wanweipedia

List of political parties in Lebanon

Lebanon has numerous political parties, usually with sectarian character. Since 2005, and after the assassination of former Prime Minister Rafic Hariri, the political scene has become very polarized, with most major political parties and movements becoming part of one of two big rival alliances, the March 8 Alliance and the March 14 Alliance. Since the election of Michel Aoun as President in 2016 and the formation of a new Government headed by Prime Minister Saad Hariri, the 14th of March movement has lost momentum and the political scene has evolved into a coalition of Governing Parties under the control of Hezbollah and the Free Patriotic Movement, the Lebanese Forces, the Amal Movement and the Future Movement. Opposition, namely sides that were against the election of Michel Aoun as president in the 2016 elections, consisted of traditional parties such as the Kataeb party, the National Liberal Party, and Achraf Rifi’s movement. Since then, the political scene has been witnessing the emergence of new non-sectarian political groups such as Lihaqqi and Citizens in a State, in addition to many civil society groups who were loosely allied during the last parliamentary elections. They share a common goal to replace what they consider a failed political model that was introduced following the end of the civil war leading to the 2020 economic crisis.

Lebanon’s unique experiment of a Sectarian Democracy trying to blend democratic principles and religious allocation of roles and functions together with 18 religious laws being applied to citizens’ personal status, in contradiction with the fundamental principles of democracy, the sovereignty of the people and equality of rights between the citizens has led to the sectarian division of the Lebanese people by law, to politically weak institutions, a divided nation and the chain of historical events such as the 1958 crisis and the 1975 civil war, Palestinian militant attacks against Israel from Lebanese territory, occupation of Lebanon by Syrian forces in 1976 and by Israeli forces in 1982 and the actual presence of weapons in the hands of Hezbollah outside the control of the Lebanese Government. Article 24 of the Constitution assigns half the seats in the national's legislature, the Chamber of Deputies, to Christians and the other half to Muslims.[1]

However after the 2018 parliamentary elections, the political power in Lebanon shifted dramatically, with the Free Patriotic Movement leading in the number of seats in the Parliament and the Future Movement losing almost half of its seats. The Lebanese Forces almost doubled their seats in the Parliament.

Parties


Although most parties maintain that they are secular, the major political parties in Lebanon are loosely representative of a certain faith community. In 2005, the political scene became strongly polarized with most active political parties belonging to either the 8th and 14 March alliances. Since then, this division has become less and less significant as coalition governments became the norm. The following list places political parties within the two alliances.

Name (English) Name (Arabic) Acronym Leader or Chairman Number of MPs in October 2019 Political position Sect or ethnic group

March 8 Alliance

Free Patriotic Movement At-Tayyar al-Watani al-

Horr
التيار الوطني الحرّ

FPM Gebran Bassil 24 Centrist
Liberal democracy
Christian
Amal Movement Harakat Amal
حركة أمل
Amal أمل Nabih Berri 16 Conservatism Shiite Muslim
Hezbollah Hizbullah
حزب الله
HA Hassan Nasrallah 13 Shia Islamist Shiite Muslim
Marada Movement Tayyar Al-Marada
تيار المردة
MM Suleiman Frangieh, Jr. 3 Liberalism Mainly Maronite Christian
Syrian Social Nationalist Party Al-Hizb al-Suri al-Qawmi al-Ijtima'i
الحزب السوري القومي الإجتماعي
SSNP Ali Qanso 3 Syrian nationalism
Left-wing nationalism
Secular
Armenian Revolutionary Federation Tashnag
حزب الطاشناق
الإتحاد الثوري الأرمني (طاشناكتسوتيون)
ARF
Հայ Յեղափոխական Դաշնակցութիւն (ՀՅԴ)
Hagop Pakradounian 3 Social democracy
Armenian nationalism
Secular, mainly Armenian
Dignity Movement Tayar al-Karama
تيار الكرامة
DM Faisal Karami 2 Feudalism[citation needed] Sunni Muslim
Lebanese Democratic Party Al-Hizb al-Dimoqrati al-Lubnāni
الحزب الديمقراطي اللبناني
LDP Prince Talal Arslan 1 Conservatism Officially Secular, mainly Druze
Union Party
حزب الإتحاد
Hizb al-Ittihad
حزب الإتحاد
UP Abdelrahim Mrad 1 Nasserism Officially Secular, Mainly Sunni Muslim
Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party Hizb Al-Ba'ath Al-Arabi Al-Ishtiraki fi Lubnan

