 3,743 potentially endangered  Venezuela Colombia, Brazil
Lokono Arhwak, Aruaco Arawakan 428 (2001) 130 seriously endangered  Venezuela French Guiana, Suriname, Guyana
Mandahuaca Mandawaka Arawakan ? possibly extinct  Venezuela Brazil
Piapoko Piapoco, Tsáçe Arawakan 1,939 (2001) 1,745 potentially endangered  Venezuela Colombia
Warekena Guarequena Arawakan 513 (2001) 160 seriously endangered  Venezuela Brazil
Wayuunaiki Guajiro, Wayuu Arawakan 293,777 (2001) 293,777 potentially endangered  Venezuela Colombia
Yavitero Baniva-Yavitero, Banibo Arawakan ? 1 (2000) possibly extinct  Venezuela
Akawayo Kapon Cariban 245 (2001) 180 endangered  Venezuela Guyana, Brazil
Chaima Cariban 4,084 (2001) 63 seriously endangered  Venezuela
E'ñepa Panare, Mapoyo Cariban 4,269 (2001) 4,184 potentially endangered  Venezuela
Kariña Kariñá, Kari’na, Galibi Cariban 16,686 (2001) < 5,000 endangered  Venezuela French Guiana, Suriname, Guyana
Kumanagoto Cariban 553 (2001) 49 seriously endangered  Venezuela
Makushi Macushi, Makuxi Cariban 83 (2001) not known endangered  Venezuela Guyana, Brazil
Mapoyo Mapoio, Wánai Cariban 365 (2001) 12 moribund  Venezuela
Patamona Kapón Cariban 200 200? endangered  Venezuela Guyana, Brazil
Pemon Arekuna, Taurepan(g), Kamarakoto Cariban 27,157 (2001) 23,083 potentially endangered  Venezuela Guyana, Brazil
Pémono Cariban ? 1 possibly extinct  Venezuela
Piritugoto Cariban 236 (2001) 50 seriously endangered  Venezuela
Yawarana Yavarana, Yabarana Cariban 292 (2001) 151 seriously endangered  Venezuela
Ye'kuana Ye’kwana, De’kwana, Maquiritare, Maiongong Cariban 6,523 (2001) 6,200 endangered  Venezuela Brazil
Yukpa Yucpa, Japrería Cariban 7,522 (2001) < 7,522 potentially endangered  Venezuela Colombia
Barí Motilón Chibchan 1,520 (1992) 1,520 endangered  Venezuela Colombia
Tunebo Uwa-Tunebo Chibchan ? ? possibly extinct  Venezuela Colombia
Kuiva Cuiva, Cuiba Guahiboan 454 (2001) 440 endangered  Venezuela Colombia
Hiwi Jivi, Guahibo, Sikuani Guahiboan 14,750 (2001) 12,000 potentially endangered  Venezuela Colombia
Pepojivi Playero, Guahibo Playero Guahiboan 200 200 seriously endangered  Venezuela Colombia
Mako Wirú, Wirö Sáliba-Piaroan 1,130 (2001) most endangered  Venezuela
Piaroa Wothüha, Wotjüja, Wu’tjuja Sáliba-Piaroan 14,494 (2001) 13,000 endangered  Venezuela Colombia
Sáliba Sáliva Sáliba-Piaroan 265 (2001) 36 seriously endangered  Venezuela Colombia
Yeral Geral, Nheengatu, Ñengatú Tupían Tupí-Guaranían 1,294 (2001) 650 endangered  Venezuela Brazil
Ninam Yanam Yanomaman ? ? seriously endangered  Venezuela Brazil
Sanïma Sanema, Sanuma Yanomaman 3,035 (2001) 3,035 potentially endangered  Venezuela Brazil
Yanomae Yanomam, Yanomamë, Yanomama Yanomaman ? ? potentially endangered  Venezuela Brazil
Yanomamï Yanoamï, Yanoamae Yanomaman 12,234 (2001) 12,234 potentially endangered  Venezuela Brazil
Hodï Hoti, Jodi, Ho Isolate 767 (2001) 767 endangered  Venezuela
Pumé Yaruro Isolate 8,222 7,400 endangered  Venezuela
Sapé Kariana, Kaliana, Caliana Isolate 20 (2008) few elders moribund  Venezuela
Uruak Arutani, Awake Isolate 29 (2001) 29 seriously endangered  Venezuela Brazil?
Warao Isolate 36,028 (2001) 32,400 potentially endangered  Venezuela Guyana
Puinave Wãnsöhöt Unclassified 1,307 (2001) 550 endangered  Venezuela Colombia

Languages by classification

Jolkesky (2016)

Jolkesky (2016) lists 43 language families and 66 language isolates (and/or unclassified languages) in South America – a total of 109 independent families and isolates.[2]:783–806

Andoke-Urekena
Arawa
Barbakoa
Bora-Muinane
Chacha-Cholon-Hibito
Chapakura-Wañam
Charrua
Chibcha
Choko
Chon
Duho
Guahibo
Harakmbet-Katukina
Jaqi
Jirajara †
Jivaro
Karib
Kawapana
Kechua
  • Kechua I
    • Kechua Pacaraos
    • Kechua I, Central
      • Wallaga
        • Kechua Ambo-Pasco
        • Kechua Cajatambo
        • Kechua Wallaga
        • Kechua Wamalies
        • Kechua Junin
        • Kechua Tusi Pasco
      • Wankay
        • Kechua Waylla Wanka
        • Kechua Jauja-Wanka
      • Waylay
        • Kechua Conchucos, Southern
        • Kechua Conchucos, Northern
        • Kechua Corongo
        • Kechua Waylas
        • Kechua Siwas
      • Yauyos
        • Kechua Yauyos
  • Kechua II
    • Kechua Chincha †
    • Kechua Cusco, Classical †
    • Kechua IIa
      • Kechua Cajamarca-Lambayeque
        • Kechua Cajamarca
        • Kechua Lambayeque
      • Kechua Laraos-Lincha
