List of rulers of Oman

Sultan of Oman
سلطان عمان
Royal Standard of Oman.svg
Secretary Pompeo Meets with the Sultan of Oman Haitham bin Tariq Al Said (49565463757) (cropped).jpg
Haitham bin Tariq Al Said
since 11 January 2020
StyleHis Majesty
Heir apparentTheyazin bin Haitham
First monarchAl-Julanda bin Masud (imamate)
Ahmad bin Said (as Sultan)
Formation751 (imamate)
1744 (Al Busaid Dynasty)
ResidenceAl Alam Palace

The Sultan of the Sultanate of Oman is the monarch and head of state of Oman. It is the most powerful position in the country. The sultans of Oman are members of the Al Busaidi dynasty, which is the ruling family of Oman since the mid-18th century.

Haitham bin Tariq Al Said is the current sultan, serving since 11 January 2020. [1]

List of Imams (751–1959)

Imams Tribe Residence Began to reign Reference
Transliteration of the Arab names Names in Arab script
Al-Julanda bin Masud الجلندى بن مسعود Azd Sohar 751 [2]
Mohammed bin Abi Affan محمد بن أبي عفان Azd Nizwa ? [3]
Al-Warith bin Ka'ab الوارث بن كعب Yahmad Nizwa 801 [4]
Ghassan bin Abdullah غسان بن عبد الله Yahmad Nizwa 807 [5]
Abdulmalik bin Humaid عبد المالك بن حميد Azd ? 824 [6]
Al-Muhanna bin Jayfar المهنا بن جيفر Yahmad Nizwa 840 [7]
Al-Salt bin Malik الصلت بن مالك Azd ? 851 [8]
Rashid bin Al-Nadhar راشد بن النظر ? ? 886 [9]
Azzan bin Tamim عزان بن تميم ? Nizwa 890 [10]
Mohammed bin Al-Hassan محمد بن الحسن Azd ? 897 [11]
Azzan bin Al-Hazbar عزان بن الهزبر Yahmad ? 898 [12]
Abdullah bin Mohammed عبد الله بن محمد ? ? 899 [13]
Al-Salt bin Al-Qasim الصلت بن القاسم ? ? 900 [14]
Al-Husn bin Said الحسن بن سعيد ? ? 900 [15]
Al-Hawari bin Matraf الحواري بن مطرف ? ? 904 [16]
Omar bin Mohammed عمر بن محمد ? ? 912 [17]
Mohammed bin Yazid محمد بن يزيد Kinda ? ? [18]
Al-Hakm bin Al-Milaa Al-Bahri الحكم بن الملا البحري ? Nizwa ? [19]
Said bin Abdullah سعيد بن عبد الله ? ? 939 [20]
Rashid bin Waleed راشد بن الوليد ? Nizwa ? [21]
Al-Khalil bin Shadhan الخليل بن شاذان ? ? 1002 [22]
Rashid bin Said راشد بن سعيد ? ? 1032 [23]
Hafs bin Rashid حفص بن راشد ? ? 1068 [24]
Rashid bin Ali راشد بن علي ? ? 1054 [25]
Musa bin Jabir ابن جابر موسى ? Nizwa 1154 [26]
Malik bin Aly مالك بن علي ? ? 1406 [27]
Salim bin Rashid Al Kharusi Azdi, Yamani, Qahtani ? 1913 - 1919
Muhammad ibn Abdullah Al Khalili ? 1919 - 1954
Ghalib Alhinai ? 1954 - 1959

List of Imams (1406–1749)

Nabhani dynasty (1406–1624)

Name Portrait Reign start Reign end Notes
Makhzum bin al Fallah No image.png 1406 1435
Abul Hassan of Oman No image.png 1435 1451
Omar bin al Khattab No image.png 1451 1490
Omar al Sharif No image.png 1490 1500
Muhammad bin Ismail No image.png 1500 1529 Portuguese protectorate imposed on 15 April 1515.
Barakat bin Muhammad No image.png 1529 1560
Abdulla bin Muhammad No image.png 1560 1624

Yaruba dynasty (1624–1749)

Name Portrait Reign start Reign end Notes
Nasir bin Murshid No image.png 1624 1649
Sultan bin Saif No image.png 1649 1679 Portuguese protectorate ended with their expulsion on 1 January 1650.
Bil'arab bin Sultan No image.png 1679 1692
Saif bin Sultan No image.png 1692 1711
Sultan bin Saif II No image.png 1711 1718
Saif bin Sultan II No image.png 1718 1719
Muhanna bin Sultan No image.png 1719 1720
Saif bin Sultan II No image.png 1720 1722 Second reign
Ya'arab bin Bel'arab No image.png 1722 1722
Saif bin Sultan II No image.png 1722 1724 Third reign
Muhammad bin Nasir No image.png 1724 1728 Not a member of the dynasty
Saif bin Sultan II No image.png 1728 1742 Fourth reign; at first in the coastal area only
Bal'arab bin Himyar No image.png 1728 1737 First reign; in the interior
Sultan bin Murshid No image.png 1742 1743
Bal'arab bin Himyar No image.png 1743 1749 Second reign; in the interior