حزب البعث العربي الاشتراكي في لبنان

Assem Qanso 1 Socialism
Arab Nationalism
Secular
Popular Nasserite Organization Al-Tanzim al-Shaabi al-Nassiri
التنظيم الشعبي الناصري
NPO Ossama Saad 1 Nasserism
Socialism
Arab nationalism
Sunni Muslim
Islamic Charitable Projects Association Jam'iyat
al-Mashari'
al-Khayriya
al-Islamiya

Al-Ahbash
الأحباش
ICPA Abdallah al-Harari 1 Sunni Muslim
Arab Democratic Party Al-Hizb al-Arabi al-Dimoqraty
الحزب العربي الدمقراطي
ADP Ali Eid None Arab Nationalism
Arab Socialism
Alawite Muslim
Movement of Independent Nasserites - al-Murabitoun Harakat
an-Nassiriyin
al-Mustakilleen -
Al Mourabitoon

حركة الناصريين المستقلين - المرابطون
INM Ibrahim Kulaylat None Nasserism
Arab Nationalism
Mainly Sunni Muslim
Some Shiite and Druze support
Worker's League Rabitat Al-Shaghila
رابطة الشغيلة
WL Zaher Khatib None Communist
Arab Nationalism
Secular
Solidarity Party Hizb at-Tadamon
حزب التضامن
Tadamon Emile Rahme None - Christian
Popular Bloc or Skaff Bloc At-Takattol al-Shaa'bi
التكتّل الشعبي
- Elias Skaff None Feudalism[citation needed] Greek Catholic Christian
People's Movement Harakat Al-Shaab
حركة الشعب
SHAAB Najah Wakim (Founder)

Ibrahim al-Halabi

None Nasserism
Socialism
Arab Nationalism
Secular
Lebanese Republican Party Al-Hizb al-Jumhury al-lubnāni
الحزب الجمهوري اللبناني
PRL حجل Imad Jaara (Geara) None Liberal Secular
anti-confessionalist
Christian Democratic Party Al-Hizb al-Massihi al-Dimoqrati
الحزب المسيحي الدمقراطي
CDP Neemtallah Abi Nasr None - Christian
Nasserite Unification movement Al-Haraka al-Tawhidiyya an-Nassiriyya
الحركة التوحيدية الناصرية
NUM - None Nasserism Secular
Islamic Labor Front Jebhat al-Aamal al-Islamy
جبهة العمل الإسلامي
- Fathi Yakan None Islamism Sunni Muslim
Lebanese Unification Movement Tayyar at-Tawhid al-Lubnany
تيار النوحيد اللبناني
UC Wiam Wahhab None Arab Nationalism Officially Secular
Druze support
Lebanese Popular Congress Al-Mo'tamar al-Shaabi al-Lubnany
المؤتمر الشعبي اللبناني
LPC Kamal Chatilla None Nasserism Sunni Muslim
Promise Party or
National Secular Democratic Party
Hizb Al-Waad
حزب الوعد
NSDP Gina Hobeika None Secularism Officially secular
Mainly Maronite Christian support
Federation of Popular Leagues and Committees Tajamo' Al-Lijan wal Rawabit al-Shaabiya
تجمع اللجان والروابط الشعبية
FPLC Maan Bashour None Nasserism
Arabic Nationalism
Officially Secular
Mainly Sunni Muslim support
Socialist Arab Union Al-Ittihad al-Ishtiraki al-Arabi
الإتحاد الإشتراكي العربي
SAU Omar Harb None Socialist Secular
Union of Muslim Ulama Tajamo' al-Ulamaa' al-Muslimin تجمع العلماء المسلمين UMU - None Islamist

(Party status disputed)