        • Kechua Laraos
        • Kechua Lincha
    • Kechua IIb
      • Kechua Chachapoyas
      • Kechua San Martin
      • Kichua, Equatorial: Inga; Kichua Chimborazo; Kichua Imbabura; Kichua Kañar-Loja; Kichua Napo; Kichua Pastaza; Kichua Pichincha; Kichua Salasaca; Kichua Tena
    • Kechua IIc
      • Kechua Ayacucho
      • Kechua Cusco-Boliviano
        • Kechua Apolo
        • Kechua Arequipa
        • Kechua Boliviano
        • Kechua Cusco, Modern
        • Kechua Puno
      • Kechua Santiagueño
Lengua-Maskoy
Macro-Arawak
Macro-Mataguayo-Guaykuru
Macro-Jê
Mapudungun
  • Mapudungun, Nuclear
  • Mapudungun, Southern: Williche
  • Mapudungun, Northern
    • Pikunche: Pikunche
    • Chango: Chango
Moseten-Tsimane
Mura-Matanawi
Nambikwara
  • Sabane: Sabane
  • Nambikwara, Northern
  • Nambikwara, Southern
    • Alantesu: Alantesu; Hahãintesu; Waikisu; Wasusu
    • Halotesu: Halotesu; Kithãulhu; Wakalitesu; Sawentesu
    • Manduka: Hukuntesu; Niyahlosu; Siwaisu
    • Sarare: Sarare
Otomako-Taparita †
Pano-Takana
Peba-Yagua
Puinave-Nadahup
Puri †
Tallan †
Timote-Kuika
Tinigua-Pamigua
Tukano
Tupi
Uru-Chipaya
Warpe †
Witoto-Okaina
Yanomami
Zamuko
Zaparo
Isolates

Campbell (2012)

Lyle Campbell (2012) proposed the following list of 53 uncontroversial indigenous language families and 55 isolates of South America – a total of 108 independent families and isolates.[3]

Aikaná (Aikanã, Huarí, Warí, Masaká, Tubarão, Kasupá, Mundé, Corumbiara)
  • (dialect: Masaká [Massaca, Massaka, Masáca])
Andaquí †
Andoque (Andoke, Cho’oje, Patsiaehé)
Arawakan (Arahuacan, Maipurean, Maipuran)
  • Northern Arawakan (Upper Amazon, Maritime, and Eastern branches)
    • Upper Amazon branch
      • Western Nawiki sub-branch
        • Wainumá group
          • Wainumá † (Waima, Wainumi, Waiwana, Waipa, Yanuma)
          • Mariaté †
          • Anauyá †
        • Piapoco group
          • Achagua (Ajagua, Xagua)
          • Piapoco
          • Amarizana †
        • Cabiyarí (Caviyarí, Kaviyarí, Cabiuarí, Cauyarí, Cuyare)
        • Warekena group
          • Guarequena (Warekena, Guarenquena, Arequena)
          • Mandahuaca (Mandawaka, Mandauaca, Maldavaca, Ihini, Arihini, Maldavaca, Cunipusana, Yavita, Mitua)
        • Río Negro group †
          • Jumana †
          • Pasé †
          • Kawishana † (Cawishana, Kaiwishana, Kayuwishana)
        • Yucuna (Jukuna) (dialects or languages)
          • Yucuna (Chucuna, Matapí) [Jukuna]
          • Garú † (Guarú)
      • Eastern Nawiki sub-branch
        • Tariana (Tariano, Tarîna, Taliáseri)
        • Karu (dialects or languages)
        • Ipeka-Kurripako (dialects or language)
        • Karútana-Baniwa (Baniva) dialect group
        • Katapolítani-Moriwene-Mapanai (dialects or language)
        • Resígaro
      • Central Upper Amazon sub-branch
        • Baré group
          • Marawá †
          • Baré (Bare, Ihini, Barawana, Barauna, Barauana, Arihini, Maldavaca, Cunipusana, Yavita, Mitua), Guinao † (Guinaú) (Aikhenvald [1999a: 71] mentions Guinau with Bare.)
        • Yavitero group
          • Yavitero † (Yavitano)
          • Baniva †
          • Maipure † Aikhenvald [1999a: 71] gives Yavitero and Baniwa of Yavita as alternative names for a single language.)
        • Manao group
          • Manao †
          • Kariaí †
      • Arawakan Upper-Amazon branch languages of uncertain grouping
        • Waraikú †
        • Yabaána † (Jabaana, Yabarana)
        • Wiriná †
        • Xiriâna † (Shiriana)
    • Maritime branch (Caribbean)
      • Aruán † (Aruá, Aroã)
      • Mawayana (Mahuayana, Madipian)
      • Wapixana (Wapishana, Wapixiána, Wapisiana, Uapixana, Vapidiana) (dialects or languages) (dialects: Amariba, Atorai)
      • Ta-Maipurean sub-branch
        • Taíno † Caribbean
        • Guajiro group
          • Guajiro (Goahiro, Goajiro, Guajira, Wayuunaiki, Wayuu)
          • Paraujano (Añún) (dialects: Alile, Toa)
          • Arawak (Locono, Lokono, Aruak, Arowak)
          • Iñeri (Igneri, Island Carib) (dialects or languages)
          • Kalhíphona † (Island Carib)
          • Garífuna (Black Carib)
    • Eastern branch
      • Palikur (Palikour, Palicur, Palijur) (dialects or languages)
      • Palikur
      • Marawán-Karipurá †
  • Southern division
    • Western branch
      • Amuesha (Amuese, Amoesha, Amueixa, Amoishe, Amagues, Amage, Omage, Amajo, Lorenzo, Amuetamo, Amaje, Yanesha)
