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Mairasi languages

Mairasi
Etna Bay
Geographic
distribution
Etna Bay, Kaimana Regency, West Papua
Linguistic classificationOne of the world's primary language families
Glottologmair1253[1]
Mairasi map.svg
Distribution of the Mairasi languages

The Mairasi languages, also known as Etna Bay[2] are a small independent family of Papuan languages in the classifications of Malcolm Ross and Timothy Usher, that had been part of Stephen Wurm's Trans–New Guinea proposal. They are named after Etna Bay, Indonesian New Guinea.

Languages

The Mairasi languages are clearly related to each other.

Classification

Mairasi cannot be linked to other families by its pronouns. However, Voorhoeve (1975) links it to the Sumeri (Tanah Merah) language, either a language isolate or an independent branch of the Trans–New Guinea family.

Pawley and Hammarström (2018) do not consider there to be sufficient evidence for the Mairasi languages to be classified as part of Trans-New Guinea, though they do note the following lexical resemblance between Mairasi, Semimi, and proto-Trans-New Guinea.[3]

Mairasi ooro and Semimi okoranda ‘leg’ < proto-Trans-New Guinea *k(a,o)nd(a,o)C ‘leg’

Phonemes

Usher (2020) reconstructs the consonant inventory as follows:[4]

*m *n
*t *s *k
*mb *nd *ns *ŋg
*w *j

Vowels are *a *e *i *o *u. *ns is uncommon.

Pronouns

Usher (2020) reconstructs the free and possessive pronouns as:[4]

sg pl
1excl *omo, *o- *eme, *e-
1incl *e-tumakia, *e-
2 *neme, *ne- *keme, *ke-
3 *nani, *na- ?

Basic vocabulary

Some lexical reconstructions by Usher (2020) are:[4]

gloss Proto-Etna Bay
hair/feather *-suɾu
ear *ɸiɾa
eye *mbiatu
nose *-mbi
tooth *-ɾasi
tongue *-saɸia
foot/leg *-koɾa
blood *iseɾe
bone *tuɾa
skin/bark *(na)-kia
breast *joku
louse *kumai
dog *ansi
pig *[ɸ]embe
bird *sai
egg *ete
man/male *koɸo
woman *eɸei
sun *tende
moon *aŋgane
water *ɸat[e]
fire *iɸoɾo
stone *jaɸutu
path *kae
name *u[w]ata
one *tana-(kau)
two *amoi

Cognates

Basic vocabulary of Mairasi languages (Mairasi, Mer, Semimi) with cognate matches, from Peckham (1991a,b), quoted in Foley (2018):[5][6][7]

Mairasi family basic vocabulary
gloss Mairasi Mer Semimi
‘bird’ sai sai sai
‘blood’ isere isere monad
‘bone’ natura singgu natura
‘breast’ jogu jogu jogu
‘ear’ navir anda nevira ot navira[note 1]
‘eat’ neneman namba neneme
‘egg’ eːte ede anggu ete
‘eye’ nambutu nembiatu ombiatu
‘fire’ ivore ivoro iforo
‘give’ tomnaijan nombonaiyomo tomonai
‘ground’ wasasai wasase makoro
‘hair’ nasuru nasuru nasuru
‘hear’ ivjeme iveme iveme
‘I’ ʔomo omo omo
‘leg’ naʔor nakora okor anda
‘louse’ ʔumai kumai kumai
‘man’ tatʔovo neum tato tatokovo
‘moon’ unsir anggane anggane
‘name’ nggwata wata newata
‘one’ tanggau nawaze tanakau
‘path, road’ ʔae kae kai
‘see’ natom daviomo nondome
‘stone’ javutu wavo javutu
‘sun’ tende ungguru tende
‘tongue’ nasavia nesavi osavi
‘tooth’ narasi nerasi orasi
‘tree’ ʔiu u ʔu
‘two’ amoi amoi amoi
‘water’ fata kai fate
‘we’ eːme edumaga ʔeme
‘woman’ evei waini efei
‘you (sg)’ ʔeme kene keme

Usher's protoforms of the 20 most-stable items[8] in the Swadesh list include the following.[4]

Proto-Mairasi gloss
*kumai louse
*amoi two
*ɸat[e] water
*-ɸiɾa ear
? die
*o-mo I
? liver
*-mbiatu eye
*-ɸaka hand/arm
*iɸi- hear
? tree
*uɾatu fish
*u[w]ata name
*jaɸutu stone
*-ɾasi tooth
*joku breast
*ne-me you
*kae path
*-tuɾa bone
*-saɸia tongue

Vocabulary comparison

The following basic vocabulary words are from the Trans-New Guinea database:[9]

gloss Mairasi Semimi
head neŋguvu kotera
hair eŋguasa nasuru
eye ne-mbutu -mbiato
tooth nerasi n-erasi
leg oʔoro okoranda
louse umai kumai
dog asi ansi
pig bembe pembe
bird sai sai
egg ete aŋgu-ate
blood isere monda
bone natura natura
skin n-aiʔa kakia
tree iwo u
man tatovo tatakovo
sun tende tende
water fata fate
fire ivoro iboro
stone javutu jahutu
name negwata nawata
eat nenem- nenem-
one taŋggau tana
two amoi amoi

See also

Notes

  1. ^ The exact phonetic values of <v> and <f> in Mer and Semimi are unknown.

References

  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Mairasic". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. ^ NewGuineaWord Etna Bay
  3. ^ Pawley, Andrew; Hammarström, Harald (2018). "The Trans New Guinea family". In Palmer, Bill (ed.). The Languages and Linguistics of the New Guinea Area: A Comprehensive Guide. The World of Linguistics. 4. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. pp. 21–196. ISBN 978-3-11-028642-7.
  4. ^ a b c d New Guinea World, Etna Bay
  5. ^ Peckham, Lloyd. 1991a. Etna Bay survey report: Irian Jaya Bird’s Neck languages. Workpapers in Indonesian Languages and Cultures 10: 147–185.
  6. ^ Peckham, Lloyd. 1991b. Mairasi phonology. Workpapers in Indonesian Languages and Cultures 10: 111–145.
  7. ^ Foley, William A. (2018). "The languages of Northwest New Guinea". In Palmer, Bill (ed.). The Languages and Linguistics of the New Guinea Area: A Comprehensive Guide. The World of Linguistics. 4. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. pp. 433–568. ISBN 978-3-11-028642-7.
  8. ^ Holman, Eric W., Søren Wichmann, Cecil H. Brown, Viveka Velupillai, André Müller, Dik Bakker (2008). "Explorations in Automated Language Classification". Folia Linguistica, Vol. 42, no. 2, 331–354
  9. ^ Greenhill, Simon (2016). "TransNewGuinea.org - database of the languages of New Guinea". Retrieved 2020-11-05.

External links


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