All Muslim sects
Democratic Nasserite Movement Harakat al-Nassiriyin al-Dimocratiyoon
حركة الناصريين الدمقراطيون
DNM - None Nasserism Sunni Muslim
Lebanese Arab Struggle Movement Harakat an-Nidal al-Arabi al-Lubnani
حركة النضال العربي اللبناني
LASM Faysal Dawood None Arabism Officially Secular
Mainly Druze support
Alawite Youth Movement Harakat Al-Shabab Al-Alawi
حركة الشباب العلوي
AYM Rifaat Eid None Extension of the Arab Democratic Party Alawite Muslim
Lebanese Democratic Youth Union Ittihad al-Shabab al-Dimoqraty al-Lubnany
إتحاد الشباب الدمقراطي اللبناني
UJDL - None, affiliated to the Lebanese Communist Party Communist Secular
Islamic Unification Movement Harakat Al-Tawhid Al-Islamy
حركة التوحيد الإسلامي
IUM Said Shaaban None Islamism Sunni Muslim
Akkar Popular Assembly At-Tajamo' al-Shaabi al-Aakari
التجمّع الشعبي العكاري
- Wajih Baarini None Feudalism[citation needed] Sunni Muslim
National Youth Party Hizb al-Shabab al-Watani
حزب الشباب الوطني
- Ahmad Karami None - Secular

March 14 Alliance

Future Movement Tayyar Al Mustaqbal
تيار المستقبل
FM Saad Hariri 20 Conservative liberalism,
Lebanese nationalism,
Economic liberalism
Officially secular
Mainly Sunni support
Lebanese Forces al-Quwat al-Lubnāniyya
القوات اللبنانية
LF Samir Geagea 15 Lebanese Christian nationalism Officially secular
Mainly Christians support
Progressive Socialist Party Hizb al-Taqadummi al-Ishtiraki
الحزب التقدمي الإشتراكي
PSP Walid Jumblatt 7 Democratic socialism
Social democracy
Officially secular
Mainly Druze support
Kataeb Party
(Lebanese Phalange Party)
al-Kataeb al-Lubnāniyya
حزب الكتائب اللبنانية
Kataeb Samy Gemayel 3 Lebanese nationalism,
Christian democracy,
Social conservatism,
Decentralization,
Phoenicianism
Officially secular
Mainly Maronite Christian support
Independence Movement Harakat Al-Istiklal
حركة الإسنقلال
Al Haraka Nayla Moawad, Michel Moawad, Jawad Boulos and Youssef El Douaihy 1, part of Qornet Shehwan Gathering Lebanese nationalism Officially secular
Mainly Maronite Christian support
National Liberal Party Hizb al-Wataniyyin al-Ahrar
حزب الوطنيين الأحرار
NLP Dory Chamoun None, part of Qornet Shehwan Gathering Liberalism Maronite Christian
Social Democrat Hunchakian Party Hizb al-Henchag
حزب الهنشاق
(حزب الهنشاق الديمقراطي الإجتماعي)
Henchag (SDHP)
Սոցիալ Դեմոկրատ Հնչակեան Կուսակցութիւն (ՍԴՀԿ)
- None Democratic socialism
Social democracy
Armenian Secular
Islamic Group Al-Jamaa Al-Islamiya
الجماعة الإسلامية
JI Azzam Al-Ayoubi None Islamist Sunni Muslim
Democratic Left Harakat Al-Yassar ll-Dimoqrati
حركة اليسار الديمقراطي
DL Elias Attallah None Left-wing Secular
Democratic Renewal Harakat al-Tajaddod al-Dimoqrati
حركة التجدد الدمقراطي
DRM Nassib Lahoud (Founder)

Farouk Jabre

None Reformism Secular
Armenian Democratic Liberal Party - Ramgavar Hizb al-Ramgavar
حزب الرمغفار
(الحزب الديمقراطي الليبرالي الأرمني)
Ramgavar (ADL)
Ռամկավար Ազատական Կուսակցութիւն (ՌԱԿ)
Hagop Kassardjian None Liberalism Armenian Secular
Free Lebanese Armenian Movement Harakit Al-Lubnaniyin Al-Arman Al-Ahrar
حركة اللبنانيين الأرمن الأحرار
FLAM - None Liberalism Armenian-Secular
Free Shiite Movement Tayyar el-Shi'i el-Horr
التيار الشيعي الحرّ
TSH Mohammad Al Hajj Hassan None Islamism Shiite Muslim
Lebanese Peace Party Hizb as-Salām al-Lubnāny
حزب السلام اللبناني
LPP Roger Edde None Centrism