      • Chamicuro (Chamicura, Chamicolo)
    • Central branch
      • Paresí group
        • Paresí (Parecís, Paretí, Haliti)
        • Saraveca † (Sarave)
      • Waurá group
        • Waurá-Meinaku (Uara, Aura, Mahinacu)
        • Yawalapití (Jaulapiti, Yaulapiti)
        • Custenau † (Kustenau)
    • Southern Outlier branch
      • Terena (Tereno, Terêna, Etelena, Guaná, Chané, Kinikinao) (dialects: Kinikanao, Etelena [Terena], Guaná)
      • Mojo group
        • Mojo (Morocosi, Mojeño, Moxeño, Moxo) (dialects or languages)
        • Ignaciano
        • Trinitario (dialects: Loreto [Loretano], Javierano])
        • Bauré (Chiquimiti, Joaquiniano may be a dialect of Bauré)
        • Paunaca (Pauna-Paicone [Paiconeca])
      • Piro group
        • Piro (dialects: Chontaquiro, Maniteneri, Maxineri)
        • Iñapari (Inamarí) (dialects: Inapari/Inamarí, Cuchitineri [Kushitineri], Cuniba)
        • Kanamaré † (Canamaré)
        • Apuriná (Apurinã, Ipuriná, Kangite [Cangaiti], Popengare)
    • Campa branch – (Campa dialects or languages)
      • Ashéninka (Ashéninga)
      • Asháninka (Asháninga)
      • Caquinte (Kakinte)
      • Pajonal Ashéninka (Pajonal Campa)
      • Machiguenga (Matsiguenga, Matsigenka) (dialects: Caquinte [Poyenisate], Nomatsiguenga [Atiri], Machiguenga)
      • Nomatsigenga
      • Nanti
  • Other Arawakan languages too scantily known to determine to which branch of the family they belong:
    • Cumeral (Ethnologue)
    • Shebaya † (Shebayo, Shebaye) Trinidad (David Payne 1991: 366–367)
    • Lapachu (Apolista, Aguachile)
    • Morique † (Morike)
    • Ponares (Ethnologue)
    • Omejes (Ethnologue)
    • Salumã (Rodrigues 1986: 72)
    • Tomedes (Tamudes)
Arawan (Arauán, Arahuan, Arawa)
  • Paumarí (Purupurú, Pamarí, Palmarí, Curucuru) (dialects: Kurukuru, Uaiai, Paumarí [Pammari])
  • Madi (Jarawara [Jarauára, Jaruára], Jamamadi, Banawá [Banivá, Baniwá-Jafí, Kitiya, Banavá, Banauá, Jafí])
  • Zuruahá (Suruahá, Sorowahá)
  • Dení-Kulina
    • Dení (dialect: Inauini)
    • Culina (Kulína; Madihá, Madija, Corina)
  • Arawá † (Arua, Arauan)
Atacameño † (Cunza, Kunza, Atacama, Lipe Lican Antai)
  • (local varieties: Apatama, Casabindo, Churumata, Cochinoca)
Awaké (Ahuaqué, Oewacu, Arutani, Uruák)
Aymaran (Jaqi, Aru)
  • Southern Aymara
  • Central Aymara (Tupe branch) (dialects: Jaqaru and Cauqui [Kawki])
Baenan † (Baena, Baenño)
Barbacoan
  • Northern group
    • Awan (Awa)
      • Awa Pit (Cuaiquer, Coaiquer, Kwaiker, Awa)
      • Pasto-Muellama
        • Muellama † (Muellamués)
        • Pasto †
    • Coconucan (Guambiano-Totoró)
      • Guambiano (Mogües, Moguez, Moguex, Wam, Misak, Guambiano-Moguez, Namdrik)
    • Totoró (Totoro, Polindara)
    • Coconuco † (Kokonuko, Cauca, Wanaka)
  • Southern group
    • Cha’palaachi (Cayapa, Chachi, Nigua)
    • Tsafiki (Colorado, Colima, Campaz, Tsáchela, Tsachila, Tsafiqui)
Extinct
Barbacoa; Cara (Kara, Caranqui, Karanki, Imbaya); Pasto (Muellamués [Muellama]), Sindagua (Malla), and Coconuco
Betoi † (Betoy, Jirarra, Jirarru)
  • (dialects: Airico, Betoi, Ele, Jirara, Lolaca, Situfa)
Boran (Bora-Muinane)
  • Bora (Boro, Meamuyna; Miriña/Miranha)
  • Muinane (Muinane Bora, Muinani, Muename)
Bororoan
  • Eastern Bororo (Bororo proper, Boe)
  • Western Bororo
  • Umutina † (Umotina, Barbado)
  • Otuque † (Otuké, Otuqui, Louxiru) (dialects: Coraveca [Corave, Curave, Ecorabe], Curuminaca, Curumina, Curucaneca, Curucane, Tapii)
Cahuapanan (Jebero, Kawapanan, Kahuapanan; earlier called Maina, Mainan)
  • Cahuapana † (Cuncho, Chuncho, Concho, Chonzo)
  • Chayahuita (Chawi, Chayabita, Chayhuita, Balsopuertino, Paranapura, Cahuapa
  • Chayawita, Tshaahui, Tsaawí, Chayabita, Shayabit, Balsapuertino
  • Paranapura)
  • Jebero (Xebero, Chebero, Xihuila, Shiwilu)
Camsá (Sibundoy, Sebondoy, Coche, Kamsá, Kamemtxa, Kamse, Camëntsëá, Mocoa, Quillacinga)
Cañar-Puruhá †
  • Cañar † (Cañari)
  • Puruhá † (Puruguay)
Candoshi (Candoxi, Maina, Kandoshi, Shapra, Murato, Roamaina)
  • (dialects: Shapra [Chapara], Kandoshi)
Canichana † (Canesi, Kanichana, Canisiana)
Cariban
  • Venezuelan branch (Gildea 2003)
    • Pemóng-Panare macro-group
      • Pemóng group (Kapóng [Akawaio, Patamuna, Ingarikó], Makushi, Pemón [Taurepang, Kamarakóto, Arekuna])
      • Panare
    • Mapoyo-Tamanaku macro-group
      • Mapoyo/Yawarana (Mapoyo, Wanai, Yawarana, Pémono)