List of Sultans

Al Busaidi dynasty (1749–present)

Name Portrait Reign start Reign end Notes
Ahmad bin Said No image.png 10 June 1749 15 December 1783 From 1744 in the coastal region
Said bin Ahmad No image.png 15 December 1783 1784 Last direct male descendant of Al Bu Said to hold the office of Imam. He abdicated secular power to his son Hamad and retired to Rustaq where he died in 1803.[28]
Hamad bin Said No image.png 1784 13 March 1792
Sultan bin Ahmad No image.png 13 March 1792 20 November 1804
Salim bin Sultan No image.png 20 November 1804 14 September 1806 Co-Rulers
Said bin Sultan Said Bin Sultan.jpg
14 September 1806 19 October 1856 Sole Ruler
Thuwaini bin Said No image.png 19 October 1856 11 February 1866 Killed
Salim bin Thuwaini No image.png 11 February 1866 3 October 1868 Deposed
Azzan bin Qais No image.png 3 October 1868 30 January 1871 Killed
Turki bin Said Turki ibn Said.jpg 30 January 1871 4 June 1888
Faisal bin Turki Faysal bin Turki.jpg 4 June 1888 9 October 1913 British protectorate imposed on 20 March 1891.[29][30]
Taimur bin Feisal Taimur bin Feisal (cropped).png 9 October 1913 10 February 1932 Abdicated. Died in exile in India on 28 January 1965.
Said bin Taimur Said bin Taimur (cropped).png 10 February 1932 23 July 1970 Deposed in the 1970 Omani coup d'état. Died in exile in the United Kingdom on 19 October 1972.
Qaboos bin Said QaboosBinSaidAlSaid (cropped).jpg 23 July 1970 10 January 2020 British protectorate ended on 9 August 1970.
Haitham bin Tariq Secretary Pompeo Meets with the Sultan of Oman Haitham bin Tariq Al Said (49565463757) (cropped).jpg 11 January 2020 Incumbent

List of the Head of government

Chief ministers (Wazir)

1832–1856: Sulayman bin Hamad al-Busa`idi (b. c.1785 – d. 1873)

1868–1870: Sa`id bin Khalfan al-Khalili (b. 1811 – d. 1870)

1871–13 Aug 1873: Thuwayni bin Muhammad al-Busa`idi (b. 1838 – d. 1873)

1873–1888: Sa`id bin Muhammad al-Busa`idi (1st time) (b. 1840 – d. 1901)

1888–1895: Muhammad bin `Azzan al-Busa`idi

1896–1901: Sa`id bin Muhammad al-Busa`idi (2nd time) (s.a.)

1900–1920: Muhammad bin Ahmad al-Ghasham (b. 18.. – d. 1929)

1920: Daniel Vincent McCollum (b. 1886 – d. 1967)

Chairmen of the Council of Deputies

Apr 1920–1926: Nadir bin Faysal al-Busa`idi (b. 1888 – d. 1971)

1926–1928: Muhammad bin Ahmad al-Ghasham (s.a.)

Chairmen of the Council of Ministers (Prime ministers)

1929–1970: Sa`id bin Taimur (s.a.)

28 Jul 1970–14 Aug 1970: Barayq bin Hamad (acting)

14 Aug 1970–2 Jan 1972: Tariq bin Taimur (b. 1921 - d. 1980) (non-party)

Since 2 Jan 1972: the Sultans


Unlike the heads of other Arab states of the Persian Gulf, Qaboos did not publicly name an heir. Article 6 of the constitution says the royal family should choose a new sultan within three days of the position falling vacant. If the royal family council fails to agree, a letter containing a name penned by Sultan Qaboos should be opened in the presence of a defence council of military and security officials, supreme court chiefs, and heads of the two quasi-parliamentary advisory assemblies.[31] Analysts saw the rules as an elaborate means of Sultan Qaboos securing his choice for successor without causing controversy by making it public during his lifetime, since it was considered unlikely that the royal family would be able to agree on a successor on its own.[31]

Qaboos had no children nor siblings; there are other male members of the Omani royal family including paternal uncles and their families. Using same-generation primogeniture, the successor to Qaboos would appear to be the children of his late uncle, Sayyid Tariq bin Taimur Al Said, Oman's first prime minister before the sultan took over the position himself (and his former father-in-law). Oman watchers believed the top contenders to succeed Qaboos were three of Tariq's sons: Assad bin Tariq Al Said, Deputy Prime Minister[32] for International Relations and Cooperation[33] and the Sultan's special representative; Shihab bin Tariq, a retired Royal Navy of Oman commander; and Haitham bin Tariq Al Said, the Minister of Heritage and National Culture.[31][34]

On 11 January 2020, Oman state TV said authorities had opened the letter by Sultan Qaboos bin Said naming his successor, announcing shortly that Haitham bin Tariq is the country's ruling sultan.[35] Haitham bin Tariq has two sons and two daughters.[36][37]

On 12 January 2021, the current Sultan, Haitham bin Tariq officially changed the Basic Law of State, stipulating the creation of the post for the Crown Prince of Oman and appointed his first son, Sayyid Dhi Yazan bin Haitham as the apparent successor, making him the first Crown Prince of the Sultanate.