Decentralization

Big tent[2]

Secular
Muahedeen Group Jamaat AL-Muahedeen
جماعة الموحدين
JM Khaled Alhassanieh None Tawhid Mainly Druze
Syriac Union Party Hizb al Ittihad al Siryāni
حزب الاتحاد السرياني
SUP Ibrahim Mrad None Syriac Christian interests Mainly Syriac Christian support
Shuraya Party Hizb Al-Shurāya
شــورايـا
None Assyrianism Assyrian

Other parties in Lebanon

Lebanese Social Democratic Party Hizb Al-Ishtiraki Al-Dimoqraty الحزب الإشتراكي الديمقراطي DSPL Kamel Asaad None Socialism Secular
Mainly Shiite Muslim support
Azm Movement Tayar al-Azm
تيار العزم
TA Najib Mikati 4 Centrist Mainly Sunni Muslim support
National Dialogue Party Hizb Al-Hiwar Al-Watani
حزب الحوار الوطني
NDP Fouad Makhzoumi 1 Liberalism Officially Secular
Mainly Sunni Muslim support
Lebanese National Bloc Hizb al-Kitla al-Wataniya
حزب الكتلة الوطنية
NB Salam Yamout None Centrist;

Lebanese nationalism

Secular
Historically Maronite Christian
Lebanese Communist Party Al-Hizb al-Shooyoo'i al-Lubnāny
الحزب الشيوعي اللبناني
LCP Hanna Gharib None Communism Secular
Citizens in a State Mouwatinoun wa Mouwatinat fi Dawla
مواطنون ومواطنات في دولة
MMFD Charbel Nahas None Leftist Secular
Sabaa Party Hezb Sabaa

حزب سبعة

V Ghada Eid None Centrist Secular
Green Party of Lebanon Hezb al Khodor al-Lubnani
حزب الخضر اللبناني
GPL Philip Skaf None Green politics
Nationalism
Conservatism,
Secular

Party of Lebanon

Hezb Loubnan
حزب لبنان
POL Jacques Machaalani None For a true secular democracy and full equality of rights of the citizens Secular
KAFEH! Movement حركة كافح! (كوادر أناركية فاعلة حرة) None Anarchism Secular
Taghyir Movement Haraket El Taghyir Elie Mahfoud Mahfoud None Nationalism Officially Secular
Mainly representing Lebanese abroad
Hizb ut-Tahrir Hizb ut-Tahrir
حزب التحرير
HT Ata Abu Rashta None Officially Islamism Officially Islamic
Mainly Sunni support
Socialist Arab Lebanon Vanguard Party Hizb Al-Taliyeh Lubnan Al-'Arabi Al-Ishtiraki
حزب طليعة لبنان العربي الاشتراكي
Abd al-Majid Rafei None Ba'athism, Lebanese branch of the Iraqi Ba'ath party Secular
The Phoenician Party

(Lebanese Phoenician Party)

The Phoenician Party
PP
Antonios Abidaoud None Phoenicianism Secular
Mainly Maronite support
United Lebanese League Itihad al-Rabitat al-Lubnanyieh
اتحاد الرابطات اللبنانية
ULL Rabih Chafi None Nationalism Secular
Mainly representing Lebanese abroad
Movement of Lebanese Nationalism; also known as Guardians of the Cedars Xaraqit L Cawmiyye L Lebnaaniyye
حركة القومية اللبنانية
XCL (www.X-C-L.org) Elie Hawi None Nationalism Secular
Traditionally Christian
Aramean Democratic Organisation At-Tanzim al-Arami al-Dimoqraty
التنظيم الآرامي الديمقراطي
ArDO Gabi Gallo None Nationalism
Conservatism
Right-wing politics
Aramean Christians
Lihaqqi Lihaqqi
لِ حقي
LIHAQQI Collective Leadership None Left-libertarianism