      • Tamanaku †
    • Pekodian branch
        • Bakairí
        • Arara group: Arara (Parirí), Ikpéng (Txikão)
  • Subgroups not yet classified in possible larger subgroups in the family:
    • Kumaná † (Chaima †, Cumanagota †)
    • Makiritare (De’kwana, Ye’kwana, Maiongong)
    • Nahukwa group: Kuikúru, Kalapalo
    • Parukotoan group
      • Katxúyana (Kaxuiâna, Shikuyana, Warikyana)
      • Waiwai subgroup: Waiwai (Wabui, Tunayana), Hixkaryana
    • Taranoan group
      • Tiriyo subgroup: Akuriyo, Tiriyo, Trio
      • Karihona (Carijona)
    • Yukpa group: Yukpa, Japréria
  • Languages not yet classified within possible subgroups:
    • Apalaí
    • Kari’nja (Carib, Kalinya, Cariña, Galibi)
    • Waimirí Atroarí
    • Wayana
Cayuvava † (Cayuwaba, Cayubaba, Kayuvava)
Chapacuran (Chapakuran, Txapakuran)
  • Itene group (Central Chapacuran)
    • Wanham (Wañam, Wanyam, Huanyam)
    • Kumaná (Torá, Toraz, Cumana, Cautario) [Abitana-Kumaná]
    • Kabixí (Cabishi, Cabichí, Habishi, Parecís, Pawumwa)
    • Itene (Iteneo, Iténez, Moré)
  • Wari group (Southern Chapacuran)
    • Quitemo † (Quitemoca) [Kitemo-Nape]
    • Chapacura † (Huachi, Wachi, Tapacura, Chapakura)
    • Urupá-Jarú (Txapakura; Yaru, Jaru, Ituarupa)
    • Orowari (Pakaás-novos, Pacasnovas, Pacaha-novo, Uariwayo, Uomo, Jaru, *Oro Wari)
    • Oro Win
Charrúan †
  • Charrúa †
  • Güenoa † (Minuane)
  • Chaná †
Chibchan
  • Paya (Pech)
  • Core Chibchan
    • Votic
      • Rama (Melchora, Voto, Boto, Arama, Arrama)
      • Guatuso (Malecu)
    • Isthmic
      • Western Isthmic
        • Viceitic
          • Cabécar (Chirripó, Tucurrique, Estrella)
          • Bribri (Viceíta)
        • Teribe (Térraba, Tiribí, Tirub)
        • Boruca † (Brunca)
      • Doracic
        • Dorasque † (Chumulu, Gualaca)
        • Chánguena † (Chánguina, Chánguene)
      • Eastern Isthmic
        • Guaymíic
          • Movere (Move, Guaymí, Penonomeño, Ngawbere/Ngäbere) (dialects: Inland Bocas del Toro, Coastal Bocas del Toro, Chiriquí)
          • Bocotá (Murire, Muoi, Guaymí Sabanero, Movere Sabanero)
        • Cuna (Cueva, Paya-Pocuro, Kuna)
    • Magdalenic
      • Southern Magdalenic
        • Chibcha
          • Muisca † (Mosca, Chibcha)
          • Duit †
        • Tunebo (Uwa, Uw Cuwa; Tame, Sínsiga, Tegría, Pedraza) (dialects: Cobaría, Tegría, Agua Blanca, Barro Negro)
        • Barí (Motilón, Dobocubí, Cunaguasaya)
      • Northern Magdalenic
        • Arhuacic
          • Cogui (Cágaba, Kogi, Kogui, Coghui, Kagaba)
          • Eastern-Southern Arhuacic
          • Eastern Arhuacic
          • Damana (Guamaca, Sanká, Sanhá, Arsario, Malayo, Marocasero, Wiwa)
          • Kankuama (Atanques)
          • Ica (Bíntucua, Ika, Arhuaco, Bintuk)
          • Chimila (Chamila, Caca Weranos, San Jorge, Shimizya)
  • Unclassified:
    • Huetar †
    • Antioqueño † (two varieties: Nutabe and Catío [not to be confused with the Emberá (Chocoan) variety called Catío]).
Chipaya-Uru (Uru-Chipaya, Uruquilla)
  • Chipaya (erroneously earlier also called “Puquina”)
  • Uru (Uru of Iru-Itu, Uchumataqu, Iru-Wit’u, Uro)
  • Chholo † (Murato)
Chiquitano (Besïro, Chiquito, Tarapecosi)
  • (dialects: Besïro [or Lomerío], Concepción, San Javier [Javierano], San Miguel, Santiago, Churapa, Sansimoniano, Tao)
Chocoan
  • Waunana (Noanamá, Huaunana, Woun Meu, Waun Meo, Waumeo, Wounmeu, Wounaan, Noanama, Noenama, Nonama, Chocama, Chanco)
  • Emberá dialect continuum (Catío, Chamí, Napipí River, Saija, Sambú)
    • Southern Emberá
    • Northern Emberá (Emperã, Eberã Bed’ea, Eperã Pedea, Atrato, Darién, Dariena, Panama Embera, Eberã, Cholo [Choco])
Cholonan † (Hibito-Cholon)
  • Cholón † (Seeptsá, Tinganeses, Cholona)
  • Híbito † (Hibito, Xibito, Xibita, Jibito, Chibito, Zibito, Ibito, Xibitoana)
Chonan (Tehuelchean, Chon family)
  • Chonan proper
    • Island Chonan
      • Ona † (Selknam, Selk’nam, Shelknam, Aona)
      • Haush † (Manekenken)
    • Continental Chonan
      • Tehuelche (Aoniken, Aonek’enk, Inaquen, Patagón)
      • Teushen † (Tehues, Patagón)
      • Patagón Costero †
  • Gününa-Küne † (Gennaken, Northern Tehuelche, Puelche, Pampa, Gününa Yajich)
Chono †
Cofán (Kofan, A’ingaé)
Culle † (Culli, Ilinga, Linga)
Esmeralda † (Esmeraldeño, Tacame)
Gamela † (Barbados, Curinsi, Acobu)
Guach’ †
Guaicuruan (Waikuruan, Waykuruan)
  • Kadiwéu (Caduveo, Mbayá, Ediu-Adig)
  • Southern Guaicuruan