Changes to the rules of succession

On 11 January 2021, the new Sultan, Haitham bin Tariq changed the Basic law of the state and charted out the procedures for succession in the future.

As per the new rules, The power shall be transferred from the Sultan to his eldest son and then to the eldest son of the Heir Apparent. In case the eldest son of the sultan is no more, then the power will be transferred to the eldest son of the Heir Apparent.

If the Heir Apparent has no sons, then the power should be transferred to the eldest of his brothers. In Case the heir apparent has no brothers, then the powers shall transfer to the son of the eldest of his brothers and so on as per the sequence of the ages of the brothers.

In case there exists no brothers or sons of brothers to the Heir Apparent, then the rule shall transfer to the uncles(only from the fathers' side) and their sons as per the order set by the paragraph(2) of the Basic Law of the State. It is also stated the Heir apparent must be a Muslim and Legitimate son of Omani Muslim parents.

Article (3) of the Law states that if the transfer of power is made to a person aged under 21, then the power of the Sultan shall be undertaken by a trusteeship council appointed by a Royal Will and in case of non-appointment of such a council before his death, the Royal Family Council will appoint a trusteeship council comprising one of the brothers of the Sultan and two sons of his uncles.

The system of the trusteeship council shall be issued by a Royal Decree.  Article (7) states that a Royal Order shall be issued on the appointment of the Heir Apparent to assume power and the prerogatives and duties to be assigned to him.   

The Heir Apparent shall be sworn in before the Sultan before exercising his prerogatives and duties.

Article (8) says that in case it is not temporarily possible for the Sultan to exercise his powers, then the Heir Apparent shall assume such powers.

Standard of the Sultan

See also


  • "Oman's Rulers Through History (Pre-Islam – 12th Century AD)". Ministry of Information of the Sultanate of Oman. Archived from the original on 2011-06-22. Retrieved 2010-07-19.
  • "Oman's Rulers Through History (13th Century AD – 18th Century AD)". Ministry of Information of the Sultanate of Oman. Archived from the original on 2010-09-26. Retrieved 2010-07-19.
  • "The Al Bu Said Dynasty". Ministry of Information of the Sultanate of Oman. Archived from the original on 2010-05-12. Retrieved 2010-07-19.
  1. ^ "Oman's new ruler Haitham bin Tariq takes oath: newspapers". Reuters. 11 January 2020. Retrieved 11 January 2020.
  2. ^ Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 7
  3. ^ Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 9
  4. ^ Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 10
  5. ^ Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 12
  6. ^ Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 15
  7. ^ Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 16
  8. ^ Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 19
  9. ^ Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 19
  10. ^ Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 20
  11. ^ Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 25
  12. ^ Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 25
  13. ^ Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 26
  14. ^ Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 26
  15. ^ Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 26
  16. ^ Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 26
  17. ^ Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 27
  18. ^ Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 28
  19. ^ Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 29
  20. ^ Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 29
  21. ^ Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 30
  22. ^ Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 35
  23. ^ Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 35
  24. ^ Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 35
  25. ^ Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 35
  26. ^ Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 36
  27. ^ Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 36
  28. ^ Rentz, George (1997) Oman and the south-eastern shore of Arabia Ithaca Press, Reading, Berkshire, United Kingdom : pages 204-205, ISBN 0-86372-199-0
  29. ^ See Persian Gulf Residency
  30. ^ Oman
  31. ^ a b c Dokoupil, Martin (24 May 2012). "Succession Question Fuels Uncertainty in Oman". Reuters. Retrieved 16 March 2021.
  32. ^ "In Oman, a train-of-succession mystery: Who follows Qaboos?". 17 April 2017 – via Christian Science Monitor.
  33. ^ "Here is why Social Development Ministry honoured 32 private firms". Times of Oman. Retrieved 2018-12-01.
  34. ^ "Sultan Qaboos of Oman dies aged 79". 11 January 2020. Retrieved 11 January 2020.
  35. ^ "Oman names culture minister as successor to Sultan Qaboos". AP NEWS. 11 January 2020. Retrieved 11 January 2020.
  36. ^ "Oman's new ruler chosen to provide continuity". 11 January 2020 – via www.reuters.com.
  37. ^ "Who is the new Sultan of Oman?". Tehran Times. 13 January 2020.


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