Grassroots Democracy Direct Democracy Economic Democracy Radical Democracy

Secular
Phoenician Party Phoenician Party
PHP Wael Assaf None Phoenician Secular Secular
Mainly Maronite support
Islamic Gathering Movement Harakat at-Tajammo' al-Islamy
حركة التجمّع الإسلامي
- - None Islamic Sunni Muslim
Lebanese Democratic Movement Tayyar Lubnan al-Dimoqraty
تيار لبنان الديمقراطي
- Jack Tamer None Social democracy Secular
Lebanese Movement Harakat Lubnan
حركة لبنان
- Nabil Mshantaf None - -
Lebanese Option Gathering Tayyar al-Intimaa' al-Lubnani
تيار الإنتماء اللبناني
LOG Ahmad al-Asaad None Liberalism Secular
Mainly Shiite Muslim support
Lebanese People's Front Jabhat al-Shaab al-Lubnany
جبهة الشعب اللبناني
- Joseph Haddad None - -
Liberty Front

(also Lebanese Forces Resistance; Lebanese Christian Resistance)

Jabhat al Horriya
جبهة الحرية
- Fouad Abou Nader None Center-right politics secular; Traditionally Christian support
Al-Hizb al-Jumhury al-Mustakel Independent Republican Party
الحزب الجمهوري المستقل
Founder Khaled Al-Hassanieh None Center right Mainly Druze support
Najjadeh Party Hizb Al-Nejjadeh
حزب النجادة
Mustapha Hakim None Arab Nationalism Sunni Muslim
National Progressive Movement Harakat al-Taqaddom al-Watani
حركة التقدّم الوطني
- -

(Founder was Jamil Lahoud, Émile Lahoud's father)

None - Secular
The United Phoenician Party

(also International Lebanese United Phoenician Party)

United Phoenician Party
UPP
Cadmus Hanna None Phoenician Nationalism Secular, primarily Maronites
National Labor Movement Hizb al-Aamal al-Watani
حزب العمل اللبناني
- - None Communism Secular
Islamic Jihad Movement (Lebanon) Harakat al-Jihad al-Islamy
حركة الجهاد الإسلامي
- - None Islamism Sunni Muslim
New Lebanese Movement Harakat
al-Lubnaniyin
al-Jodod

حركة اللبنانيين الجدد
Danny Abdel Khalek None Secularism Secular
The Independents[citation needed] Al-Mustakiloon
المستقلون
- - None - Secular
Republican Reform Party Al-Hizb al-Islahi al-Jumhuri
الحزب الإصلاحي الجمهوري
- Charles Chidiac None Liberalism Secular
Arab Socialist Party Al-Hizb al-Arabi al-Ishtiraki
الحزب العربي الإشتراكي
- - None Socialism Secular
Lebanese Labor Party Hizb al-Aamal al-Lubnany
حزب العمل اللبناني
- - None communism Secular
Democratic Labor Party Al-Hizb al-'Ommali al-Dimoqraty
الحزب العمّالي الديمقراطي
- Elias Abu Rizk None socialism Secular
Democratic Secular Party Al-Hizb al-'Ilmani al-Dimoqraty
الحزب العلماني الديمقراطي
- - None secularism Secular
Lebanese Ecology Party Hizb al-Bi'a al-Lubnany
حزب البيئة اللبناني
- Habib Maalouf None ecology Secular
Popular Democratic Party Al-Hizb al-Shaabi al-Dimoqraty
الحزب الشعبي الديمقراطي
- - None - Secular
Party of Socialist Revolution Hizb al-Thawra al-Ishtirakiyya
حزب الثورة الإشتراكية
- - None Maoist Communism Secular
Free Alternative Al Badil Al Taharouri
البديل التحرّري
- - None Anarchism Secular
National Party Al-Hizb al-Watani
الحزب الوطني
- - None - Secular
Lebanese Arab Movement Harakat Lubnan al-Arabi
حركة لبنان العربي
- - None Nasserism Sunni Muslim
Lebanese National League Al-Rabita al-Wataniya al-Lubnaniyya
الرابطة الوطنية اللبنانية
- Wajeb Kanso None Left-wing Secular
Lebanese Resistance Brigades Saraya al-Moqawama al-Lubnaniyya
سرايا المقاومة اللبنانية
- - None

(extension of Hezbollah)