    • Pilagá (Pilaca)
    • Toba (Qom, Namqom)
    • Mocoví (Mocobí)
    • Abipón †
Guajiboan (Guahiboan)
  • Guajibo (Guahibo, Guaybo, Sikuani, Sicuani, Guajibo, Goahibo, Guaigua, Guayba, Wahibo, Goahiva, Hiwi) (dialects: Guahibo [Sikuani], Amorua [Rio Tomo Guahibo], Tigrero)
  • Cuiva (Cuiba, Cuiba-Wámonae) (dialects: Chiricoa, Masiware [Masiguare], Chiripo [Wupiwi, Siripu], Yarahuuraxi-Capanapara, Mayayero, Mochuelo-Casanare-Cuiba, Tampiwi [Mariposas], Amaruwa [Amorua], Mella, Ptamo, Sicuane [Sicuari])
  • Churuya †
  • Guayabero (Cunimía, Jiw, Mítus, Mítua)
Guamo †
Guató
Harákmbut-Katukinan
  • Harákmbut (Harakmbet, Hate, Tuyoneri, “Mashco”)
    • (several dialects in two clusters: (1) Huachipaeri, Toyoeri (Tuyoneri, Tuyuneri); (2) Amaracaeri [Amarakaeri], Sapiteri, Arasaeri)
  • Katukinan (Catuquinan)
    • Katukina (Catuquina, Katukina do Jutaí) (dialect: Cutiadapa [Kutia-Dyapa])
    • Dyapá (Southern Katukinan, Tshom-Djapá [Txunhuã-Djapá], Canamarí, Kanamarí) (perhaps the same as Tucundiapa (Tucano Dyapa, Hondiapa/Hon-Dyapá)])
    • Katawixí (Catawixi, Catauixi, Catawishi, Catauichi)
Huarpean † (Warpean)
  • Huarpe † (Allentiac)
  • Millcayac †
Irantxe (Iranxe, Iranche, Iranshe, Mynky, Münkü, Menki, Manoki, Myky) (dialects
Münkü [Mynky, Menku, Menkü, Myy], Irántxe)
Itonama (Saramo, Machoto)
Jabutían (Yabutían)
  • Jabutí (Yabutí, Jabotí, Djeoromitxí, Kipiu, Quipiu)
  • Arikapú (Maxubí, Aricapú)
Jêan (Gêan, Jê family)
  • Northeastern Jê (Northern Jê)
    • Timbíra (Canela [Kanela], Krenjé, Krahó, Pykobyê)
    • Kreen-Akarore (Ipewí, Kren-Akarore, Creen-Acarore, Panará)
    • Apinajé (Apinayé)
    • Kayapó (Cayapó, Kokairmoro) (dialects: Xikrin (Xukru, Diore), Kararaó, Kayapó-Kradaú)
    • Suyá (dialects: Beiço de Pau (Tapayuna), Yaruma (Jarumá, Waiku))
  • Central Jê (Akwe branch)
    • Xavánte (Shavante, Chavante, A’uwe, A’we, Uptabi, Akuên, Akwen, Crisca, Pusciti, Tapacua)
    • Akroá † (Akroá-Mirim, Acroá, Koroá, Coroá)
    • Xerénte (Sherenté, Xerenti)
    • Xakriabá † (Chicriaba, Chakriaba, Shacriaba, Chikriaba)
  • Southern Jê
    • Kaingang (Coroado, Coroados, Caingang, Bugre) (dialects: Paraná Kaingang, Central Kaingang, Southwest Kaingang, Southeast Kaingang)
    • Xokléng (Shocleng, Aweikoma, Bugre, Botocudos)
    • Ingáin † (Tains, Tain)
    • Wayaná † (Guayaná, Guayana, Gualachí, Guanhanan)
Jirajaran †
  • Jirajara †
  • Ayomán † (Ayamán)
  • Gayón † (Coyón)
Jivaroan
  • Shuar (Jívaro, Maina, Jíbaro)
  • Aguaruna (Aguajun, Ahuajun)
  • Achuar (Achual, Achuar-Shiwiar)
  • Huambisa
Jotí (Yoana, Yuana, Yuwana, Waruwaru [Waruwádu], Chicano, Chikano, Joti, Jodi, Hotí, Hodï)
Kaliana (Sapé, Calianá, Cariana, Chirichano)
Kamakanan †
  • Kamakán † (Camacán)
    • Kamakán † (Kamakã, Camacán, Ezeshio)
    • Mongoyó † (Mangaló, Monshoko)
    • Kotoxó † (Kutaxó, Catashó, Cotoxó, Catathóy)
  • Menién † (Manyã)
  • Masakará † (Masacará)
Kapixaná (Kanoê, Capixana)
Karajá (Caraja, Xambioá, Chamboa, Ynã, Karayá)
  • Karajá-Xambioá † (Chamboa, Ynã)
  • Javaé (Javaje, Javae)
Karirían † (Karirí family)
  • Kipeá † (Karirí, Kirirí)
  • Dzubukuá † (Kiriri, Dzubucua)
  • Sabuyá † (Sapoyá)
  • Kamurú † (Camurú, Pedra Branca)
Krenakan (Botocudoan, Aimoré language complex)
  • Krenak (Botocudo, Aimoré, Nakrehé, Nakpié, Naknyanúk, Etwet, Minyãyirún, Yiporók, Pojitxá, Potén, Krekmún, Bakuén, Aranã, Batachoa, Crenaque)
  • Guêren † (Guerén, Gren, Borun, Borúm)
Kwaza (Koayá, Koaiá, Quaiá, Arara)
Leco † (Lapalapa, Leko, Rik’a, Ateniano)
Lule-Vilelan †
  • Lule †
  • Vilela( †)
Máko † (Maco, Makú, Macu)
Makúan (Makú family, Makú-Puinavean, Puinavean, Vaupés-Japura, Nadahup family, Guaviaré-Japurá family)
  • Eastern Makúan
    • Nadëb branch
      • Roçando Nadëb
      • Rio Negro Nadëb
    • Dâw-Hupda-Yuhup
      • Dâw (Kamã, Kamã Makú, Kamarada, Makú-Kamarada)
      • Hupda-Yuhup
        • Hup (Hupda, Hupdë, Hupdá Makú, Macú de Tucano, Ubdé) (dialects: Hupdë, Tuhup, Nëhup)
        • Yuhup (Makú-Yahup, Yëhup, Yahup, Yahup Makú, “Maku”)
  • Western Makúan
    • Kakua group
      • Kakua (Cacua, Bará, Macu de Cubeo, Macu de Guanano, Macu de Desano, Báda, Kákwa) (dialects: Vaupés Cacua, Macú-Paraná Cacua)
      • Nukak
    • Puinave (Wonsüht, Wãnsöhöt)
Mapudungun (Mapudungu, Araucano, Mapuche, Maputongo, Chiledugu, “Auca”)
Mascoyan (Mascoian, Maskoyan, Lengua-Mascoy, Enlhet-Enenlhet)
Matacoan (Mataco-Mataguayan, Mataguayan)
