Luoyang dialect

Luoyang dialect
Native toChina
RegionLuoyang, Henan
Language codes
ISO 639-3
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The Luoyang dialect is a dialect of Zhongyuan Mandarin spoken in Luoyang and nearby parts of Henan province.[1] Although it served as the prestige dialect of Chinese from the Warring States period into the Ming Dynasty, it differs greatly from modern Standard Mandarin, which is based instead on the Beijing dialect.[2]



  Bilabial Labio-
Alveolar Retroflex Alveolo-
Nasal m   n      
Plosive p  pʰ   t  tʰ     k  kʰ
Affricate     ts  tsʰ tʂ  tʂʰ tɕ  tɕʰ  
Fricative   f  v s ʂ  ʐ ɕ x  ɣ
Lateral     l      
w Labio-velar approximant
ɥ Labio-palatal approximant
j Palatal approximant



  • The Middle Chinese entering tone has a different distribution in the Luoyang dialect than in Standard Mandarin. (See entering tone for more.)
  • Tone contours are different from those in Standard Mandarin.
  • The retroflex and alveolar fricatives are found in different distributions: retroflex fricatives in Standard are often fronted to alveolar fricatives in Luoyang.
  • The distinction between /w/ and /v/, lost in Standard, is maintained in Luoyang.
  • The retroflex series is less retroflexed than in Standard Mandarin and slightly further forward.
  • The alveolo-palatal series is slightly further back than in Standard Mandarin.
  • Standard final /œ/ and /ɑu/ are often backed to [ɔ] in Luoyang. For example, (Standard [ɕɥœ̌]/[ɕɥě], to learn) is [ɕɥɔ], and (Standard [tɕjɑù]/[tɕjàu], horn) is [tɕɥɔ].
  • Standard final /əi/ is pronounced [ɯ] or [i] in certain environments in Luoyang.
  • Standard final /n/ nasalizes the preceding vowel in the Luoyang Dialect.
  • The -儿 suffix is pronounced /ɯ/.



  1. ^ Kurparska 2010, p. 165.
  2. ^ Pulleyblank 1983, pp. 2-3; Kaske 2008, p. 44; Dong 2014, p. 45.


  • Kurparska, Maria (2010) [1977], Chinese Language(s) : A Look Through the Prism of The Great Dictionary of Modern Chinese Dialects, Berlin; New York: Walter de Gruyter, ISBN 9783110219142, OCLC 733240264, retrieved 17 November 2014
  • Pulleyblank, Edwin G. (1983), Middle Chinese : A Study in Historical Phonology, Vancouver: The University of British Columbia Press, ISBN 9780774801928, OCLC 11266119, retrieved 17 November 2014
  • Kaske, Elisabeth (2008), The Politics of Language in Chinese Education : 1895—1919, Leiden; Danvers: Koninklijke Brill, ISBN 9789047423331, OCLC 317454513, retrieved 17 November 2014
  • Dong, Hongyuan (2014), A History of the Chinese Language, Abingdon; New York: Routledge, ISBN 9781317743903, OCLC 877772203, retrieved 17 November 2014

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