- Secular
Nasserite Nationalist Organisation At-Tanzim al-Qawmi an-Nassiri
التنظيم القومي الناصري
- - None Nasserism; Arab Nationalism Secular
Justice and Development movement Tayyar el 'Adel wal Tanmiya
تيار العدل والتنمية
- - None - Secular
Cedars Movement Tayyar al-Arz
تيار الأرز
- - None - Secular
Organization of Communist Action Moonazzamat al-'Amal al-Shuyoo'i
منظمة العمل الشيوعي
Ibrahim Muhsen Ibrahim Muhsen None Communism; Arab Nationalism Secular
Revolutionary Communist Group At-Tajamo' Al-Shuyoo'i Al-Thawri
التجمّع الشيوعي الثوري
- Camil Dagher None Communism; Trotskyism Secular
Leftist Assembly for Change At-Tajamo' Al-Yasari Min Ajli Al Taghyeer
التجمّع اليساري من اجل التغيير
TYMAT - None Revolutionary Socialism; Trotskyism; Leninism Secular
Civil society Movement Tayyar al-Mojtama' al-Madani
تيار المجتمع المدني
- Gregoire Haddad None Secularism Secular
Southern Christian Assembly At-Tajamo' al-Massihi al-Janoubi
التجمع المسيحي الجنوبي
- JeanPaul El Hage None Christian conservatism Christian
Kurdish Democratic Party Al-Hizb Al-Kurdi Al-Dimoqraty
الحزب الكردي الديمقراطي
- Riyad Mihhu None - Kurdish
Razkari Party Hizb Razkari
حزب رزكاري
- Mahmoud Khodr Fattah Ahmad None - Kurdish
Lebanese secular movement[citation needed] Al-haraka Al-3oulmaniyya Al-loubnaniyya
الحركة العلمانية اللبنانية
LSM Jad Moukarzel None Secularism Secular
Guardians of the Cedars Hizb Horras al-Arz
حزب حرّاس الأرز
- Etienne Sakr None Phoenician Nationalism, conservatism, far-right Multiconfessional, but mainly Maronite Christian
Regressive Isolationist Party[citation needed] Al-Hizb Al-Raj'i Al-I'tizali
الحزب الرجعي الإعتزالي
- - None - -
Islamic Amal Movement Harakat Amal Al-Islamiya
حركة أمل الإسلامية
- Sobhi Toufaily None Islamism Shi'a Muslim
The Libetarian party الحزب الليبرتاريةHizb al Liberatareya
N/A None None Libertarianism, Free-Market Capitalism, Anti-Communism Secular

Defunct parties

Lebanese Resistance Movement (Tanzim) Harakat al-Moqawama al-Lubnaniya (Tanzim)
حركة المقاومة اللبنانية - التنظيم
- - The Party disappeared after its militias disbanding Christian Conservatism Maronite Christian
Lebanese Youth Movement (MKG) Harakat al-Shabab al-Lubnaniya
حركة الشباب اللبنانية
- Bachir Maroun - Christian Conservatism Maronite Christian
Constitutional Bloc Party Hizb al-Kutla al-Doostooriya
حزب الكتلة الدستورية
- Khalil El-Khoury Mainly created by Pr. Bechara El Khoury to oppose Emile Edde's National Bloc during the post-independence period Feudalism[citation needed] Secular
The Great Lebanese Labor Party Al-Hizb al-'Ommali al-Lubnany al-Kabir
الحزب العمالي اللبناني الكبير
- - This party existed during the French Mandate of Lebanon Communism Secular
Deprived Movement Harakat al-Mahroomin
حركة المحرومين
- Musa al-Sadr Ancestor of Amal - Secular
Arab Nationalists Movement Harakat al-Qawmiyyin al-'Arab
حركة القوميين العرب
- - Split, most merged into the Arab Socialist Action Party – Lebanon Arab nationalism -
Social Democratic Youth Al-Shabab al-Ijtimai al-Dimoqraty
الشباب الإجتماعي الديمقراطي
- Committee of 21 members Non-official party founded in 2002 by activist Claude F. for a non hereditary sectarian Lebanon and socialist approach Social, Democratic Secular
Green League Lebanon

See also

References

  1. ^ https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Lebanon_2004.pdf?lang=en
  2. ^ Nash, Matt (2017-09-13). "The anti-establishment - Executive Magazine". Executive. Retrieved 2019-10-30.

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