  • Chorote (Chorotí, Manjuy) (dialects: Iyo’wujwa, Yohwaha, Manjuy)
  • Nivaclé (Niwaklé, Chulupí, Ashlushlay) Paraguay
  • Maká (Macá, Enimaca, Enimaga)
  • Wichí (Mataco, Mataguayo, Weenhayek) (dialects: Nocten, Güisnay [Pilcomayo Wichí], Vejos [Vejoz, Aiyo, Hueshuo])
Matanauí † (Matanawí, Mitandua, Moutoniway)
Maxakalían
  • Maxakalí (Mashakali, Maxacari)
  • Kapoxó † (Capoxo, Caposho)
  • Monoxó † (Monoshó, Monachobm, Menacho)
  • Makoní † (Maconí)
  • Malalí †
  • Pataxó † (Pataxó-Hanhanhain, Patasho)
Mochica † (Yunga, Yunca, Chimú, Mochica, Muchic)
Mosetenan (Mosetén-Chiname)
  • Chimane (Chiman, Tsimane, Chumano, Nawazi-Moñtji)
  • Mosetén (Rache, Muchan, Tucupi, Aparono)
Movima (Mobima, Moyma, Movime)
Munichi † (Muniche, Munichino, Otanabe)
Muran
  • Mura †
  • Pirahã (Pirahá)
  • Bohurá † (Buxwaray)
  • Yahahí †
Nambikwaran (Nambicuaran, Nambiquaran, Nambikuaran)
  • Mamaindê (Northern Nambiquara, Mamande, Nakarothe) (dialects: Mamaindé, Negarotê, Tawanxte, Taxmainite, Taxwensite, Yalapmunxte [Lacondê, Latundê])
  • Southern Nambikuaran
    • Nambiquara (Nambikwara) (dialects: Manduka, Khithaulhu, Halotesu, Saxwentesu, Wakalitesu, Serra Azul, Hahaintesu, Wasusu, Alatesu, Waikisu, Galera)
    • Kithãulhú (Southern Nambiquara) (dialect complex: Kabishi, Nambiquara, etc.)
    • Sararé
  • Sabané (Sabanés)
Natú † (Peagaxinan)
Ofayé † (Opayé, Ofayé-Xavante, Opaié-Shavante, Ofaié)
Omurano † (Humurana, Numurana)
Otomacoan †
  • Otomaco †
  • Taparita †
Paezan
  • Paez (Nasa Yuwe, Paisa)
  • Paniquitá
  • (?) Panzaleo † (Latacunga, Quito)
Pankarurú † (Pancararu, Pancarurú, Brancararú, Pankarará, Pankarú, Pancaru, Pancaré, Pankaravu, Pankaroru)
Pano-Takanan
  • Panoan
    • Mayoruna branch
      • Mayo group
        • Matses
        • Korubo (Chankuëshbo as co-dialect)
        • Dëmushbo
        • Kulina
      • Matis
    • Mainline branch
      • Kasharari
    • Core Mainline branch
      • Kashibo (Kakataibo as co-dialect)
      • Nawa group
        • Chakobo; (Pakawara as co-dialect)
        • Marubo subgroup
          • Marubo
          • Katukina
        • Poyanawa subgroup
          • Poyanawa
          • Iskonawa
          • Nukini
        • Shipibo (with Konibo and Kapanawa as co-dialects)
        • Headwaters subgroup
          • Kashinawa
          • Amawaka
          • Yaminawa (dialects: Sharanawa, Yawanawa, Shanenawa [Katukina de Feijó], Shawanawa [Arara], Mastanawa, Marinawa)
  • Takanan
    • Takana group
      • Tacana (Tupamasa)
      • Reyesano (San Borjano, Maropa)
      • Araona (Carina, Cavina)
      • Cavineña
    • Chama group
      • Ese’ejja (Ese’eha, Ese Ejja, Ese Exa, Tiatinagua, Chama, Tambopata-Guarayo, Huarayo, Guacanawa, Chuncho, “Chama”)
      • Toromona † (Toromono)
Payaguá †
Puquina † (Pukina)
Purían † (Puri-Coroado)
  • Purí † (Coroado)
  • Koropó † (Coropa)
Qawasqaran (Alacalufan)
  • Qawasqar (Northern Alacaluf, Alacaluf, Kaweskar, Kawésqar, Kawaskar, Aksánas) (dialects: Kawésqar, Tawókser)
  • Alacaluf (Central Alacaluf, Hekaine)
  • Southern Alacaluf (Halakwalup, Pecheré)
Quechuan
  • Central Quechua (Huaihuash [Waywash]/Quechua I)
    • Pacaraos
    • Central Quechua
      • “Waylay” (Huailay, North)
        • Huaylas (Ancash)
        • Conchucos
    • Ap-am-ah
      • Alto Pativilca
      • Alto Marañón
      • Alto Huallaga (Huánuco)
    • “Wankay” (Huancay, South)
      • Yaru (Tarma, Junín)
      • Jauja-Huanca (Jauja, Huaycha Huanca, Huaylla Huanca [Huancayo])
      • Huangascar-Topará
  • Peripheral Quechua (Huampuy/Quechua II)
    • “Yungay” (Quechua IIA)
      • Central
        • Laraos
        • Lincha
        • Apurí
        • Chocos
        • Madeán
      • Northern
        • Cañaris-Incahuasi
        • Cajamarca
    • “Chinchay” (Quechua IIB-C)
      • Northern
        • Chachapoyas (Amazonas)
        • San Martín
        • Loreto
        • Ecuador
      • Southern
        • Southern Peruvian Quechua
        • Ayacucho
        • Cuzco
        • Puno
        • Northern Bolivian Quechua
        • Southern Bolivian Quechua
        • Santiago del Estero Quichua (“Cusco”)
        • Catamarca-La Rioja Quichua †
Rikbaktsá (Aripaktsá, Erikbatsa, Erikpatsa, Canoeiro)
Sabela (Huao, Wao, Auca, Huaorani, Huarani, Waorani, Auishiri)
Sáliban (Sálivan, Sáliba-Piaroan)
  • Sáliva (Sáliba)
  • Piaroa (Piaroa-Maco, Wothüha, Guagua, Quaqua)
  • Mako
Sechura-Catacaoan † (Sec)
  • Sechura †
  • Tallán † (Atalán)
    • (varieties: Colán and Catacaos)
Taruma (Taruamá)
Taushiro (Pinchi, Pinche)
Tequiraca (Tekiraka, Aushiri, Auishiri, Avishiri, Avixiri, Abiquira, Abishira, Abigira, Agouisiri, Ixignor, Vacacocha)
Tikuna-Yurí
  • Tikuna (Ticuna, Tukuna, Tucuna)
  • Yurí (Jurí, Yuri, Xurúpixuna)
Timotean † (Timote-Cuica)
  • Timote-Cuica † (Miguri, Cuica)
  • Mucuchí-Maripú † (Mocochí; Mirripú)
Tiniguan †
  • Tinigua (Timigua)
  • Pamigua † [Pamiwa]
Trumai (Trumaí, Tramalhy)
Tukanoan (Tucanoan)
  • Western Tukanoan
    • Coreguaje (Koreguaje, Caquetá, Correguaje, Ko’reuaju, Chaocha Pai)
    • Siona-Secoya
      • Macaguaje † (Makawahe, Piojé)
      • Secoya (Piohé, Siona-Secoya)
      • Siona
    • Teteté † (Eteteguaje) (possibly a dialect of Siona)
    • Orejón (Maijuna, Coto, Koto, Payoguaje, Payaguá, Payagua, Mai Ja, Oregon, Orechon, Tutapi) (dialect: Nebaji)
    • Retuarã (Letuama, Tanimuca-Retuarã)
    • Yahuna (Jaúna, Yauna)
    • Tama †
  • Eastern Tukanoan
    • Cubeo (Kubeo, Pamié, Cuveo, Cubeu, Kobeua, Kobewa, Kubwa, Kobéwa, Hehenawa, Pamiwa)
    • Miriti † (Miriti-Tapuyo, Neenoá)
    • Macuna (Makuna, Buhagana, Baigana, Wuhána, Jepa-Matsi, Yepá-Mahsá, Yehpá Majsá, Yepá Maxsã, Yebamasã, Paneroa, Wahana, Makuna-Erulia)
    • Yupuá-Duriña † (Yupua, Sokó, Uri, Duriña)
    • Kueretú † (Cueretú, Coretú, Curetú)
    • Desano-Siriano
    • Bará-Tuyuka (Barasano, Tuyuca)
    • Carapano (Karapaná, Karapano, Carapana-Tapuya, Tatuyo, Mochda, Moxdoa, Mextã)
    • Tucano (Tukano, Dasea, Daxsea) (dialects: Yohoraa [Curaua], Wasona [Uasona])
    • Wanano-Piratapuyo (Guanano, Wanâna, Uanana, Anana, Kótedia, Kótirya, Kotiria; Wanana, Waikena, Waikina, Uiquina, Waikino, Pira-Tapuya, Uaikena, Uaicana, Waikhara, Waina, Uaiana, Uainana, Urubu-Tapuya)
    • Arapaso † (Arapaço, Arapasso, Koneá)
Tupían
  • Western Tupían
    • Arikém subfamily
      • Arikém (Ariquême)
      • Kabixiána
      • Karitiána (Caritiana)
    • Mondéan subfamily
      • Paitér (Suruí, Suruí do Jiparaná, Suruí de Rondônia, Surui Paiter)
      • Cinta-larga
      • Gavião (Digüt, Ikõrõ, Gavião do Jiparaná)
      • Zoró
      • Mondé (Sanamaikã [Sanamaicá], Salamãi)
      • Aruá (Aruaxi, Aruashí)
    • Puruborá (Boruborá, Puruba, Aurã, Pumbora, Puroborá, Burubora, Kuyubi, Cujubi, Migueleno, Miguelenho)
    • Ramaráman subfamily
      • Káro (Arara, Urukú)
      • Ramaráma (Itogapúk, Ntogapíd)
      • Urumí
    • Tuparían subfamily
      • Tuparí
      • Kepkiriwát (Quepiquiriuate, Kepikiriwat, Kepkeriwát)
      • Makuráp (Macurap, Macurape)
      • Mekéns (Mekém, Sakurabiat, Sakyrabiat)
      • Akuntsú (Akunsú)
      • Waratégaya (Amiapé)
      • Wayoró (Ayurú, Wayru, Wayurú, Ayurú, Ajurú, Uaiora, Wajaru)
      • Mekens
  • Eastern Tupían
    • Awetí (Auetö, Awetö, Aueto, Aueti, Auiti, Arauite, Arauine)
    • Jurúnan subfamily
      • Jurúna (Yuruna, Yudjá, Djudjá, Jaruna)
      • Manitsawá (Maritsauá, Manitzula) (dialect: Arupai [Urupaya])
      • Xipáya (Shipaya, Shipaja, Xipaia)
      • Mawé (Maué, Sataré, Sateré, Sateré-Mawé)
    • Mundurukún subfamily
      • Kuruáya (Caravare, Curuaia, Kuruaia)
      • Mundurukú (Mundurucu, Monjoroku, Weidyenye, Paiquize, Pari, Caras-Pretas)
    • Tupí-Guaranían subfamily
      • Guaranían branch
        • Guaraní Antigo (Guaraní, old Guaraní)
        • Paraguayan Guaraní (Guaraní, Guarani paraguaio, Avañee)
        • Kaiwá (Kayowá, Kaiowá, Caiová, Caiguá, Pãi, Pãi-Tavyterã)
        • Nhandéva (Ñandeva, Chiripá)
        • Xetá (Shetá, Aré, Notobotocudo)
        • Chiriguano group (Ava, Simba, Chané, Izoceño [Isosó, Izozó], Tapiete)
        • Argentina, Bolívia, Paraguay (Dietrich 2007)
        • Guayakí (Guayaquí, Aché, Axe) Paraguay
      • Guaráyoan branch
        • Guarayo (Guarayú)
        • Sirionó
        • Yúki (Yuqui)
      • Tupi branch of Tupí-Guaranían
        • Língua Geral Amazônica (Língua Geral, Nheengatú, Tapïhïya, Tupi moderno)
        • Língua Geral Paulista (Língua Geral, Tupí)
        • Tupí (Tupi antigo)
        • Tupinambá (Língua brasílica, Tupi antigo)
      • Teneteháran branch
        • Avá (Canoeiro, Avá-Canoeiro)
        • Tapirapé
        • Parakanã (Paracanã, Apiteréwa)
        • Tocantins Asuriní (Assurini, Asuriní do Tocantins, Asuriní do Trocará, Akwáwa)
        • Suruí (Suruí do Tocantins, Aikewara, Mudjetíre)
        • Tembé (Tenetehára)
        • Guajajára (Tenetehára)
        • Turiwára (Turiuara)
      • Xingu branch
        • Araweté
        • Amanajé (Amanage, Amanayé, Amanyé, Manajo, Manaxo, Manaze, Manazo)
        • Ararandewára
        • Aurê (Aurá)
        • Anambé of Cairarí
        • Xingu Asuriní (Assurini, Asuriní do Xingu, Asuriní do Coatinema, Awaeté)
      • Kawahíb branch
        • Amondáwa (Amundáwa)
        • Uruewawáu (Uru-eu-wau-wau, Uru-eu-uau-uau)
        • Karipúna
        • Piripkúra
        • Diahói (Diahui, Jahoi, Jahui, Diarrui)
        • Parintintín (Parintintim, Kagwahív)
        • Tenharín (Tenharim)
        • Tupí-Kawahíb (Tupi do Machado, Paranawát, Pawaté, Wiraféd)
          • Apiaká (Apiacá)
          • Júma (Yuma)
          • Kayabí (Caiabi)
      • Kamayurá (Kamaiurá, Camaiurá)
      • Northern Tupí-Guaranían branch
        • Anambé of Ehrenreich
        • Guajá (Awá, Avá, Awá Guajá, Ayaya, Guaxare, Wazaizara)
        • Ka’apór (Urubú, Urubú-Ka’apór, Kaapor)
        • Takunyapé (Taconhapé)
        • Wayampí (Oyampi, Wajãpi, Waiãpi)
        • Wayampipukú
        • Emérillon (Emerenhão, Emereñon, Emerilon, Melejo, Mereo, Mereyo, Teco)
        • Zo’é (Zoé, Jo’é)
Tuxá † (Tushá, Todela)
Urarina (Simacu, Kachá, Itucale, Urariña, Oruarina)
Wamoé † (Uamué, Huamoi, Umán, Uame, Huamoé, Araticum, Atikum, Aticum)
Warao (Guarao, Warau, Warrau, Guaruno, Waraw, Araote, Faraute)
Witotoan (Huitotoan)
  • Ocaina (dialects: Dukaiya, Ibo’tsa)
  • Early Huitoto
    • Nipode (Huitoto Muinane, Nïpode, Nüpode Huitoto)
    • Minica-Murai
      • Mɨnɨca (Huitoto Meneca)
      • Murui (Huitoto Murui, Murai, Búe)
Xukurú † (Xucuru, Ichikile, Shukurú)
Yagan (Yahgan, Yaghan, Yamana, Yámana, Tequenica, Yapoo)
Yaguan (Peban, Peba-Yaguan family)
  • Yagua (Yihamwo, Nijyamïï, Nikyejaada, Yahua, Llagua, Yava, Yegua, Mishara)
  • Peba † (Nijamvo)
  • Yameo † (Llameo, Camuchivo, Masamae, Mazan, Parara)
Yanomaman (Yanomamian)
  • Ninam (Yanam, Xirianá, Shiriana Casapare, Jawaperi, Crichana, Jawari)
  • Sanumá (San–imá, Sanma, Tsanuma, Guaika, Samatari, Samatali, Xamatari) (dialects: Ninam (Shirishana, Mukajai), Northern Ninam (Shiriana, Uraricaa-Paragua), Caura, Ervato-Ventuari, Auaris; Yanoma, Cobari [Kobali, Cobariwa])
  • Yanomam (Waiká [Waicá], Yanomami, Yanomamé, Surara, Xurima, Parahuri, Yanoam)
    • (dialects: Yanamam [Patimitheri, Waika], Yanomam [Naomam, Guadema, Wadema, Warema], Yanomay [Toototobi], Nanomam [Karime], Jauari [Joari, Yoari, Aica])
  • Yanomamö (Yanomamï, Yamomame, Guaicá, Guaharibo, Guajaribo, Yanomami, Shamatri, Shaathari, Cobari Kobali, Cobariwa)
    • (dialects: Eastern Yanomami [Parima], Western Yanomami [Padamo-Orinoco])
Yaruro (Pumé, Llaruro, Yaruru, Yuapín)
Yaté (Fulnio, Furniô, Fórnio, Carnijó, Iaté, Yathé)
Yuracaré (Yuracare, Yurucar, Yuracar, Yurujure, Cuchi, Enete)
Yurumanguí † (Yurimanguí)
Zamucoan
  • Ayoreo (Ayoré, Moro, Zamuco, Pyeta, Yovai)
    • (dialect: Tsiricua, Tsiracua)
  • Chamacoco (Ishiro, Jeywo)
    • (dialects: Chamacoco Bravo [Tomaraho, Tomaraxa, Tumarahá], Ebitoso *[Ebidoso, Ishiro])
Zaparoan
  • Andoa † (Shimigae)
  • Arabela
  • Cahuarano †
  • Iquito
  • Záparo (Kayapi)
  • Gae †
  • Coronado †
  • Oa †

See also

References

  1. ^ Crevels, Mily (2012). "Language endangerment in South America: The clock is ticking". In Grondona, Verónica; Campbell, Lyle (eds.). The Indigenous Languages of South America. The World of Linguistics. 2. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. pp. 167–234. ISBN 978-3-11-025513-3.
  2. ^ Jolkesky, Marcelo Pinho de Valhery. 2016. Estudo arqueo-ecolinguístico das terras tropicais sul-americanas. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Brasília.
  3. ^ Campbell, Lyle (2012). "Classification of the indigenous languages of South America". In Grondona, Verónica; Campbell, Lyle (eds.). The Indigenous Languages of South America. The World of Linguistics. 2. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. pp. 59–166. ISBN 978-3-11-025513-3.

This page was last updated at 2020-09-29 05:26, update this pageView original page

All information on this site, including but not limited to text, pictures, etc., are reproduced on Wikipedia (wikipedia.org), following the . Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License


Top

If the math, chemistry, physics and other formulas on this page are not displayed correctly, please useFirefox or Safari